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Full text of "Diodoros of Sicily (Diodorus Siculus), Library of History (Loeb Classical Library in 10 volumes)"

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WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 


C. H. OLDFATHER 
PROI ESSOR OF ANCIENT HISTORY AND LANGUAGES, 
THE UNIS TRSITY OF NEBRASKA 
IN TWELVE VOLUMES 
IV 
~ 
BOOKS IX-X 40 
CAMBRIDGE, MASSACIIUSETTS 
H 


- DIODORUS OF k 


HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 


LONDON 
WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 
MCMLYI 


ADANAN iE E a A AE ASTRA a E Ea AA RSE REAS 


e prarepa eepe TPA a SET ee n m a aaar Ae a e pann 


CONTENTS 


PAGE 
FRAGMENTS OF BOOKS IX, X D nef i -A i l 
BOOK-XÍ w a o e a a o aa a dda 


BOOK XII s s so’ a‘ ‘e ‘ťa’ 365 
A PARTIAL INDEX OF PROPER NAMES . . . 462 


MAPS OF TIHE AREAS DESCRIBED IN VOL, IV. Ati end 


]. ROUTE OF XERXES (FROM HERODOTUS II, L.C.L.) 
2. THERMOPYLAE (FROM C.A.H. 4, P. 293) 
3. BATTLE OF SALAMIS (FROM HERODOTUS IV, L.C.L.) 


4. SICILY AND GREECE (FROM DIODORUS I1, L.C.L.) 


THE LIBRARY OF HISTORY 
OF 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOKS IX, X 


AIOAQPOYTY 


TOT ZIKEAIQTOT 


BIBAIOOQHKHE IZTOPIKHĖ 


FRAGMENTA LIBRI IX 


1. "Hv è kal Zóàwr' marpòs èv 'Efnrkeoriðov, 
` s FION n moo’ a , ` ` 
Tò yévos êk Ladauivos tis Arrikis, cohiq ðè kal 
maiðeiq mávraşs Toùs kab’ éavròov úmepßeßànkos. 
+ b3 A > A ~ Lg A t 
hpúoet Sè mpòs dperiv trÕv dAwv moù ciapépwv 
ébhàwoev aperùv èrawovpévy”: rât yàp, Toîs 
paðýuaoi Toàùv xpõvov évõrarpipas alànT)s è eyéve- 
2 T0 nÁTNS Aperis. Kkatà pèv yàp TV TOÔ masos 
ýAkiav mabevra?s éxphoarto Toîs ápíioTots, avõðpw- 
beis Sè ovvõiérpupe Toîs peyiorny éxovoL búvapur” 
eml diàocopig. iò ka Toúrors SpAâv kal avv- 
Searpifov wvoudoby pèv cels rôvt énta copôv ral 
TÒ npwrTeÎov TIS TCUVÉOEWS OÙ UÖVOV TAPA TOÚTOLS 
Toîs avõpdow, dÀÀà kal mapà mâot roîs Bavuaţo- 
pévos dmnvéykarto. 
1 Eóàwv in margin of MS. 
erawovpévn] nenabevpévnv Post, 


3 Súvajuv MS. ; Dindorf, Vogel conj. ŝófav. 
í tôv added by Reiske. 


1i The following fragments on the Seven Wise Men may 
2 


THE LIBRARY OF HISTORY 
OF 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX 


1. Solon was the son of Execestides and his family 
was of Salamis in Attica ; and in wisdom and learning 
he surpassed all the men of his time. Being by 
nature far superior as regards virtue to the rest of 
men, he cultivated assiduously a virtue that wins 
applause ?; for he devoted much time to every branch 
of knowledge and became practised in every kind of 
virtue. While still a youth, for instance, he availed 
himself of the best teachers, and when he attained 
to manhood he spent his time in the company of 
the men who enjoyed the greatest influence for their 
pursuit of wisdom. As a consequence, by reason of 
his companionship and association with men of this 
kind, he came to be called one of the Seven Wise 
Men and won for himself the highest rank in sagac- 
ity, not only among the men just mentioned, but also 
among all who were regarded with admiration. 


be compared with the fuller accounts in Diogenes Laertius 
(tr. by Hicks in the L.C, 
2 Or“ a virtue that neh by education "°; see critical note. 


8 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


3 “Or ó aùròs Lóàwv, ev TÑ vopobecia peydànv 
Sótav mepiroiyoduevos, év Tats rwrikaîs óptÀias 
kal dmokpiocoiw, čti è ovufovàiais, Bavuaoròs 
èróyyave tà Tv èv maubeig nmpokorýv. 

4 "Ori ó aùròs Eóàwv, Tiv oànv dywyiy TiS mó- 
àcws èyovons 'Iwnkiv ral à rùw Tpupiv kal 
Tův pgorævny èkrelnàvpuérov trõv avlpõrwv, 
Leréðnke ti ovvnbeig mpòs åperhv kal ghàov rv 
dvõpeiwr? mpdéeww. ið TÅ Toúrov vopolbesiq 
kaloràolévres tàs puyàs ‘Apuõðios kal Aporo- 
yeirwv karave éneyeippoav Tùv tÔv Ile- 
ortparððv åpxýv. (Const. Exe. 2 (1), p. 217.) 

2. "Ore Kpoîoos ó Avôðv Pacıdeùs peydàas Ke- 
kryuévos ĝvuváueis ra? moàùv ék mapaokevis 
TECWpPEVKOS PYUPŐV TE KaL XPVTĞV, PETENÉUTETO 
rôv ‘EMývwv roùs copwrdrovs, kal ovvĝiarpipww 
aùroîs perà moðv Õwpwv ebéneunmev kal aùròs 
npòs aperiv wpeàeîro modd. morè è Torov” 
Leranephdpevos kal tàs Õuvdpeis kal Tòv mÀoĝTov 
emberé dpevos, NPpAæTNoev el tris ETepos aùT®* Soke? 

2 pakapuórtepos elvat, Ò Sè Lódwv Ti ovvýber roîs 
hiàooóhois xpnoápevos mappnoig čp pnèéva tôv 
tawraw elva pakdpiov: ròv yap èm eùðaruovig 
meppornpatiopévov kal Soroĝvra Thv Túxqv ëxew 
ovvepyòv pù ywoorew e Srapeve? peT aùToÔ 
uéxpi Tůs èoyárys. okoreîv oùv épnoe Sev riv 

1 So Reiske: dvrôpwrivæwv. 2 kal added by Dindorf. 

3 So Wurm: Toúraw. 4 So Dindorf: aùroô. 


1 Athens. 

2 The famous Tyrannicides of Athens; Harmodius killed 
Hipparchus, son of Peisistratus. See following note and 
pp. 78-79 and notes. 


4 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 1. 3—2. 2 


The same Solon, who had acquired great fame by 
his legislation, also in his conversations and answers 
to questions as a private citizen became an object of 
wonder by reason of his attainments in learning. 

The same Solon, although the city ! followed the 
whole Ionian manner of life and luxury and a care- 
free existence had made the inhabitants effeminate, 
worked a change in them by accustoming them to 
practise virtue and to emulate the deeds of virile folk. 
And it was because of this that Harmodius and 
Aristogeiton,? their spirits equipped with the panoply 
of his legislation, made the attempt to destroy the 
rule of the Peisistratidae.? 

2. Croesus,* the king of the Lydians, who was pos- 
sessed of great military forces and had purposely 
amassed a large amount of silver and gold, used to 
call to his court the wisest men from among the 
Greeks, spend some time in their company, and then 
send them away with many presents, he himself 
having been greatly aided thereby toward a life of 
virtue. And on one occasion he summoned Solon, 
and showing him his military forces and his wealth 
he asked him whether he thought there was any other 
man more blest than he. And Solon replied, with 
the freedom of speech customary among lovers of 
wisdom, that no man while yet living was blest ; for 
the man who waxes haughty over his prosperity and 
thinks that he has Fortune as his helpmeet does not 
know whether she will remain with him to the last. 
Consequently, he continued, we must look to the 

è Peisistratus was tyrant, with one or two interruptions, 
560-527 B.c.; his two sons continued the tyranny until the 
assassination of Hipparchus in 514 and the forced retirement 
of Hippias in 510. 

+ Cp. Herodotus, 1. 53 f. 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


m + bi pa A ld ld 
roô Biou reàevriv kal ròv Sievrvxhoavra TTE 
Cag e 
3 mpoonkóvrws Àéyeiv pakdpiov. ó è Kpotoos tore- 
bi 
pov yevóuevos ałyudňwros únrð Kúýpov kal péňwv 
èni peydày mup karakaicoĝai, ris Lóàwvos dro- 
A hi u 
páoews euvnuóvevoev. ið xal ToÔ mupòs )Òn 
2 3 ld ~ ` A £ SÀ 
mepihàéyovros dveßóda cuveyðs rò To Zówvos 
4 övopa. ó è Kôpos mpooréppas roùs mevoopévovs” 
Tis ý) ouvexyýs oti To Lódwvos ðvopacia, pabov 
A Ca A 
raàņlès peréneoe rtoîs Àoyiopoîs Kal vopioas TÙv 
A 5 A 
anókpiaiw To Eoàwvos dànbwùv elvari ris pèv 
únepnhaveias dravoaro, ùv è mupàv karaoßéoas 
čowoe ròv Kpoîoov kal rò àorròv éva trõv piwv 
Kkarnpibunoev. 
5 "Ori ó Lóàwv yero roùs èv mórtas kal oTa- 
Seîs Kal roùs dovus dÂànràs unõèv dfıdoyov 
2 A ld hJ ig AI ` 
ovupdáàcohar raîs módeot mpòs owrnpiav, roùs è 
ppovýoet kal daper ciadépovras uóvovs Šúvaoðaı 
tàs marplðas êv tToîs kivðúvois Sıadvàdrrew. 
o bi “m A la >? L 
3. “Ori mepi To ypvoob tpinoðos åupioßnrý- 
oews očons ý Tvbia ëypnoev oŭrws' 


Eag > fa 
ékyove Miàńrov, rpinoðos népi Dotßov épwrâs; 
A f Pai 
ös? aoig mpôTos mávrwv, TovToU Tpinoð avô. 


2ot é paoıiv AAwS, ÖTt moàépov yevopévov Tos 
”I ` ? [4 N a , h) ` 
wot mpòs GAANÀovs, kal roÔ rtpimoðos mapà 

3 m ki y 
oaynvéwv dveveybévrtos, ênepwrioart Tòv beòv rept 


1 So Dindorf: mulopévovs. 
2 s Herwerden: ris. 


1 546 B.C. 
2 The tripod, found in the sea by fishermen, was to be 


6 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 2. 2—3. 2 


end of life, and only of the man who has continued 
until then to be fortunate may we properly say that 
he is blest. And at a later time, when Croesus had 
been taken prisoner by Cyrus and was about to be 
burned upon a great pyre, he recalled the answer 
Solon had given him. And so, while the fire was 
already blazing about him, he kept continually call- 
ing the name of Solon. And Cyrus sent men to find 
out the reason for his continual calling of the name 
of Solon ; and on learning the cause Cyrus changed 
his purpose, and since he believed that Solon’s reply 
was the truth, he ceased regarding Croesus with con- 
tempt, put out the burning pyre, saved the life of 
Croesus, and counted him henceforth as one of his 
friends. 

Solon believed that the boxers and short-distance 
runners and all other athletes contributed nothing 
worth mentioning to the safety of states, but that 
only men who excel in prudence and virtue are able 
to protect their native lands in times of danger. 

3. When there was a dispute about the golden 
tripod,? the Pythian priestess delivered the following 
oracle : 


Miletus’ son, dost ask Apollo’s will 
About the tripod ? Who is first of all 
In wisdom, his the tripod is, I say. 


But some writers have a different account, as follows : 
War had broken out among the Ionians, and when 
the tripod was brought up in their seine by some 
fishermen, they inquired of the god how they might 


given to the wisest man, and passed through the hands of 
each of the Seven Wise Men, each insisting that another 
was wiser than himself. Cp. chap. 13,2 infra and Plutarch, 
Solon, 4. 


T 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


TÌS karaàýoews TOÔ moàépov. ù Sè č$n, 


oùnore uù) Ajén módeuos Mepónrwv rai 'Ióvwv, 

npiv tpinoða ypýoceov, ôv “Haioros káue tev- 

xav, 

ék peooov népre, kai ès Sóuov dvõpòs irnra 

ôs cohiq rá T’ éóvra rá T° êooópeva mpoðéðoprev. 

3 "Or oi Miorot drodovhñoat Bovàóuevoi rô 
xPnou® Odri r Miànoiw? rò åpioreñov èßovŭ- 
ovro orar ròv © eimeîv œs oùk čor mávrwv 
gohwraros, ovpßovàevew è mpòs črepov nméunrew 
oopùTepov. Toúrw è TÔ tpónw kal rôv åÀàwv 
rv éntrà oopôv dmoromoauévwv ròv rpiroða 
Lóa Sioohaı Sokoðvri mávras dvðpærovs rep- 
Bebola. oohig re kal ovvéoei. ròv &è ovußov- 
Àcĝoat roôrov dvabeivar *Anróàwv roõrov yàp 
elvai ooporepov mávrwv. 

4. "Or: ó aùròs mpòs rti Toô Biov karaorpopi 
ópôv Iewiorparov mpòs yápu” rà mÀńýðy Squa- 
ywyoðvra kal mpòs Tupavviĝa mapoppðvTa, TÒ uèv 
TpõTov Àóyois éneyeipnoev dnorpénew taúrns tis 
empoi” où nmposéyovros È aŭro mpoñAbev eis 
Tv dyopàv perà rijs nmavonàlas mavreàðs hèn 

2 yeyyparós. , cvvòpapóvros Sè roô mÀýbovs mpòs 
aùròv ià TÒ mapáðofov, mapekáàet ToùS moitas 
dvañaßeîv rà õmàa kal mapaypñua karaàģew rtòv 
Túpavvov: oùðevòs è aùr npooéyovros, kal náv- 
Twv aùroô paviav karaywworkóvrwv, trivôv &è 
mapaynpâv avrov ånopawopévav, ó èv Iel- 
orparos Ñn rwàs Sopvpópovs mepiayóuevos 

1 räv érrà opôr after Mıņaíw deleted by Vogel. 


a àdyois after yapır deleted by Dindorf. 
* So Dindorf: émpovàĝs. 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 3. 2—4. 2 


end the war. And the priestess replied 


Never shall cease the war twixt Meropes 

And Tones, until that golden stand 
Hephaestus worked with skill ye send away ; 
And it shall come to that man’s dwelling-place 
Who in his wisdom hath foreseen the things 
That are and likewise things that are to be. 


The Milesians, wishing to follow the injunction of 
the oracle, desired to award the prize to Thales of 
Miletus. But Thales said that he was not the wisest 
of all and advised them to send it to another and 
wiser man. And in this manner the other six of the 
Seven Wise Men likewise rejected the tripod, and it 
was given to Solon, who was thought to have sur- 
passed all men in both wisdom and understanding. 
And Solon advised that it be dedicated to Apollo, 
since he was wiser than all of them. 

4. Solon, seeing toward the end of his life how 
Peisistratus, to please the masses, was playing the 
demagogue and was on the road to tyranny, tried at 
first by arguments to turn him from his intention ; 
and wlien Peisistratus paid no attention to him, he 
once appeared in the market-place arrayed in full 
armour, although he was already a very old man. 
And when the people, the sight being so incongruous, 
flocked to him, he called upon the citizens to seize 
their arms and at once make an end of the tyrant. 
But no man paid any attention to him, all of them 
concluding that he was mad and some declaring 
that he was in his dotage. Peisistratus, who had 
already gathered a guard of a few spearmen, came 


1 Shortly before 560 s.c. 
9 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


npooĵàle T@ Edàamı ral enmúlero rive Oappõv 
Thv Trupavviða Karaàŭúew aùroô Poúerat, roô è 
einóvros öte T yhp, Îavudoas Ttův póvņow 
aùroð oùðèv aùròv hòikyoev. 

5. "Ort ròv mapavópois kal dðikoişs nmpáčeow 
emBaàduevov oùk äv nmpoonkóvrws oo$òv vopiģe- 
obar. 

6. "Ori pasiv °Aváyapow Tov Lkúbyv dpovoôvra 
eni ooġiq péya napayevéohar Ilvblóðe kat emepw- 
Ttioar tris eorw aùrot rõv ‘EMývav sopwrepos. 
kal enei, 

Oiraîóv rwd pası Múowva 
goð pov npaniðecow apnpõTa nevkaňiunow, 


e s ` o x ` x 3 7 
doris v Madeùs ral øre mhv Oirn es kopny 
Xnvàs rañovuévny. (Const. Eze. 4, pp- 281-283.) 
7. "Ori Mvowrv tis v Mades, ôs wrer év kun 
Kyra?’ kadovpévn, ròv dmavra ypõvov v dyp 
drarpißwv kal úno Tõv ToAÀðv dyvooðuevos" ôv 
avreoñéav eis TOÙS ETTA goßovs, é érkpivavres Tòv 
IHepiavòpov ròv Kopivðiov ĝia rò rTúpavvov yeyo- 
vévat mkpóv. (Consi. Exc. 2 (1), p- 217.) 
8. "Ore ó Lóàwv noàvnpaypovýoas Tòv TóTOV èv 
 Sérpipe Múowv, karéàaßev aùròv mi tis dàw 
A Y ? ? t bi ` 
mpòs àporpov mpocßfañovra èyérànv, kal merpabeis 
~? A fg + L A > Ld ko 2 
toô avòpòs ëġn, Otx pa võv dpórpov, © Múowv, 
` ’ m T > 3 9 t 
xal oros, Où ypholar, etrev, QAX êmorevdgew. 
(Consi. Exc. 4, p. 283.) 
9. Ore Xàwv r àdyw oúußwvov čoye ròv 
Biov, õnep onaviws epot tis äv ywópevov. TÖV 
s > e Pog 2 Ai ig 3 Pa 
yàp kał? pâs dıdoosóðġdwv roùs nmàeiorovs ieîv 
čoriw Àéyovras èv Tà kdà\iora, npárrovras è tà 
10 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 4. 2—9. 1 


up to Solon and asked him, ‘ Upon what resources 
do you rely that you wish to destroy my tyranny ? ” 
And when Solon replied, “ Upon my old age,” 
Peisistratus, in admiration of his common sense, did 
him no harm. 

5. The man who puts his hands to lawless and 
unjust deeds may never properly be considered wise. 

6. We are told that the Scythian Anacharsis, who 
took great pride in his wisdom, once came to Pytho 
and inquired of the oracle who of the Greeks was 
wiser than he. And the oracle replied : 


A man of Oeta, Myson, they report, 
Is more endowed than thou with prudent brains. 


Myson was a Malian and had his home on Mt. Oeta 
in a village called Chenae. 

7. Myson was a man of Malis who dwelt in a village 
called Chenae, and he spent his entire time in the 
country and was unknown to most men. He was 
included among the Seven Wise Men in the place 
of Periander of Corinth, who was rejected because 
he had turned into a harsh tyrant. 

8. Solon was curious to see the place where Myson 
spent his days, and found him at the threshing-floor 
fitting a handle to a plow. And to make trial of 
the man Solon said, “ Now is not the season for the 
plow, Myson.” “ < Not to use it,” he replied, “ but 
to make ít ready. 

9. In the case of Chilon + his life agreed with his 
teaching, a thing one rarely finds. As for the philo- 
sophers of our time, for instance, most of them are 
to be seen uttering the noblest sentiments, but 


1 One of the Seven Wise Men. 


1 So Valesius: Xyvàs. 
11 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


xeipora, kal Thv èv taîs drayyeàiais? aùrôv oe- 
uvórņra kal oúveow ĝià Tis meipas deyyopévny. 
ó è XAwv ywpis ris karà ròv Biov év draci 
Toîs mparropévois apers moàÀàà Öievoýðny ral 
anephéyéaro pvýuns àćia. 
(Const. Exc. 2 (1), p. 218.) 
10. "Ore Xwv àgıkóuevos eis Aeàhoùs kal 
kaĝárep ånapyàs movúpevos TÖ beð ris dias 
ouvéoews ènéypapev èni twa kiova Tpia TaĵÔTa, 
Tvâôb oseavróv, kat Myêèv àyav, kat Tpirov ° Eyyúa, 
nápa & ära. roúrwv éraorov únápyov ßpayò kat 

2 Aakwvikòv peyádànv yet tův dvaðeðpnow. Tò 
yàp ITvôbı oavròv mapayyédiei mabevljva kal 
ġpõvipov yevéoðav oðrw yàp dv Tis éavròv yvoin: 
Ñ Öre ol dporpor nmaidelas kal dÀóyioTot kaTà TÒ 
mÀcîorov éavroùs ovverwrárovs nenpacw, Ñrep 
orl rÔv àpabiÂv àualeoráry karà ròv IHàdrwva, 
Ñ ötri roùs movypoùs émweikeîs ýyoûvrar, Toùs òè 
xpnoroùs àvánmaàw paúàovs: põvws yàp äv tis 
oŭrws éavròv yvoiņ kal črepov, Tuyaw maðeias 
kal ovvéoews mepirrorépas. 

3 Tò 8è Mnòèv dyav perpidtew év nât ral unòè 
mepi évòs rÕv àvôpwrivwv reàciws Õiopiteobar, ws 
Emðduvior. orot yàp mapa ròv 'Aspiav ol- 
Koðvres ral mpòs àAÀńÀovs Seadepópevor, púðpovs 
Sarúpovs rararovrisavres v péow TÔ meàdyet 
crwuócavro u) oneioeoha? rùv mpòs dANńÀovs 

1 So Wesseling : érayyediais. 
2 7apà added by Herwerden, 
? So Herwerden : omeicacbar. 


2? Chilon was a Spartan (Laconian) ephor in 556 ».c. 
2 The ignorance, Plato would say, that mistakes itself for 
knowledge. 


12 


TRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 9. 1—10. 3 


following the basest practices, and the solemnity and 
sagacity expressed in their pronouncements are re- 
futed when the speakers are put to the proof. But 
as for Chilon, not to mention the virtue which he 
displayed in every deed throughout his life, he 
thought out and expressed many precepts which 
are worthy of record. 

10. When Chilon came to Delphi he thought to 
dedicate to the god the firstlings, as it were, of his 
own wisdom, and engraved upon a column these 
three maxims : “ Know thyself ” ; “ Nothing over- 
much”; and the third, “ A pledge, and ruin is nigh.” 
Each of these maxims, though short and laconic,! 
displays deep reflection. For the maxim “ Know 
thyself ” exhorts us to become educated and to get 
prudence, it being only by these means that a 
man may come to know himself, either because it is 
chiefly those who are uneducated and thoughtless 
that think themselves to be very sagacious—and 
that, according to Plato, is of all kinds of ignor- 
ance the worst !—or because such people consider 
wicked men to be virtuous, and honest men, on the 
contrary, to be of no account; for only in this one 
way may a man know himself and his neighbour 
—by getting an education and a sagacity that are 
superior. 

Likewise, the maxim “ Nothing overmuch ” ex- 
horts us to observe due measure in all things and not 
to make an irrevocable decision about any human 
affairs, as the Epidamnians once did. This people, 
who dwelt on the shores of the Adriatic, once quar- 
relled among themselves, and casting red-hot masses 
of iron right into the sea they swore an oath that they 
would never make up their mutual enmity until the 


13 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


exbpav mpõrtepov čws àv obrot Îepuol aveveylðow. 
ovrw è okàņpôs póoavres kait rò Myôèv yav 
oùk ènwońoavres voTepov ÚTÒ TÖV TpaypaTwv 
dvaykačópevor ðieàðoavro Tův čyxOpav, èdoavres 
Toùs púðpovs Wvypoùs êv T® Bvbô. 

To ôè 'Eyyva, mdpa È drta, tivès úrédaßov yá- 
Lov àmayopevew: Thv yàp ToÎ yáuov oúvleow mapà 
Toîs nàciorois TÕv ‘EAývwv eyyónv òvopátecbai, 
kal Beßarwrhs ó kowòs Bios, v © nàeîorar kal 
péyiora yivovra ovupopat ĉia ràs yvvaîkas. 
évor Ôé paow avaéiov elvat XAwvos? Sià Tò uù 
úvacĝaı dvaipovuévov ro yápov tapévew Tòv 
Biov, rv Sè àrnv dnrodaiveobar mapeva? èyyúais 
Ttaîs émi TÕv ovupoňalwv kal taîs rèp TÕv Aw 
Sropodoyýoect mepl ypyudraw. kal Eðpiriðns 

oùk èyyvõpat, Gyuiav piñeyyówv 

okon": rà Ilvbo? è oðk e ue ypáppara. 

"Evioi Sé hacı u) Xiwvos elvat unòè moùrikòv 
Tò unõevl rÕv hiwv èv raîs Toravrais ypeiais 
êrapkeîv, dÀÀa uâdov tràs karaßeßparboeis adrayo- 
peúew kal TO kararerapévws eyyvâolal te kal 
cropigeoðar rv avpwrivaw, ùs mojo Toùs 
“Ednvas re karnywwvioavro ròv Bépénv. æuocav 
yàp ev Màaŭtaraîs mapaðwoew maiðwv maot TÀv 
mpòs roùs Iépoas êxÂpav, čws äv ot morapol 

1 So Mai: XAwva. 

2 dnopaiveoĝar napeva Wurm: ånopalvovrtat. 


3 inuiav hdeyyúav okonrðv Herwerden, followed by 
Nauck: {nula fpiàéyyvov oxoneiv. 


2 According to Herodotus (1. 165) the Phocaeans empha- 
sized in a similar manner their resolve never to return to 
their native city. 

14 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 10. 3-5 


masses of iron should be brought up hot out of the 
sea! And although they had sworn so severe an oath 
and had taken no thought of the admonition “ Nothing 
overmuch,” later under the compulsion of circum- 
stances they put an end to their enmity, leaving the 
masses of iron to lie cold in the depths of the sea. 

And as for the maxim “ A pledge, and ruin is nigh,” 
some have assumed that by it Chilon was advising 
against marriage ; for among most Greek peoples 
the agreement to marry is also called a “ pledge,” 
and this is confirmed by the common experience of 
men in that the worst and most numerous ills of life 
are due to wives. But some writers say that such 
an interpretation is unworthy of Chilon, because if 
marriage were destroyed life could not continue, and 
that he declares that “ ruin ” is nigh to such pledges 
as those made in connection with contracts and with 
agreements on other matters, all of which are con- 
cerned with money. As Euripides ? says : 


No pledge I give, observing well the loss 
Which those incur who of the pledge are fond ; 
And writings there at Pytho say me nay. 


But some also say that it is not the meaning of 
Chilon nor is it the act of a good citizen, not to come 
to the aid of a friend when he needs help of this kind ; 
but rather that he advises against strong assevera- 
tions, against eagerness in giving pledges, and against 
irrevocable decisions in human affairs, such as the 
Greeks once made in connection with their victory 
over Xerxes. For they took oath at Plataea? that 
they would hand down enmity to the Persians as an 
inheritance even to their children’s children, so long 


? Frag. 923, Nauck?. 3 In 479 Bc, 
15 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


e, kd h3 8 + bi t 3 8 LA T 

péwow eis TY dáàarrav kal yévos avhlpónrwv ġ 
kal yi kaproùs pép rò è ris rúxys eùpera- 
ntTwrov Peßaiws eyyvnoápevoi perá qwa ypóvov 
enpeofeúovro npòs `Apračépėnv ròv viòv Zépćov 
mepi piàias kal ovupayxias. 

6 Ori ô ð XAwvos Àóyos Bpayis &v óànv TepreiNn- 
pe TÀv mpòs ròv dpiorov fiov únobðýrnv, ós kal 
TÕv èv Aeàġdoîs dvaðnudrwv Periw rara Tà dro- 
phéypara. ai èv yap ypvoa? Kpoicov ràivhoi 

b hJ Lg [A 3 + 4 r 
kal Trà dÀàa karackevdouara Ņpavioðy kal peyd- 
Àas åßoppàs mapéoye Toîs åoeßeiv eis Tò epòv éào- 
Lévois, ai è yvôuar TÒv dmavra ypóvov ow%ovrat 
év raîs rÕv menaðevuévwv puyais reðyoavpiopévar 
Kal kdàňtorov ¿yovoar Onoavpóv, mpòs ôv v? oŭrTe 
Dwxeîs oùŭre ladrar mpoceveykeîv rtàs yeîpas 
arovõdoeav. (Const. Exc. 4, pp. 283-285.) 

o s e “~ 3 z 3 
Ori Iirrakòs ó Mirvànvaîos où póvov èv 
7 hi Ea ? h3 pi + ? ? 
coġiąq Îavpaoròs v, dÀàdà kal moàirys èyévero 
Tororos olov érepov oùk Ñveykev ý vijoos, ĵokô 
Po WaN A kg 3 F [a A hi by 
oð’ äv ğarepov véykar, uéypi v ròv otvov 
pépn, TÀciw Te kat hõlw. vopoĝérns TE yàp åya- 
bòs ú únpxe kåv Toîs kaTà pépos mpos TOÙS TOALTAS 
kowòs kat piÀdvipwros, kat tùv marpiða TpÕv 
Tv pueyiorov ovupopðv dréàvoe, rvpavvíðos, 
oTáoews, mToàépov. 

2 "Orn Iirraròs Pabòs v kat Ñuepos kat TÌv 
mapairnow čywv aùros èv aúr®. So ù mow 
éôoket TéÀcros dvp elvat mpòs mâsav dperùv po- 

e „én Herwerden : ein. . . ġépor. 
2? So Oldfather : èyyvðpevor. 3 äv added by Herwerden. 


1 This would probably refer to the Peace of Callias in 448 
(or earlier), but in it there was no question of an alliance. 


16 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 10. 5—11. 2 


as the rivers run into the sea, as the race of men 
endures, and as the earth brings forth fruit ; and yet, 
despite the binding pledge they had taken against 
fickle fortune, after a time they were sending ambas- 
sadors to Artaxerxes, Xerxes’ son, to negotiate a 
treaty of friendship and alliance.! 

Chilon’s precepts, though brief, embrace the entire 
counsel necessary for the best lfe, since these pithy 
sayings of his are worth more than all the votive 
offerings set up in Delphi. The golden ingots of 
Croesus ? and other handiwork like them have van- 
ished and were but great incentives to men who 
chose to lift impious hands against the temple ; but 
Chilon’s maxims are kept alive for all time, stored 
up as they are in the souls of educated men and 
constituting the fairest treasure, on which neither 
Phocians nor Gauls would be quick to lay their hands.: 

11. Pittacus 4 of Mitylenê was not only admired of 
men for his wisdom, but he was also such a citizen as 
the island never produced again, nor, in my opinion, 
could produce in time to come—-not until it bears 
wine both more abundant and more delicious. For 
he was an excellent law-giver, in his dealings with 
individual citizens affable and kindly, and he freed 
his native land from the three greatest evils, from 
tyranny, civil strife, and war. 

Pittacus was a man of consequence, gentle and 
inclined to self-disparagement. Consequently he was 
regarded by all as a man who, beyond dispute, was 
However, in 412 Sparta made a treaty with Persia against 
Athens. 

2 See Herodotus, 1. 50. 

3 The reference is to the sack of Delphi by the Phocians in 


356-346 B.c. and by the Gauls in 279 s.c. 
+ Another of the Seven Wise Men. 


17 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Aoyovuévws’ karà pèv yàp Tv vopobeclav èġai- 
VETO NOÙTLKÒS KAL PPÓVLLOS, KATA ÖÈ TYV MIOTW 
ikaros, karà Sè rùv èv roîs ónos ýnmepox)v 
dvõpeîos, karà Sè rhv mpòs TÒ képõos peyaňo- 
yvyiav ahıàapyvpos. (Const. Exc. 2 (1), p. 218.) 

12. "Ore rôv Mırvànvaiwv SDóvrwv T Iir- 
TaKkÔ Tis xwpas rèp Ås èpovoudxnoe TYV huise 
oùk éðéfaro, ouvéraće è ékdorw Kkàņpôcat TÒ 
toov, èmipleyéduevos ws Tò toov dori Tot mÀelovos 
mÀeîov. uerpõv yàp mekeig TÒ nÀcTov, où képõet, 
copôs* èyivworev: tf? èv yàp loótyri óav kal 
àoġdàcerayv akodovbłýoew, rů Sè màcovečią ßBàac- 
dnuiav aì poßov, Ò &v tTayéws äv avroð Tùv 
Swpedv apeidavro. 

2 “Or oúuġwva tToúrois čnpaģe kal mpòs Kpoîoov 
Ssóvra rôv èk roô yatodvàakreiov xpnuárwv àa- 
Beiv óróoa Boúdoirro. kal yàp TóTe Tův Õwpeav où 
npooðeéáuevőv paow eineîv, kal vôv ëyew dv Ņhede 
Sràdoia. Bavudoavros è roð Kpoisov rv ahıñap- 
yvpíav kal mepl TS ånmokpisews ènepwrýoav- 
Tos, elneîv œs TeÀevrýoavros dnmaiðos raðeàdot* 
Kekàņpovounkàs oùŭoiav ein rÀv tonv rep etxev, 
v oùx hõéws mposednpévar. 

3 "Orn Kal ròv nmomryv '`Aàkaîov, èyôpórarov 
aùroð yeyevnpévov kat cià TV TONuÁT%Wv mKpó- 
1 So Mai: saġôs. 2 So Hertlein ; èri. 

2 So Hertlein : dôeàgoô. 


1 He slew Phrynon, the Athenian general, when the 
Mitylenaeans and Athenians were fighting for possession of 
Sigeum on the Hellespont. ; 

? Diogenes Laertius (1. 75) gives it, “ The half is more 


18 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 11. 2—12. 3 


perfect in respect of every virtue: for as to his 
legislation, he showed himself statesmanlike and 
prudent, as to keeping his plighted faith strictly 
just, as to his distinction in armed combat, courage- 
ous, and as to his greatness of soul in the matter 
of lucre, having no trace of avarice. 

12. When the inhabitants of Mitylenê offered to 
Pittacus the half of the land for which he had fought 
in single combat,! he would not accept it, but arranged 
to assign to every man by lot an equal part, uttering 
the maxim, “ The equal share is more than the 
greater.” ? For in measuring “the greater” in 
terms of fair dealing, not of profit, he judged wisely ; 
since he reasoned that equality would be followed by 
fame and security, but greediness by opprobrium and 
fear, which would speedily have taken away from him 
the people’s gift. 

Pittacus acted consistently with these principles 
toward Croesus also, when the latter offered him as 
much money from his treasury as Pittacus might 
desire to take. For on that occasion, we are told, 
in refusing the gift he said that he already had twice 
as much as he wished. And when Croesus expressed 
his surprise at the man’s freedom from avarice and 
inquired of him the meaning of his reply, Pittacus 
said, “ My brother died childless and ÍI inherited his 
estate, which was the equal of my own, and I have 
experienced no pleasure in having received the extra 
amount,” 

The poet Alcaeus, who had been a most confirmed 
enemy of Pittacus and had reviled him most bitterly 


than the whole” (rò ñv roô mavròs màeîov); cp. Hesiod, 
Works and Days, l. 40 výmot, oùðè losaow čow nÀéov ğpov 
navTós. 


19 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


tara Àeàoibopykóra, Àaßov únroxeipiov agikev, 
èmpbeyédpevos os ovyyvěpn Tipwpias atpeTw- 
Tépa. (Const. Exc. 4, p- 285.) 
13. “Ori pasiv oi Ipinveîs s Meoonvias Tò yé- 
vos èmońuovs maphévovs Avrpwrájevos ó Bias 
mapà àņyorôv yev ðs iias bvyarépas évripws. 
erà é Twas ypóvovs napayevopévav TÂV ovy- 
yevâv ratà býrqow, dréðwrev abras oŬrTe Tpopea 
mpačáuevos ořre ÀŬúTpa, Toùvavríov Sè Tõv Diw 
Toà Swpnoduevos. elyov ov pòs avròv at kő- 
par matpikhv eùvorav Šid TE TÙV ouvTpohiav kal rò 
uéyebos rìs eùepyecias, dore kal xwpiobeioa 
perà tÕv llwv eis tv marplða Tis Úmepopiov 
xápıros oùr éneàdhovro. E 

2 “Ori caynveîs Meooývioi kaTà Tòv Bóñov éTepov 
uèv oùðèv dveiàkvoav, xaàroĝv òè Tpiroða póvov 
êmypapiy ëxovra T copwraro. ávaxłévros òè 
toô karagrevágpatos olivar T® Biavrı. , 

3 “Ore Bias ĝv Seiwórartos kal T Ayw mpæTebov 
TÂv kab’ éavróv. krareyphoaro Šè ri To Àéyew 
Suvápet moots avdraàw où yàp eis puolapviav 
ovðè els mpoodðovs, GAX eis Thv TÔv dðixovpévwv 
rareribero Pohberav. Önrep onavudrar v Tis 
evpot. (Const. Exc. 2 (1), pp- 218-219.) 

14. "Ori uéya èoriv où Tò Õúvav Tov Súrore 
oyeðv, &AÀà Tò Taúry Sedvrws xpĝoloa. emel Ti 
öġeàos Mwn t Kporwviáry rò péyeðos ris 
mepit TÒ opa PONS; 

1 So Vogel: äv omawórarov äv. 


1 For references see Edmonds, Lyra Graeca, I, pp. 309 ff. 
Gn the L.C.L.), and the Index to the volume. 
2 Of Prienê, and another of the Seven Wise Men. 


20 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 12. 3—14. 1 


in his poems,! once fell into his hands, but Pittacus 
let him go free, uttering the maxim : “ Forgiveness 
is preferable to punishment.” 

13. The inhabitants of Prienê recount that Bias ° 
ransomed from robbers some maidens of distinguished 
families of Messenia and reared them in honour, as if 
they were his own daughters. And after some time, 
when their kinsfolk came in search of them, he gave 
the maidens over to them, asking for neither the cost 
of their rearing nor the price of their ransom, but on 
the contrary giving them many presents from his own 
possessions. The maidens, therefore, loved him as a 
father, both because they had lived in his home and 
because he had done so much for them, so that, even 
when they had departed together with their own 
families to their native land, they did not forget the 
kindness they had received in a foreign country. 

Some Messenian fishermen, when casting their 
net, brought up nothing at all except a brazen tri- 
pod, which bore the inscription, “ To the wisest.” 
And they took the tripod out of the sea and gave it 
to Bias. 

Bias was a most able speaker, and surpassed in this 
respect all his contemporaries. But he used his great 
eloquence far otherwise than do many men ; for he 
employed it, not to gain fees or income, but to give 
aid to those who were being wronged. Rarely indeed 
is a thing like this to be found. 

l4. It is no great thing to possess strength, what- 
ever kind it is, but to use it as one should. For of 
what advantage to Milo of Croton was his enormous 
strength of body ? °? 


3 How Milo’s strength brought about his death is told in 
Strabo, 6. 1. 12. 


21 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


2 "Or IMoàvõduas ó Oerraàòðs nò TÅs mérpas 
Siappayeis mâow ènoinoe favepòv ós emopadés 
eor ioyùv pèv’ peydànv čyev, voĝv Õè perpóv. 

(Const. Exc. 4, pp. 285-286.) 
15. “O Iloàvõduas oros v k móàcews Xko- 
TOVONS, 
yvuvaîs yepot uèv Àéovras ós pvas ĉiaphei- 
pwy, 
nrepoîs nool ©’ Únepvikõv parta Tayvpópa, 
TI Ò XEpi Tt OTÀALOV AVTÝpELOE OCVUTÎTTOV. 
ó Eıxeàòs Atdðwpos ypáßer tův ioropiav. 
(Tzetz. Hist. 2. 555-559.) 
16. "Or rôv Kippaiwv moMoprovpévwv moàùv 
jòn xpóvov ıd Tò TÒ xpnorýpiov èrmiyeipetv ovàĝv, 
rws pèv rôv ‘EdMývwv eis ràs marpiðas êmav- 
Alov, oi Sè ènepwrhoavres riv Ilvbiav édaßov 
ypnouòðv oŬTwWS, 
où npiv rhode móànos êpeújere” múpyov éňðvres, 
npiv kev èG Tepéver kvavwmiðos Aupirpirns 
Köpa norikàúbn kedaðoðv iepfjow èr àrraîs. 
(Const. Exc. 4, p. 286.) 
17. 'Ioréov re ó pèv Eóàuww eyévero èm trôv 
ypórav rv tupávrvwv èv raîs ’Abývais mpò tTÕv 
Hepoikðv xpõvwv, ð sè Apárkwv mpò aùroĵ énTà 
kal Teooapákovra ëTeow, ws pyow ó Aiddwpos. 
(Ulpian on the Timocrates of Demosthenes, 9, p. 805.5) 
18. "Ori Iepiàaos ò dvpiavronoirðs Daddpiðı 
T Tupáwvw rarackeváoas ßoðv yaňkoðv mpòs 
tıpwpiav rõv ópopúàwv aùròs nmpõros èrepaly 
roô peyébovs rs tıpwpias: ot yàp karà tÕv 
1 pèv added by Herwerden. 2 So Mai: épibere. 


3 Ed. W. Dindorf, Oxford, 1846-1851. 
22 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 14. 2—18. 1 


The death of Polydamas, the Thessalian, when he 
was crushed by the rocks,! made clear to all men how 
precarious it is to have great strength but little sense. 

15. This Polydamas was of the city of Scotusa, and 
he used to slay lions with his bare hands as if they 
were sheep and easily outstrip swift-running chariots 
with winged feet. He also endeavoured to support 
with his hand the crumbling roof of a cave, as 
Diodorus the Sicilian recounts the story. 

16. After the people of Cirrha had been besieged 
for a long time because they had attempted to 
plunder the oracle,? some of the Greeks returned 
to their native cities, but others of them inquired 
of the Pythian priestess and received the following 
response : 


Ye shall not seize and lay in ruins the tower 
Of yonder city, before the plashing wave 
Of dark-eyed Amphitritê inundates 

My sacred precinct, here on these holy cliffs. 


17. It should be known that Solon? lived in Athens 
in the period of the tyrants before the Persian wars, 
and that Draco lived forty-seven years before him, 
as Diodorus says. 

18. The sculptor Perilaŭs made a brazen bull for 
Phalaris the tyrant¢ to use in punishing his own 
people, but he was himself the first to make trial of 
that terrible form of punishment. For, in general, 


1 Polydamas, a famous athlete, was in a cave when the 
roof began to crack. His companions fied to safety, but 
Polydamas thought he could support the roof (cp. Pausanias, 
6. 5. 4 f). 

2 Delphi. About 590 B.c. 

3 Solon lived c. 640-558 B.C. 

1 Of Acragas, c. 570—c. 554 B.0. 


23 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


dwy Povàevópevoi re dañàov ws énrirav rais 
I7 3 r 37 e r 
biais émbvuiais ewbaow dàiokeohar. 
(Const. Exc. 4, p. 286.) 
19. “Os dáàapıs Ileplàaov ròv yaàkovpyòv 
èkeîvov 
Tòv 'ArTucòv katékavoev êv Taúpæ TÂ xaàkéw. 
oÛToS yàp, TÒ unyávņua ro Taŭpov yañ- 
kovpyńoas 
Toîs pvwrhpo toô Poòs erérTnvev abÀíokovs, 
åvémrtvče kal Oúpav ðè mpòs T mÀevp® 
TOÔ Taúpov: 

À t ô Ko * A Lg 
ral Sôpov TÖ Daddpiåı roôTov ròv rapov yer. 
Padapıs Sè ròv åvôpwrov èv ĝwpois SeftoTat, 
Tò òè unyávnua eoîs rkabiepoðv kedede. 
ws Ò avanrúčas trò mÀevpòv ò yaàkovpyòs 

èkeîvos 
ld 4 ? ? Pag 3 FA 
Sódov Tòr kakounyavov éġeîrev anavlponws, 
Et riva Bovàct, Dddapı, koñàáteiw rôv avðpo- 
Twv, 

évõðov ToÔ Tavpov kaTerpyvòs mp Úmootpavvv 
katw' 

scéer © ò raĝpos orevayuoîs pvkâolat Tots 
èkeivov, 

` >” e 4 a a “ CEN 

où è Hõovhv roîs orevayoîs éfeis avÀoîs 
pvrerýpwv. 

A ~ e 2 y A 2? m ` 
Toôro palwrv ò Ddàapıs kal pvoaybeis èxeîvov, 
" ld + A A a "~ 
Aye, dnoi, Iepiàae, où mpõros ðeTÉov Toro, 
kal Toùs aùàoðvras uinea, Tpávwoóv oov 

TV TÉXVNV. 
os Òè mapéðv PANTÌS Hlev Tâv abànpáræv, 
KÀeleL Tòr raĝpov Dádapıs kai nmp Úrocw- 


pever. 
24 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 18. 1—19. 1 


those who plan an evil thing aimed at others are 
usually snared in their own devices. 

19. This Phalaris burned to death Perilaüs, the 
well-known Attic worker in bronze, in the brazen bull. 
Perilaüs had fashioned in bronze the contrivance of 
the bull, making small sounding pipes in the nostrils 
and fitting a door for an opening in the bull’s side 
and this bull he brings as a present to Phalaris. And 
Phalaris welcomes the man with presents and gives 
orders that the contrivance be dedicated to the gods. 
Then that worker in bronze opens the side, the evil 
device of treachery, and says with inhuman savagery, 
“ If you ever wish to punish some man, O Phalaris, 
shut him up within the bull and lay a fire beneath 
it; by his groanings the bull will be thought to 
bellow and his cries of pain will give you pleasure as 
they come through the pipes in the nostrils.” When 
Phalaris learned of this scheme, he was filled with 
loathing of the man and says, “ Come then, Perilaüs, 
do you be the first to illustrate this ; imitate those 
who will play the pipes and make clear to me the 
working of your device.” And as soon as Perilaüs 
had crept in, to give an example, so he thought, of 
the sound of the pipes, Phalaris closes up the bull 
and heaps fire under it. But in order that the man’s 


1 So Warmington: êmowpeve. 


25 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Örws õè rò yaàkoúpynpa bavòv uh eupidvy 
KaTà nmerpõv èkphuvioev ètdéas ýhubvira. f 
ypáġe Tepi Toî TaŬúpov Šè Aovkiavòs d Zúpos, 
Aióõwpos kat Ilivõapos, odv Toúrors re pvpior. 
(Tzetz. Hist. 1. 646-668.) 
20. “Ort Eóàwv ó vopobérys mapeàbàv els r» 
3 lg + A > id 
êkrànoiav maperdÀe Toùs `Abnvalovs karaàýew 
TOv Túpavvov mpiv Teàéws loyupòv yevéobai. ov- 
Õevòs è aÙT® mposéyovros åvaňaßàv TÙY TavoràÀl- 
av TpoñAlev eis TAV ayopàv yeynparós, kal rods 
Beods émuaprupópevos čßnoe kal àóyw kal épyw 
Tå marp Kkwõuvevovon Beßonlykéwai tò kar 
aùTov pépos: TÕv Õè xwv åyvoovvrwv tův èm- 
Boàùr* Ileoiorpárov ovvéßy ròv Eédwva TaànOi 
2 \éyovra naparéumeolai. Aéyerat Sè Edàwv ral 
mpoeneîy roîs *Abnvalois Tv copévyy tvpavviĝa 
Se eeyeiwv, 
êk vepéàns méňerat yióvos uévos ġòè xaàdtns, 
, Bpovrù è èk Àaumpâs yiverat doTeporis. 
dvòðpôðv ò ék peydàwv móùs ÖÀàvrai, els $è 
povápyov 
-~ > 
aros Siôpein Sovdooúryy čneoev. 
iy èEdpavr où pgôiðv dori katasyeîv 
voTepov, GAN HÒN XP) mepit ndvra voeiy. 
3 Kal perà trañra rupavvoðvros hn, 
el òè meróvlarte Àvypà S’ úperépav KAKOTNTA, 
HÙ) Qeoîow Taúrny poîpav éraugépere' 
: 2 So Wurm: émpovàiv. 2 So Mai: Baàárrys. 
So Schneidewin, éfapôévra Dindorf, Vogel: čtepavra. 
4t vepì added by Dindorf. 


2 Lucian, Phalaris, 1. 1; Pindar, Pyth. 1. 95. 


26 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 19. 1—20. 3 


death might not pollute the work of bronze, he took 
him out, when half-dead, and hurled him down the 
cliffs. This tale about the bull is recounted by Lucian 
of Syria, by Diodorus, by Pindar, and countless others 
beside them.? 

20. Solon the law-giver once entered the assembly 
and urged the Athenians to overthrow the tyranny 
before it became all-powerful. And when no man 
paid attention to him, he put on his full armour and 
appeared in the market-place, although an old man, 
and calling upon the gods as witnesses he declared 
that by word and deed, so far as in him lay, he had 
brought aid to the fatherland when it was in peril. 
But since the populace did not perceive the design 
of Peisistratus, it turned out that Solon, though he 
spoke the truth, was disregarded. And itis said that 
Solon also predicted the approaching tyranny to the 
Athenians in elegiac verse ? : 


From cloud is born the might of snow and hail 

And from bright lightning’s flash the thunder 
comes. 

And from great men a city finds its doom ; 

The people in their ignorance have bowed 

In slavery to a monarch’s single rule. 

For him who puts too far from shore ’tis hard 

The harbour later on to make ; but now 

At once one needs must think of everything. 


And later, when the tyranny was already estab- 
lished, he said ? : 

If now you suffer grievous things because 

Of your own cowardice, charge not this fate 

2 Frag. 10 (Diehl), Edmonds, Elegy and Iambus (L.C.L.), 


T, p. 122. The date was about 562 B.c. 
$ Frag. 8 (Diehl), Edmonds, loc. cit. 


27 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


aùroi yåp ToVTous nòýoare púpara Šóvres 
Kol Sià ToÔrTo karùv éoyere Sovdooúvyy. i 
óuôv Ò els pv ékaoTos d\órekos iyveoi PBaiver, 
SUTO è úpîv koôg$os čveori vóos. 

eis nE opâre kal els čnros alédov 


ceis ë ô’ oùðè 5 $ 
pyov ò oùðèv ywópevoyv BAémere. 


v 
; Or ó Hewiorparos mapekdàet Tòv Dówva tàs 
Novyias Exe rai rÕv Tis Tupavviðos dyabððv ovv- 
amoàaveiw: oùðevl è rpőrnw Öuváuevoş ačroô 
perabeîvor TÀV npoaipeow, GÀN ópôv uâňìov àe 
éEeyeipóuevov KaL ETà varádocews dmeoûvra ri- 
pwpiov emBýoew, porno aùròv riv Tmenrorbws 
ávrinpárret Tas êmfodaîs aùroô. ròv é aow 
eineiv TÔ yhpą. (Const. Exc. 4, pp. 286-287.) 
[C Hpóðoros arà Eépénv yeyovðs ro? a 
PRET ; ; / îs ypóvois 
pnow Aooupiouvs črn revrakóora nmpórepov rs 
Asias åpšavras rò Mýðwv karavbñvai, ënera 
PBaordéa pèv põéva yevéoðar ròv åupioßnrýoovra 
rôv Sw êri Todds yeveds, Tàs Õè módces kab’ 
gauras rarropévas ĝiowcetolar ÖnuorparıkÂs” rò 
òè redevraîov mov érv Siedbóvræov aipebivar 
Paociàéa mapà rois Mýõois ävõpa Sixarooúvy Štd- 
popoy, övopa Kvačápņv. roôrov è mpôrov èm- 
xepiou mpoodyeofar Tods TÀyowywpovs, kal ros 
Mýðors åpxnyðv yevéolar Ts Tv wv yeuovlas: 
čmera rovs, êxyóvovs del mposkarakTwpévovs 
modàùy Tis óuópov xópas aŭko Thv Baoideiav 
LÉÊXpt Astudyovs TOÔ karanoàeunhévros rò Kú- 
a Kai Iepoðv. mepi ðv võv peis rà repádàara 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK TX. 20. 34 


Unto the gods’ account ; for you yourselves 
Exalted these men’s power by giving them 

A guard, and on this count have you put on 
The yoke of evil slavery. Each by each 

With fox’s steps you move, but meeting all 
Together trifling judgement do you show. 

For to man’s tongue and shifty word you look, 
But to the deed he does you ne'er give heed. 


Peisistratus urged Solon to hold his peace and to 
share with him in the advantages arising from the 
tyranny. And when he could find no means to change 
Solon’s purpose, but saw in fact that he was ever 
more and more aroused and steadfastly threatening to 
bring him to punishment, he asked him upon what re- 
sources he relied in his opposition to his designs. And 
we are told that Solon replied, “ Upon my old age.” 

[Herodotus, who lived in the time of Xerxes, gives 
this account !: After the Assyrians had ruled Asia 
for five hundred years they were conquered by the 
Medes, and thereafter no king arose for many 
generations to lay claim to supreme power, but the 
city-states, enjoying a regimen of their own, were 
administered in a democratic fashion ; finally, how- 
ever, after many years a man distinguished for his 
justice, named Cyaxares, was chosen king among the 
Medes. He was the first to try to attach to himself 
the neighbouring peoples and became for the Medes 
the founder of their universal empire ; and after him 

each of his successive descendants extended the 

kingdom by adding a great deal of the adjoining 

country, until the reign of Astyages, who was con- 

quered by Cyrus and the Persians.? We have for 

the present given only the most important of these 
1 See note to Book 2. 32. 2 In 549 B.C. 

29 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Tpoerpyróres Tà kaTà pépos` Ŭotepov åkpßôâs 
dvaypáifopev, eneðàv émi Toùs oikelovs ypóvovs 
émpárwuev: kaTà yàp Tò Ğeúrepov ToS Tís 
éntTakaderdTys ’Oàvumidos ýpéðn Baoideds rò 
Múýõðwv Kvaćápns ra’ ‘Hpóŝorov.] 
O O > _ (Diod. 2. 32. 2-3.) 
l TBápa TOÔ Paoiiéws tôv Mýðwv év `Ekßa- 
Távois yýpa TeÀevrýoavrtos Tv apxyùv ° Aordóvõav 
Tòv viðv craðétaohar, ròv únrò Ttv “EAM ývwv 
Aotvdynv radoúpevov. rovrov & ónrò Kýpov 
To Ilépoov kararoàeunÂévros peraneoev Thv 
PBaordeiav cis Mépoas, mepi v fpeis tà rarà 
pépos v Tois Siors ypóvois årpßôs åvaypdjopev.] 
i (Diod. 2. 34. 6.) 
21. Kôpos Hepoôv eBaoidevoev © ëret ’Oìvp- 
màs nxn ve’, ds èk rôv Bphiolnkâv Aoópov 
kal røv Oadop kat Kdoropos ioropi®v, ëre è 
Iodvgíov Ka Dàéyovros čorw evpeîv, dààà kal 
étépwv, ols euénoev 'Oìvumdòwv: draoi yàp 
ovuvehavnoev ô ypóvos. 
; (Eusebius, Praep. evang. 10. 10. 488 c.) 
22. Orı Kôpos, ó Kaußócov pèv viòs kal Mav- 
ödvns Ts Bvyatpòs Aortváyovs roô Mýðwv Bao- 
Àéws, åvõpeíg Kal guvéoer Kal raîs ăÀñais dperaîs! 
Empareve TÖV kað aróv: Baciùıkôðs yàp avròv ó 
marhp Ñye Taðevwv, Chàov éunoirðv rv rpari- 
gTwv. kal Ernos v dðpðv ápópevos npaypdtrwv 
Õeà TÒ Tåv åperùv mpoġaivew órèp tv ýÀlav. 
23. “Ori `Aorvdyns ó rôv Mýðwv Basideds ýr- 
rneis kal puyav aioypõs 8r? pys eiye tovs 
aTpatuóTas" kal Toùs pev è$ yeponðv Teray- 
pévovs anavras amadas, érépovs dvr èkelvwv 
30 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 20. 4—23. 1 


events in summary and shall later give a detailed 
account of them one by one when we come to the 
periods in which they fall; for it was in the second 
year of the Seventeenth Olympiad, according to 
Herodotus, that Cyaxares was chosen king of the 
Medes.] 

[When Astibaras, the king of the Medes, died of 
old age in Ecbatana, his son Aspandas, whom the 
Greeks call Astyages, succeeded to the throne. And 
when he had been defeated by Cyrus the Persian, 
the kingdom passed to the Persians. Of them we 
shall give a detailed and exact account at the proper 
time. 

21 J Cyrus became king of the Persians in the open- 
ing year of the Fifty-fifth Olympiad, as may be found 
in the Library of Diodorus and in the histories of 
Thallus and Castor and Polybius and Phlegon and all 
others who have used the reckoning by Olympiads. 
For all these writers agree as to the date. 

22. Cyrus, the son of Cambyses and Mandanê, the 
daughter of Astyages who was king of the Medes, 
was pre-eminent among the men of his time in bravery 
and sagacity and the other virtues ; for his father 
had reared him after the manner of kings and had 
made him zealous to emulate the highest achieve- 
ments. And it was clear that he would take hold of 
great affairs, since he revealed an excellence beyond 
his years. 

23. When Astyages, the king of the Medes, had 
been defeated and was in disgraceful flight, he vented 
his wrath upon his soldiers ; and he displaced all who 
had been assigned positions of command, appointing 

1 711-710 B.C. 2 560-559 B.C. 


1 åperaîs added by Valesius. 


3) 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


KaTÉOTNOE, Toùs è TÎs pvyñs airiovs dmravras 
émAégas dnéopage, vopitwv t Torov tiuwpiq 
roùs Movs dvayrdoew dvõpas åyaßoðs èv rois 
rwõývois yevéoba opos yàp v kal púoset åmyvýs. 
oÙ uiy TÀ nÀýôn kareràdyn aùroð rv Papórnra, 
aAA ëkaoros puońoas Tò Biaiov kal mapdvouov Tis 
Tpáģews peraßoĵs wpéyero. iò kal karà Aóyovs* 
éyivovro ovvõpouai kal Àðyot Tapayóðeis, mapa- 
kañovvræv AAAHÀovs TÖV TÀEÍSTWV TPÒS TYV kaTà 
TOŬTOV? Tipwpiav. 

24. “Ori Kôpos, œs pacw, où uóvov ÑV KATÒ TÒV 
móàcpov dvõpetos, GAÀà kal mpòs Toùs únmorerayué- 
vovs Ebyvópwv kal piàdvðpwros. Sıórmep aùròv 
oi Ilépoar npoonyópevoav marépa. 

; (Const. Exc. 2 (1), p. 219.) 
25. Or: Kpoicos vavryyâv màoîa uakpd, pasiv, 
epedàe orpateveiww èri tàs výoovs. mapemònņpov- 
ra òè Biavra ) Iirrakòr” kal Bewpoðvra rù 
vavmnyiav, nò roô Paciàdws èpwrnhivar ph ri 
veðTepov dkykows ein mapà rois "Edno yd- 
pevov. ToĵÔ Òè eimóvros Öri mávres ol vNor®ra 
ovvdyovow immovs, iavooúuevoi orpateveiw èm 
Avõovs, Adyerar ròv Kpoîsov eireîv, Elbe ydp mis 
meise vyorbras oùv innois naparáčachar Avsoîs. 
Tõv yàp Avõðv inrevew elórwv évópike mporepeîv 
2 aùroùs met ó dè Ilırrakòs X Blas vro- 
AaBov pnow, Eira Avõoùs uèv Ñreipov olxoôvras 

1 So Valesius: Àdyovs MSS., xar’ dàlyovs Dindorf. 

3 So Reiske : rovrov. 


IA 5 i 
Ñ Iırrakòv Klüber (ep. Herod. 1. 27): à raS vý 
MS., which is deleted by Vogel. PERE SET 


1 rõv. . . mețh, as Vogel suggests, is transferred to thi 
point from the end of the chapter. z 


32 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 23. 1—25. 2 


others in their stead, and he picked out all who 
were responsible for the flight and put them to the 
sword, thinking that by punishing them in that way 
he could force the rest to show themselves brave 
fighters in times of danger, since he was a cruel man 
and, by nature, hard. Nevertheless, the people 
were not dismayed at the harsh treatment he meted 
out; on the contrary, every man, hating his violent 
and lawless manner, yearned for a change of affairs. 
Consequently there were gatherings of small groups 
and seditious conversations, the larger number ex- 
horting one another to take vengeance on him. 

24. Cyrus, we are told, was not only a courageous 
man in war, but he was also considerate and humane 
in his treatment of his subjects. And it was for this 
reason that the Persians called him Father. 

25. Croesus was once building ships of war, we are 
told, with the intention of making a campaign! against 
the islands. And Bias, or Pittacus,? who happened to 
be visiting Lydia at the time and was observing the 
building of the ships, was asked by the king whether 
he had heard of any news among the Greeks. And 
when he was given the reply that all the islanders 
were collecting horses and were planning a campaign 
against the Lydians, Croesus issaid to have exclaimed, 
“ Would that some one could persuade the islanders 
to fight against the Lydians on horseback !” For the 
Lydians are skilled horsemen and Croesus believed 
that they would come off victorious on land. Where- 
upon Pittacus, or Bias, answered him, “ Well, you 
say that the Lydians, who live on the mainland, would 


1 ¢. 560-559 B.C. 
2 Herodotus (1. 27) says that the story was told of both men, 


5 Ilıirrakòs ġ deleted by Vogel. 
33 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


onevðew ånopaivy àaßeiv èm yis vnowdras 
ävõpas, roùs è vioov oikoûvras oùk olet leois 
eùgaobo Àaßeîy év Bañárry Avos, iv úrèp rôv 
kara Tiv Nmepov Tots “Edno: ovupdvrov rakôv 
karà méàayos åpúvwvraı ròv Toùs ovyyeveîs 
karaðeðovňwpévov; ó è Kpoîcos Bavudoas ròv 
Àóyov napayphpa perevóņoe kal tÌs vavmyyias 
dnéorn. 

26. “Or: ó Kpoîsos petrenéunmero èk tis ‘EÀ- 
Àdõos ToÙs èm oopiq mpwTevovrTas, êmÒewvýpevos 
Tò péyeðos Tis eùðapovias, Kat Toùs ééuuvoðvras 
Thv eùruyiav aùroô ériua peyáñais Õwpeaîs. per- 
enéwpþaro òè kal Zówva, dpolws òè kal rtôv 
ZAA Tv eml piňocohig peyiornv Šóéav èyóvrwv 
Tùv lòiav ebõarpoviav tà ris Toótrwv TÔv åvspôv 

2 paprupias emoppayikecbor Povàóuevos. map- 
eyevýðn õè pòs aùròv ’Avdyapois ó Xkúðns Kal 
Bias kal Zódwv kal Hirrakós, oùs eml tràs cord- 
cers Kal TÒ ovvéðpiov elyev év ueylory tiui, tóv te 
nmÀoûrTov aŭroîs emDerkvýuevos kal Tô uéyebos TÎS 

3 avroð? Õuvaoreias. mapà è roîs meraðevuévois 
TÎS Ppaxvàoyias TóTe nàovpévns, ó Kpoîsos èm- 
Serd pevos TIY ris Pacıdcias eùðaruoviav roîs 
dvðpdor kal TÒ nAÑbos TÕv Kexerpwpévwv èbvôv, 
ÅPÉTNEEv Aváxapow, Övra mpeoßúrepov rÔv oodi- 
orôrv, Tiva vopiber Trõv õvrwv dvòpeórtaTov. ó 
Sè rà dypwrara trÕv tøwv čpnoe: usva yàp mpo- 

4 Îúuws ànrobvýokew ómép rs édevbepias. ó Sè 
Kpoîtoos vopísas ýuaprykéva aùròv èv SÈ rô 
Sevrépw Tpos yápiv aùT® morýoeobar rÀv drékpiow 
Únoabwv hporyoe, riva Sıxaórartov rpivet tôv 

1 Cp. note 4 on p. 32. 
84 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 25. 2—26. 4 


be eager to catch islanders on the land ; but do you 
not suppose that those who live on the islands have 
prayed the gods that they may catch Lydians on the 
sea, in order that, in return for the evils which have 
befallen the Greeks on the mainland, they may 
avenge themselves at sea on the man who has 
enslaved their kinsmen ?” Croesus, in admiration of 
this reply, changed his purpose at once and stopped 
building the ships. 

26. Croesus used to send for the most distinguished 
wise men from Greece, to display to them the magni- 
tude of his felicity, and would honour with rich gifts 
those who lauded his good fortune. And he also 
sent for Solon as well as for such others as enjoyed 
the greatest fame for their love of wisdom, wishing 
to have the witness of these men set the seal of 
approval upon his own felicity. And there came to 
him Anacharsis the Scythian and Bias and Solon and 
Pittacus, to whom he showed the highest honour at 
banquets and at his council, and he displayed his 
wealth before them and the magnitude of his own 
power. Now in those days men of learning sought 
brevity of speech. And Croesus, after he had dis- 
played to the men the felicity of his kingdom and 
the multitude of the peoples subject to him, asked 
Anacharsis, who was older than the other men of 
wisdom, “ Whom do you consider to be the bravest 
of living beings?” He replied, “ The wildest animals ; 
for they alone willingly die in order to maintain their 
freedom.” And Croesus, believing that he had erred 
in his reply, and that a second time he would give an 
answer to please him, asked him, “ Whom do you 


Seea a a a O a 
3 éavroô suggested by Vogel: rovrov. 
3 òè added by Capps. 


335 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


övrwv. ó è mdv åmepaivero rà aypuótara TÕvV 
Onpiwv: uova yàp karà piow Eñv, où katà vópovs' 
elvai yàp Tiv pèv púow beot moinow, ròv Šè vópov 
dvôpanov Béow, kal Šixarórepov elvat xpioðat roîs 
5 roô leo ÑY roîs rv avðpónwv epńaciw. ó 8è 
Sraoĝpar Bovàdpevos `Avdyapow ùpóryoev el kal 
goporara tà Onpia. ó Sè ovykarabépevos ési- 
Saokev őri TÅv Tis púoews dàńberav TIS TOÔ vóuov 
Déoews* nmporiuâv iuórarov ónápyew colas. ó 
Sè rovrov kateyéiacev s èk tris Ekxvbias ral 
Pnprwdovs Seaywyĝs merowmuévov tås åmokpises. 
27. 'Hpóryoe è ròv Eódava riva tÂôv ővræv 
eùðaruoréoratov éðpakev, ðs Totó ye mávrws 
anoðolyoóuevov éaur®. To Šè einóvros ðs où- 
éva Sıxaiws äv enev yor Sià rò pyõevòs TÔv 
Övrav éwparévaı rò réàos roô Piov, oô xwpis 
oùðeis äv mpoonkóvrws uakápios vouíčorro" Toà- 
Àdkis yàp oi Tòv čunpoobev mdvra Biov eùðaiuoves 
ófavres elvari mpòs aùri rÅ toô Biov raraorpogi 
2 peyiotrais mepiénmecov ouupopaîs. ó Sè Paciieús, 
Oùõè màovowórarov dpa pe rpives; ëy. ral ó 
Lóàwv ryv aùr)v ånókpiow nomoápevos eðla- 
okev ©s où ToÙùs mÀeîora kekryuévovs, &ÀÀà Toùs 
mÀeiorou åfiav tvy dpóvnow ńyovuévovs vop- 
otéov mÀàovowwrdárouvs: ý Sè dpóvyois oùðevi r&v 
Awy dv-ipporos oĝoa udvovs moreè roùs aùrùv 
1 So Dindorf: ġúoews. 


36 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 26. 4—27. 2 


judge to be the most just of living beings?” And 
Anacharsis again answered, “ The wildest animals ; 
for they alone live in accordance with nature, not in 
accordance with laws ; since nature is a work of God, 
while law is an ordinance of man, and it is more just 
to follow the institutions of God tlian those of men.” 
Then Croesus, wishing to make Anacharsis appear 
ridiculous, inquired of him, “ And are the beasts, 
then, also the wisest ? ” And Anacharsis agreed that 
they were, adding this explanation : “ The peculiar 
characteristic of wisdom consists in showing a greater 
respect to the trutlı which nature imparts than to 
the ordinance of the law.” And Croesus laughed at 
him and the answers he had given, as those of one 
coming from Scythia and from a bestial manner of 
living. 

27. And Croesus asked Solon who of all living 
beings he had seen enjoyed the most felicitous life, 
thinking that Solon would by all means concede this 
distinction to him. But Solon replied, “ I cannot 
justly apply this term to anyone, since I have not 
seen the end of life of anyone still living ; for until 
that time no one may properly be considered to be 
blest. For it often happens that those who have been 
regarded before then as blest of Fortune all their 
lives have at the very close of their lives fallen upon 
the greatest misfortunes.” The king then said, ‘* Do 
you not judge me to be the wealthiest?” And Solon 
made the same reply, explaining that not those who 
have the greatest possessions, but those who consider 
wisdom to be the most valuable of all possessions, 
are to be regarded as the wealthiest ; and that wis- 
dom, seeing that there is nothing which can be 
balanced against it, confers upon those who value it 


37 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


mepi ToÀÀob morovpévovs péyiorov kal Befaiórarov 
éxew nmàobrTov. 

3 Hpoóryoe kai ròv Biavra, mórepov ôpłôs ror- 
cato Tùv àmókpiow ó Dóàwv Ņ ðýpaprev. ó &è 
únendv, 'Ophôs, čpy' trà yàp ëv cot Bovera 
Qewpýoas ayala čiayvôvai, vuvè Sè Tà mapd oot 
óvov éwparev: eÎvar Sè St èkeõva uâňov Ñ rara 
roùs åvðpænovs evðaípovas. ó ðè Bacıiňeús, ` AAX 
el rò TÕv ypnpárwv, čġnoe, màoûrov uÙ mpo- 
Tiuâs, TÖ ye nAhjlos rv piwv ópås rTosoôrTov 
úndpyov ősov oùðevi TÕv ğÀÀwv. ó òè kal roôrTov 
åmepývaTo Tòv aptðuòv dðņàov elvat Sià Tùv eù- 
TVXiav. 

4 Ipòs &è Iirrakòv eineîv paoi, Tolav édpakas 
apxùv kparioryv; rtòv è dnrokpiðivar, Thv roô 
moikiàov údov, ĝeaonuaivovra roùs vóuovs. 

28. "Orie Alownos karà roùs aùroùs ypóvovs 
ovvýkpače rtoîs énrà ooġoîs kal elmev os oùk 
olðaow orot ðpuàetv vvdory' kal yàp ðs ğkiora 
òeîv Ñ Os Hora ovufiodv roîs Toiwovrois. 

(Const. Exc. 4, pp. 287-289.) 

29. “Ore “Aðpacrós tıs PpùÉ ròv roô Baciàdws 
Kpoísov roô Avõiov viðr” "Aruv kadovpevor? mpòs 
kuvqyiav dkovoiws, efakovrisas katà avós, màńćas 
anékTtewe. kal ó èv kal dkovolws dvynpykòs oùk 
ëpnoev éavròv čr bv dérov elvar dò kal map- 
ekdàer Tòv Paciàéa uù) peicaobar, Tùy tayiornv Sè 

2 êmikaraopáéat T TOÔ Tereevrnkóros trádġw. ó 
Sè Kpoîoos rùv èv apyùv os àv èmì dõvæ rékvov 
ôe òpyñs elyce ròv "Aðpaorov, àmedâðv Câvra 


1 el ròv Mai: frrov. 2 viðv added by Valesius. 
3 "Aruv kaħoúpevov after ovós in the next line, MS. 


38 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 27. 2—29. 2 


highly, and upon them alone, a wealth which is the 
greatest and most secure. 

Croesus then asked Bias whether, in his opinion, 
Solon had answered correctly or had erred. And he 
replied, “ Correctly ; for he wishes to make his deci- 
sion after he has seen the possessions you have in 
yourself, whereas up to now he has seen only the 
possessions which lie about you; and it is through 
the former, not the latter, that men have felicity.” 
The king said, “ But even if you do not give first 
honour to wealth in gold, at least you see my friends, 
so great a multitude as no other man possesses.” 
But Bias answered, “ Even the number of friends is 
uncertain because of your good fortune.” 

And Croesus, we are told, asked Pittacus, ‘“ What 
is the best form of government you have seen ? ” 
And he replied, “ That of the painted wood,” re- 
ferring to the laws. 

28. Aesop flourished in the same period of time as 
the Seven Wise Men, and he remarked once, “ These 
men do not know how to act in the company of a 
ruler ; for a man should associate with rulers either 
as little as possible, or with the best grace possible.” 

29. Adrastus, a man of Phrygia, while out hunting 
with Atys, as he was called, the son of the Lydian 
king, Croesus, unwittingly struck and killed the boy 
while hurling his spear at a boar. And although he 
had slain the boy unwittingly, he declared that he 
did not deserve to live ; consequently he urged the 
king not to spare his life, but to slay him at once 
upon the tomb of the dead youth. Croesus at first 
was enraged at Adrastus for the murder, as he con- 
sidered it, of his son, and threatened to burn him 


1 So Vogel : émxatraoġdgew. 


39 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


[d 3 y b3 ? ` SEA [4 
karakaúgew: enel òè aùròv éwpa npobvpoúuevov 
y bd A m ~ 
KaL EiS TV TOÔ TETEÀEUTNKOTOS TiuY TÒ Cv èm- 
$. A A DN ~ 
òðóvra, TÒ Tyvekañra Àńéas ris opyĝs arméàvoe 
` + hi ? Z A ENEA 2 > > 
TÑS Tıpwpias Tòv dveóvra, T)v iðiav Túyqv, AÀA 
$i + 
où TÌùv èkelvov nmpoaipeow aitiouevos. ó ĝè 
x z 
Aŝpasros oùðèv rrov kar’ iðiav ènl ròv “Arvos 
+ w t ki t 
Táĥov mopevleis éavròv karéoßġačev. 
(Const. Exc. 2 (1), pp. 219-220.) 
kd e 2 ~ Ep 
30. “Ori ó Pdàapıs idav meprorepõv mlos ip’ 
es g ŝ + ” e n p yx 
évos iépakos ðrwkóuevov epn, ‘Opârte, © åvõpes, 
"~ ~ 3 e 
Tocoûro nlos ú$ évòs Sıwkóuevov ða SeAlav; 
+ 3 m 
eneiror ye el Toàuýaeav emorpéjai, pgðiws roô 
+ A 
Srvkovros äv nepryévowTo, (aùròs Õè nendacpévws 
y Di ` ` la > ~ b t 
EÀeyev: TÅv èv yàp viknv åperf) kal où moàvrànlig 
Eal t t “~ 
xepõv nmepiyiveohar.)}} ral èk Toúrov toô Àóyov 
? [A A m 
anéßade Tv ðvvaoreiav, os yéypantaı ev T mepi 
diaðoyhs Paoidéwv. 
31. "Ore Kpoîsos ènt Kôpov ròv Iléponv èx- 
Z 3 A ~ 
arpatreúwv enúbero roô pavreiov. Ò Õè ypPnouos, 
Kpoîoos “Aduv ĝiafas peydànv dpxiv karadúoeu. 
t b3 hi > t ~ E A bi e "A 
ò òè rò auhipodov roô ypnopot kara trùv éavroû 
mpoaipeoiw ekÕefduevos éDvorúynoev. 


“O tÀ ? r > À ` 1 e ` 
TL MAAV EMNPHTNOTEV, EL TOAVY xpoyvYov eet TV 
» 


vvaoreiav. elre è rà énn raôra, 
aAA? órav huilovos Baoidevs Mýðoroi yévyra, 


l ačròs è . . . mepiyivecla: transferred from end of chap. 28 
by Herwerden. 


40 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 29. 2—31. 2 


alive; but when he saw that Adrastus was ready 
and willing to give his life in punishment for the 
dead boy, he thereupon abandoned his anger and 
gave up his thought of punishing the slayer, laying 
the blame upon his own fortune and not upon the 
intent of Adrastus. Nevertheless Adrastus, on his 
own initiative, went to the tomb of Atys and slew 
himself upon it. 

30. Phalaris, seeing a multitude of doves being pur- 
sued by a single hawk, remarked, “ Do you observe, 
sirs, how fear will make so great a multitude flee 
before a single pursuer? And yet if they should 
summon the courage to turn about, they would easily 
overcome their pursuer.” (But it was Phalaris him- 
self who was falsifying ; for the victory was won by 
courage and not by superiority of numbers.)! And 
as a result of this speech Phalaris lost his dominion, 
as it is recorded in the section “ On the Succession 
of Kings.” 

31. When Croesus was taking the field? against 
Cyrus the Persian, he made inquiry of the oracle. 
And the answer ran : 


If Croesus crosses Halys, a mighty realm 
Will he destroy. 


He reccived and interpreted the ambiguous answer 
of the oracle in the light of his own purpose and so 
came to grief. 

Croesus inquired a second time whether he was to 
enjoy a rule of long duration. And the oracle spoke 
the following verses: 


The day a mule becomes the king of Medes, 


! Obviously a scholiast’s comment. 2 54T BC 
4l 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


kal róre, Avòė moðaßpé, moàvphoða Tap’ "Eppov 
hevyew unõè pévew unë aibeîolar kakòs eivai. 


“Ore huiovov ròv Kôpov pn Sa rò rv unrépa 
aùroî Mnåuehv elvai, ròv òè marépa' IMéponv. 

3 “Or Kôpos ô rv Hepoâv, Paides nmapayern- 
bels perà TóoNs Svvápews eis Tà ris, Kanrraĝo- 
kias ortevá, dnéorerÀe kýpvrkas mpòs ròv Kpoîsov 
Týv re Švuvacrelav aùroî karaockepopévovs ral 
ònàwocovras ôte Kõpos aùròv áhinot Tv mpõTepov 
àpaprnuárwv kal Avõðias kabiotyot carpáryv, 
äv mi Oúpas yevópevos óuoíws roîs äÀdois òuo- 
oyf cotos elvas. pòs oŬs ó Kpoĉsos ànerpibn, 
dóri mpooykóvrws äv Kôpos kal Hépoar Kpoiow 
Sovàevew bropeivarev: èkeivovs pèv yàp ròv Èu- 
mpoolev ypõvov Šiatereàekévar Mýðors ovdevovras, 
aùròy sè OÙÕÉTOTE TETONKÉVAL TÒ NpOOCTATTÕMEVOV 
úp érépov. (Const. Exc. 4, pp. 289-290.) 

32, "Ori Kpoîsos ð ò TÕv Avèðv Baoiàeds Tpos- 
moiodpevos eis Aeàpoùs TÉuTEW, ënmeunmev eis 
Iedoróvvnoov Eùpúßatov rov Egéciov, doùs aùr 
xpvoiov, õTwS ds mÀclorovs evooyhon rôv ‘EÀ- 
Àńvwv. ó è meupheis Tpòs Kõpov ròv Iépony 
ànoywphoas Tà kaTà pépos EhAwge. ðÒ kal 
Tapà rois “Eànow èmonuov yevopévns TIS mepi 
ròv Eùpúßarov movņpias, péxpi Toð võv, Tav Tis 
òveiðicar riv Boúànrar poyðnpiav, Eùpúßartov àro- 
kaàeî. (Const. Exc. 2 (1) p. 220.) 

33. “Or oi movnpol käv aùrika Tapà TÕV aðin- 
Oévraw Tv Tiuwpiav êkkàwvwow, ġ ye Pàacpnuia 
Òe alvos Tpovuévy kal Teìcurýoavras aùroùs 
kata TÒ Õuvaròv perépyerat. 


1 aùroô after narépa deleted by Herwerden. 
42 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 31. 2—33. 1 


Then, tender-footed Lydian, do thou flee 
Along the pebbly bed of Hermus, nor 
Abide, nor be ashamed a coward to be. 


By a“ mule ” Cyrus was meant, because his mother 
was a Mede and his father a Persian. 

Cyrus, the king of the Persians, appeared with all 
his host at the passes of Cappadocia and sent mes- 
sengers to Croesus both to spy out his power and to 
declare to him that Cyrus would forgive his previous 
misdeeds and appoint him satrap of Lydia, provided 
he presented himself at Cyrus’ court and acknow- 
ledged, as others did, that he was his slave. But 
Croesus answered the messengers that it would be 
more fitting if Cyrus and the Persians should sub- 
mit to be the slaves of Croesus, reminding them 
that theretofore they had been slaves of the Medes 
and that he had never yet taken orders from 
another. 

32. Croesus, the king of the Lydians, under the 
guise of sending to Delphi, dispatched Eurybatus 
of Ephesus to the Peloponnesus, having given him 
money with which to recruit as many mercenaries 
as he could from among the Greeks. But this agent 
of Croesus went over to Cyrus the Persian and re- 
vealed everything to him. Consequently the wicked- 
ness of Eurybatus became a by-word among the 
Greeks, and to this day whenever a man wishes to 
cast another’s knavery in his teeth he calls him a 
Eurybatus. 

83. Although evil men may avoid for the moment 
punishment at the hands of those whom they have 
wronged, yet the evil report of them is preserved 
for all time and punishes them so far as possible 
even after death. 


43 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


2 “Orn daoi ròv Kpoîoov mpò roô mpòs Kôpov 
[4 + AI 3 Ai ? + 
moàéuov népmjar ewpoùs eis Aeàpoùs èrepwrh- 
govras, nÕs äv ð viðs aŭro Šúvarro pwvùv mpo- 
+ A A + J - 
éohar. riv Sè Ivbiav eireîr, 


Avåè yévos, moðv Baoidet, péya výmie Kpoîoe, 
uù Boúov moàveverov làv karà ðwpar dkovew 
h] t ` t ~ LA 
maðos dheyyopévov. TÒ é oot modd Àwiov 
ugis 
x 3 fd A 3 y ~ > ld 
čupeva: aùbðhoe yàp év huar npõrtov dvóňßw. 
P "0 ð A A 2 r + ld A A 
3 ri Õe? Thv eùrvyiav perpiws pépew kai u) 
nenoibévar raîs åvôpwrivais eùrpaġiais èv mrpå 
porfi peydàas peraßoààs Aappavovoais. 
v hJ A 2 ? 7 A Ea 
4 "Ori uera rò yevéobar aiyuáiwrov ròv Kpoîcov 
A 4 A la ? A A ld 
kal tùy mupav oßeobñvar, dov rv mów ðraprağo- 
pévyy kal npòs rTtoîs &Àdois moàùv äpyvpóv TE 
kal xpvoòy Sradopovpevov, emnpornaoe ròv Kôpov, 
Ti moroðow oi OTpariÕTat. TOÔ ðè perà yéiwros 
anokpiðévros? Tà oà xpýuara ðiapráģčovoi, Mà 
Aia pèv oŭv, elrmev, dààa trà od' Kpoisov yàp 
1o ? r bè € L e De K 0 + 
iov oùkéri oùbèv úrdpyer. ó ðè Kôpos Îavudoas 
ròv Àsyov eùlùs uerevóņnoe kal ToÙS OTpaTuóTaS 
Ed + m~ „ kd hi À N >? lA 
dveiptas rs Šaprayñis eis rò Baoidkòv dvéàaße 
tàs rÕv Dapõiavðv krTýoes. 
(Const. Exc. 4, pp. 290-291.) 
34. "Ori Kôpos eùoeßĝ vouisas eîvar ròv Kpoîoov 
ôià Tò karappayfjvaı òußpov kal oféoat rhv pàóya, 


1 So Dindorf: nepwrioa. 
2? s after drokpiðévros deleted by Wurm. 


44 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK EIX. 33. 2—34. ł 


We are told that Croesus, on the eve of his war 
with Cyrus, dispatched ambassadors to Delphi to 
inquire by what means it would be possible for his 
son! to speak; and that the Pythian priestess replied : 


O thou of Lydian stock, o'er many king, 
Thou great fool Croesus, never wish to hear 
Within thy halls the much-desired sound 
Of thy son speaking. Better far for thee 
That he remain apart ; for the first words 
He speaks shall be upon a luckless day.’ 


A man should bear good fortune with moderation 
and not put his trust in the successes such as fall to 
human beings, since they can take a great shift with 
a slight turn of the scale. 

After Croesus had been taken prisoner and the 
pyre ? had been quenched, when he observed that 
the city was being plundered and that much silver 
and gold, besides everything else, were being carried 
off, he asked Cyrus, “ What are the soldiers doing ? ”? 
Cyrus laughingly replied, “ They are making plunder 
of your wealth ”; whereupon Croesus said, “ Not 
so, by Zeus, but of yours ; for Croesus has no longer 
a thing of his own.” And Cyrus, impressed by his 
words, at once changed his purpose, and putting a 
stop to the plundering of the soldiers he took the 
possessions of the inhabitants of Sardis for the Royal 
Treasury. 

34. Cyrus, believing Croesus to be a pious man 
because a rainstorm had burst forth and quenched 

1 He was dumb from birth. 

2 Herodotus (1. 85) recounts that the boy first spoke on 
the day the Persians took Sardis 


3 Which had been prepared for his burning. See above, 
chap. 2. 


45 


DIODORUS OFr SICILY 


Kal cà pvýuns čxwv rův Xoňwvos àrókpiow, ue 
éavroô mepiýyero ròv Kpotoov êvripws. peréðwre 
Sè aùTÔ kal roô ovveõpiov, Sıañaupdvæv rdpyew 
guveróv, Ós äv modÀoîs ral memaÑevuévois kal 
coġoîs dvðpdor ovupeßrwróra. 

(Const. Exe. 2 (1), p. 220.) 

35. "Or: "Aprayos karaorabeis únrò Kúpov roô 
Ilépoov emt rhs Oaàdrrys orparnyós, kal TÔv karà 
Thv `Aciav ‘EMývov mpòs Kôpov siarpecßevo- 
uévwv ovvôéoðar ıàiav, elme mpòs aùroùs ör 
mapaniýoðv Te moodo TÖV TpórTepov éavr® ovp- 

2 Bávrwv. kai ydp more yuat Bovàópevov aireî- 
abar mapà roô marpòs rv rópnv: ròv è rò pèv 
npõrov oùk dérov kpivavra To yápov uvaTrwrTépw 
kareyyvijoat, perà òè rað’ ópõvra aùròv úrò roô 
Baoidéws tiuwpevov Sióvar rv Ovyarépa’ aùròv 
òè årokrpiðivar Õiórı yvvaîka uèv oŭkérı äv ëyot 

3 aùrýv, madaria Sè ovyywphoa? Aaßetv. Sià Sè 
Ttv rorovrwv Àóywv éòyàov roîs "Ednow őri 
Kúpou npórepov droðvros yevéoðar Tepoðv plovs 
oùk eßovàńðnoav, võv è èk perafodñs ereivwv 
anevõóvrwv ovvdijat hiÀlav ws èv mpòs ovuud- 
xovs où momoerat Tas opodoyias, ws è oúovs 
eis Thv rôv I[lepoðv mior éavroùs mapaðıðóvras 
mpocdéterar. 

36. "Orti Aareôaóvior muvÂavóuevor Toùs karà 
tv `Aciav “EMnyvas riwõuveðew, ënreppav mpòs 
Kôpov, öre Aareðayóviot avyyeveis ðvres rv 
karà tùv `Aciav ‘EMývov drmayopeðovow aùrô 


1 So Herwerden : mepiĝye. 2 So Dindorf: avyywphoa. 


1 Probably the one to the effect that no man could 
46 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 34. 1—-36. 1 


the flame, and calling to mind the reply of Solon, 
kept Croesus at his side in a position of honour. He 
gave him a place also in his council, believing him 
to be a person of sagacity by reason of his having 
associated with many men of learning and wisdom. 

35. Harpagus had been appointed commander on 
the sea by Cyrus the Persian, and when the Greeks 
of Asia sent an embassy to Cyrus? for the purpose of 
making a treaty of friendship with him, Harpagus 
remarked to them that what they were doing was 
very much like a former experience of his own. Once 
when he wished to marry he had asked a girl’s father 
for the hand of his daughter. At first, however, her 
father decided that he was not worthy to marry his 
daugliter and betrothed her to a man of higher posi- 
tion, but later, observing that Harpagus was being 
honoured by the king, he offered him his daughter ; 
but he replied that he would no longer have her as 
his wife, but would consent to take her as a concubine. 
By such words he pointed out to the Greeks that 
formerly, when Cyrus had urged them to become 
friends of the Persians, they had been unwilling, but 
now, after matters had taken a different turn and 
they were anxious to agree upon relations of friend- 
ship, Cyrus would make no terms with them as with 
allies, but he would receive them as slaves if they 
would throw themselves upon the good-faith of the 
Persians. 

36. When the Lacedaemonians learned that the 
Greeks of Asia were in peril, they sent a message to 
Cyrus? stating that the Lacedaemonians, being kins- 
men of the Greeks of Asia, forbade him to enslave 


be called blest before the end of his life (cp. chaps. 2. 2; 
27. 1). 3 545 B.C 
47 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


karaðovàoðolar ràs ‘EMnviðas móàeis. ó Sè lavud- 
aas Tv Àóyov K yvwoeobat thv dper)v aùrôv, 
orav éva rÕv éavroð õoviwv méin karaorpepó- 
pevov tùy ‘EdMdòa. l 
2 "Orn Aareðaróviot rv '`Apraĝiav péàdovres 
karaorpépew čaßov xpnonóv, 
Ap p aireîs; uéya p alreîs' où ror 8óow. 
To Aol êv 'Apraðig Pañavnpdyor åvõpes acw, 
ol o° àmokwàóoovow: yù Òé rot oŬri peyaipw. 
Sdow coi Teyéav moooikporov ôpxýoaoðar 
kal kaàòv meðiov oyoivw Siaperphoaobar. 


v e 
3 "Or ot Aareðaruóvior čmempav els Aeàpoùs mepi 
A kJ KÀ ? Lg A 
TÂv doréwv Opéorov roô *`Ayapéuvovos, èv moiw 
$ 4 
Twi tónw Kevrat. kal EXpPNoev oŬTWS, 


čom Tis ’Apraðias Teyén Àcup®* èvì yópw, 
év veot nvelovor úw kparephjs n avádyrns 
kal TóTos avriruros kal mip èm mhuarti kerar. 
évê’ `Ayapepvoviðny karéyet pvoitoos ala' 

Tòv où kopoodpevos Teyéns êmráppobos čooy. 


ñv ôè xaàreîov, kal nào? ras púoas, rúrov è ròv 
űkpová hyo Kal ràs apúpas, mīpa Sè èri muari 
Tòv oiðnpov emi obýpw' nipa yàp cipnrar Sià rò 
emi kak Tv dvôpønwv edpiobar. 

4 Kpeîrrov yàp elvat reàeurâv Ñġ Côvras éavroùs 


1 So Mai (ep. Herod. 1. 67): Sepo. 


1 e. 560 B.C. 

; The translation has been expanded, for the Greek is 
elliptic. The oracle and a detailed explanation of it are 
given in Herodotus (1. 67-68). 


48 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 36. 144 


the Greek cities. And Cyrus, marvelling at such 
words, remarked that he would judge of their valour 
when he should send one of his own slaves to subdue 
Greece. 

When the Lacedaemonians were setting out to 
conquer Arcadia,! they received the following oracle : 


Arcadia dost thou demand of me ? 

A high demand, nor will I give it thee. 

For many warriors, acorn-eaters all, 

Dwell in Arcadia, and they will ward 

Thee off. Yet for my part I grudge thee not. 
Tegea’s land, smitten with tripping feet, 

I’ll give to thee, wherein to dance and plot 
The fertile plain with measuring-line for tilth. 


The Lacedaemonians sent to Delphi to inquire in 
what place the bones of Orestes, the son of Agamem- 
non, were buried. And the oracle replied in this 
wise : 


A certain Tegea there is of Arcady 

In a smooth and level plain, where two winds blow 
Before a stern necessity, to stroke 

Comes answering stroke, and bane is heaped on bane. 
There the life-giving earth holds fast the son 

Of Agamemnon ; bring thou him thence and then 
The overlord of Tegea thou shalt be. 


It was a smithy that was referred to, and the oracle 
means by the two winds the bellows, signifying by 
“ stroke ” the anvil and the hammers, and by “ bane 
heaped on bane,” the iron upon iron; for iron is 
called a “ bane ” because the discovery of it has 
worked to the hurt of mankind. 

It is better to die, than to live and witness your- 


49 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


perà rv ovyyevðv èġopâv dia Îavárov mpár- 
TOVTAS. 

37. "Ori kavņpopovons norè ris Ovyarpòs Ierc- 
orparov kal ğokovons TÔ kde Õrapépew, mpoo- 
elv ris rÕv veaviokrwv karameppovnkàs èhiànoe 
Tùv naplévov. droúsavres Šè oi Ts kópns dðeàġol 
Bapéws Ñveyrav ùv Ùßpw, kai ròv veaviokov åya- 
yóvres mpòs Tòv marépa ikv NEiovv Šðóvar: ó è 
Ileciorparos yeàdoas, Kal ri roù pooîvras 
Hpâs, é$, Toýowpev, év Toùs hiàoðvras Tiuw- 
pius nepßáàwpev; 

2 "Or: ó aùròs craropevópevós nore Ši TÄS xópas 
rarevóņoev ävðpwrov karà ròv “Yunrrov èpyačd- 
pevov êv ywpiois Àenroîs raf’ úneppoàjv ral 
tpaxéci. Îavuáoas Sè rhv fpidepyiav émepuje Toùs 
épwTýcovras, Ti \außávoi Toraúryv yópav épyaťčé- 

3 pevos, Õv momodvraw TÒ npooraylév, ó èpyárns 
ëdnoe Àappdvew èk To xwpiov rkakàs óðúvas, 
dÀN oùlèv aùr® pée: Tovraw yàp Tò i% pépos 
Ieciorpáry ŠDóvar. ó è vvdorņs åkovoas 
Tòv Àóyov ral yeàdoas ènoinoe TÒ ywpiov åTeÀés, 
Kal évreðlev ) napola, Kal opdáredot morobow 
dréàciav. (Const. Exc. 4, pp. 291-293.) 


1 y (ŝéxarov) added by Nauck; ep. Arist, °A0. ILoà. 16. 6; 
Suidas, 8.v. aofdreàor. 


50 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK IX. 36. 4—37. 3 


self and your kinsmen meeting misfortune as bad as 
death. 

37. Once when the daughter of Peisistratus was 
carrying the sacred basket in procession! and she 
was thought to excel all others in beauty, a young 
man stepped up and with a superior air kissed the 
maiden. The girl’s brothers, on learning what had 
been done, were incensed at the youth’s insolence, 
and leading him to their father they demanded that 
he be punished. But Peisistratus laughingly said, 
“ What shall we do then to those who hate us, if 
we heap punishments on those who love? us ? ” 

Once when Peisistratus was journeying through 
the country he saw a man on the slopes of Hymettus 
working in a field where the soil was exceedingly 
thin and stony. And wondering at the man’s zeal 
for the work, he sent some of his company to inquire 
of him what return he got from working ground like 
that. And when the men had carried out the com- 
mand, the farmer replied that he got from the field 
only grievous pains ; but he did not care, since he 
gave the tenth part of them to Peisistratus. And 
the ruler, on hearing the reply, laughed, and made 
the field exempt from taxation, whence arose the 
proverb, Even spasms ° give tax-exemption, 


1 In the Panathenaic festival and procession. 

2 dàcîv has the two meanings of “love ” and “ kiss.” 

3 According to Suidas, the man had replied that he got 
from the land “ pains and spasms.” 


51 


FRAGMENTA LIBRI X 


1. Ort Lepovios Túdos Tapruviov émbepévov 
mapayevnlels eis rò Bovàevrýpiov, kal leacdpevos 
Tv kab’ éavrot nmapackevýv, ToooðTov uóvov elre, 
Tis ġ réa, Taprúve; ó ðè óroaßædv, ‘H uèv 
ov oý, poi, Tis, ôs Õovàérðovàos ðv “Pwpaiwr 
Bacideúeiw èróàunoas kal rs ToÔ martpòs ýye- 
uovias ġuîv mpoonkoúons mapavópws aßeiňov TÙv 
oùðè ka? éva oot tpórov èmßaňàovoav &pxńv; 
Tara Àéywv dua nmpocéðpaue kal Õpaéduevos Tis 
roô Tulov yerpòs ëppujev aùròv kara ris rpn- 
nios. kal ıeavaoràs kal ywàevwv ĉia TÒ mTÕpA 
èneyeipnoe duyeiv, anektávôy õé. 

(Const. Exc. 4, p. 293.) 

2. “Ori Bepovios Tóàos å ‘Pwpaiwv Bacideùs 
¿Baclàevoev éT) Terrapdrkovra TéTTapa, Ùtà TS 
llas aperĝs karwplwros oùk àiya rv kowðv. 

3. "Ori êr àpxovros `Abúvyoi Onpiràéovs karà 
Ttův éčņnkoorův npwriv '`Oàvumiáða IlvÂayópas ó 
piàdoopos èyvwpibero, npokekropws hòn év maðeig 
yéyove yàp ioropias äÉios, el kai Tis éTepos TÖV 


1 Tarquinius Superbus; cep. Livy, 1. 47 f.; Dionysius Hal. 
4. 38. The traditional date in 535 B.C. 

2 According to the account of Dionysius, these were the 
steps of the Senate chamber which led down into the Forum., 


52 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X 


1. Servius Tullius, on the occasion of the uprising of 
Tarquinius, came into the Senate, and when he saw 
the extent of the intrigue against him, he did no 
more than to say, “ What presumption, O Tarquinius, 
is this?” Tarquinius replied, “ Nay, what presump- 
tion is yours, who, though slave and son of a slave, 
have presumed to rule as king over the Romans, and 
who, although the leadership my father had belongs 
to me, have illegally taken from me the rule to which 
you in no single respect have a claim ? ” With these 
words he rushed at Tullius, and seizing him by the 
arm he hurled him down the steps.* Tullius picked 
himself up and, limping from the fall, endeavoured 
to flee, but was put to death. 

2. Servius Tullius, the king of the Romans, en- 
joyed a rule of forty-four years, successfully estab- 
lishing not a few institutions in the commonwealth 
by virtue of his own high character. 

3. When Thericles was archon in Athens in the 
Sixty-first Olympiad, Pythagoras, the philosopher, 5 
was generally recognized,t having already far ad- 
vanced in learning ; for if there is any man of those 
who have cultivated learning deserving of a place 


2 578-535 B.C. 

4 èyvwpiġero is commonly used by the chronographers as 
the equivalent of floruit, indicating roughly a person's 
middle age, 


53 


By 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


pi + Lg LA p3 ? ` 
mepi mabeiav Õiatpubdvraw. yéyove è Zduios Tò 

2 yévos: oi òé paow ÒTt Tvppnvós. Tocat è ñv 
ev roîs avroð Àóyois Tebow Ka XÁPpiS, ÖS Kal TS 
nódcws oyeðov dàns er aùròv émortpepovons kab’ 
huépav wonrepel mpõs Tiwos Îeoô mapovolav drav- 

3 Tas cvvrpéyewv eml Tùv dkpõacw. où uóvov ðè 
mepi Tv èv TÔ Àéyew Súvauıw èpaivero péyas, 
> A N A 3 F D t 
dAd kal puyxis èvépawev los kaTeoTaàuévov Kal 
Tpos uiunow Ríov aúgpovos Toîs véois favpaoròv 
åpxérvrov. KaL TOÙS _Evtvyyávovrtas dméTperev 
dano tis movreàcias kal tpupis, åmávræv ĝid Tv 
eùroplav &véðņv èkrkeyvuévwv eis dveow ral ĝia- 
plbopàv dyevvi TOÔ owuaTos kal Tis puyi. 

g ld lg Ld * 3 

1 Or: IHovlayópas mvlópevos Deperóðny Tòv èm- 
aTáTNy aùroĝ yeyevypévov èv AA voseîy kal Te- 
Aéws eoyárws ëxew, émÀevoev ék Tis  Iraàías ets 
Tùy Aĥdov. eke? õè ypõvov ikavòv Tov dvòpa ynpo- 
tpopýcas, mâcav eionvéykaro amovðův wote TÒV 
npeoĝpúryv èk rĝs vóôcov iacat. katioyvlévros 
Sè A ® HN ô h] A y ò ` ki z 8 
è roô Deperúðov Sià? ypas kal ð rò uéyebos 
tis vóoov, mepiéorteràev aùrTòv KNÕeuovikÂs, Kal 
TtÕv voptbouévav dčwoas woavel tis viòðs matTépa 

IÀ EJ FAO 3 3 4 >I Ai 
nav enavhàber’ cis riv ’Iraàiav. 

8 “Ori êneðav twes rv ovvýbwv èk TÎS, oùoias 
èknéooev, Siy poôvro Tà xpýLaTa aóra‘ ds Tpos 
dðeàhoús. où póvov òè Tpòs Toùs kab?’ huépav 
avufioðvras TÔv yvwpipwv Toravryv elxov TÀ 
drdheow, dÀàdà kabóňov mpòs mávras roùs rÕv 

[g ’ 
mpayuáruw TOUTWV ETACXYÖVTAS. 


1 rs added by Herwerden. 
2 7ò added after ĉa by Valesius, Vogel. 
2 êmavñĵàbev Valesius : éraveñbeîv. 


54 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 3. 1-5 


in history, it is he. By birth he was a Samian, 
though some men say that he was a Tyrrhenian.! 
And there was such persuasion and charm in his 
words that every day almost the entire city turned 
to him, as to a god present among them, and all men 
ran in crowds to hear him. Not only in eloquence 
of speech did he show himself great, but he also dis- 
played a character of soul which was temperate and 
constituted a marvellous model of a life of modesty 
for the youth to emulate. Whoever associated with 
him he converted from their ways of extravagance 
and luxury, whereas all men, because of their wealth, 
were giving themselves over without restraint to in- 
dulgence and an ignoble dissipation of body and soul. 

Pythagoras, learning that his old teacher Phere- 
cydes lay ill in Delos and was at the point of death, 
set sail from Italy to Delos. There he took care of 
the old man for a considerable time and made every 
effort to bring the aged man safely through his 
malady. And when Pherecydes was overcome by 
his advanced years and the severity of the disease, 
Pythagoras made every provision for his burial, and 
after performing the accustomed rites for him, as a 
son would for his father, he returned to Italy. 

Whenever any of the companions of Pythagoras 
lost their fortune, the rest would divide their own 
possessions with them as with brothers. Such a dis- 
position of their property they made, not only with 
their acquaintances who passed their daily lives with 
them, but also, speaking generally, with all who 
shared in their projects. 


2 Etruscan. 


4 aðrôv Dindorf, Bekker, Büttner-Wobst: aùrôv MSS., 
Vogel, 


55 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


4. “Ore Kàewias, Tapavrivos rò yévos, els òè 
TÕv ék ToÔ npoepnuévov ovorpaTtos œv, mvld- 
pevos Ilpôpov Tòv Kvpyvaîov id Tiva TONTUKÙY 
nepiotaow ånoàwÀekóra TÀ oùcíav kal Teňéws 
ånopoúpevov, efeðńunoev é £r TiS 'Tradías eis Kv- 
pývnv perà xPuáTwv ikavõv kal Tův oùoiav 
ånokatéornoe TÔ mpoepnuévo, oùðérorTe Toĝrov 
éwpakós, dkovwv è põvov tı Ivbayóperos ġv. 

2 kal AAÀoL ÒÈ ToÀÀol Tò maparàýorov menokóres 
Srapvnuovedovrar. où póvov sè év T TÕv xph- 
párwv emôóoe Torovrovs aúroùs mapeiyovrTo ToîsS 
yvwpiuois, &GÀÀd kal kaTa Toùs EmiopaÀeoTaTovs 

3 karpoùs ovvekivðúvevov. kal yap Aiovvciov Tupav- 
vovros Ďwrias nis IvÂayóperos émpeßovàevròs 
TÔ Tupdvvw, pé è TS Tiuwpias Tvyyávew, 
üTýoaTo mapà To Aiovvoiou ypóvov eis TÒ mepi 
TÕv Wbiwv npórepov å Boúerai Sioichoar Swosew 
Ò ëpnoev èyyunriv roô Bavarov Tv piw éva. 

4 roô è vvdorov Îavudoavros, el ToroÛrós orti 
hiàos ôs éavròv eis rův eipkriv ávr ėreivov 
nmapaðwoet, mpocekaàéoaró twa tv yvwpipww 
ò Dwrias, Adpwva õvoua, Iuvbayóperov iàd- 
goġov, ôs oùôè dıoraoas čyyvos eùlùs éyevýðnņ roô 
avárov. 

5 Tivès uèv oy èmývovv TÀv úmeppodiy Tis mpòs 
Toùs piñovs eùvolas, Twès òè ToÔ èyyúov 7po- 
néreav kal poviav kaqeyivworov. mpòs È TÅV 
TETaypérY &pav äras ô , SñuoS avvéðpaev, kapa- 

6 õokðv el pvàdéet Thv niorw ó karaorýoas. %òn 
òè ris pas ovykàeoúons mávres uèv dreyivw~ 

1 So MSS., Büttner-Wobst : mpoexkaàésaro Valesius, Din- 
dorf, Vogel. 

56 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 4. 1-6 


4, Cleinias of Tarentum, who was a member of the 
order ?! of which we have spoken, learning that Prorus 
of Cyrenê had lost his fortune because of a political 
upheaval and was completely impoverished, went over 
from Italy to Cyrenê with sufficient funds and restored 
to Prorus his fortune, although he had never seen 
the man before and knew no more of him than that 
he was a Pythagorean. Of many others also it is 
recorded that they have done something of this kind. 
And it was not only in the giving away of money that 
they showed themselves so devoted to their friends, 
but they also shared each other’s dangers on occasions 
of greatest peril. So, for example, while Dionysius 
was tyrant ? and a certain Phintias, a Pythagorean, 
who had formed a plot against the tyrant, was about 
to suffer the penalty for it, he asked Dionysius for 
time in which to make such disposition as he wished 
of his private affairs ; and he said that he would give 
one of his friends as surety for his death. And when 
the ruler expressed his wonder whether such a friend 
was to be found as would take his place in prison, 
Phintias called upon one of his acquaintances, a 
Pythagorean philosopher named Damon, who with- 
out hesitation came forward at once as surety for his 
death. 

Now there were some who expressed approval of 
so great a love for one’s friends, whereas some charged 
the surety with rashness and folly. And at the ap- 
pointed hour all the people ran together, anxious to 
learn whether the man who had provided a surety 
for himself would keep faith. When tke hour. drew 
close and all were giving up hope, Phintias unex- 


2 The Pythagoreans. 
2 The Elder, in Syracuse, 405-367 B.C. 


57 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


okov, ò è Divrias daveàmiorws èni ths èoyárns 
To ypóvov poris Spouaios Abe, To Adpwvos 
drayouévou mpòs Tův avádykyv. bOavuaoris ôè 
Tis hiàias paveions drnacw, anéàvoev ò Aiovýcios 
TS Tıuwplas rÒv eykañoúuevov, kal mapekdÀece 
roùs võpas rTpirov éavròv eis rv fiàlav mpoo- 
àaßéoba. 

5. “Ori oi Ivbayóperor kai ris pvýuņs peyiorņv 
yvuvaciav èmoroñvro, ToroÔróv Twa TpÓTOV TÌS 
LeàéTys Únoorņnodpevor. où mpórtepov èk Ts eùvis 
Ņyeipovro npiv äv npòs éavroùs dvłwpooyosavrto 
Tà kaTà TÀ Tporépav ńpépav aùðroîs npayhévra, 
Tùv dpxyùv anò trs nmpwlas, Thv Ôè reàeuriv ws 
éonépas moroúuevoi. el È’ àvaorpophv čyorev kal 
mÀelova oyoàdv dyorev, kal Tà tpiry kat Terdpry 
Kal raîs éri mpótepov huépais npaybévra mposav- 
eàdußavov. roĝro npòs èmorjuyy kal póvnow 
enerhòcvor? ndávraw èpnepiav Te TOÔ Ôúvaoha 
ToàÀà uvypovevew. 

2 "Orn èroiwñvro kal ris èykpareias yvpvaciav 
Tóve TOV TpPÓTOV. TAPAOKEVAOÁMEVOL NÓVTA TÀ 
karà tàs Àaunrpordras éotidoses napaTtıibépeva 
noàùv aùroîs evéßàerov ypóvov: celra ða ris Béas 
tàs Tis púoews emÂvuias mpòs Tùv åróàavow èk- 
kaàeoduevor ràs Tpanéķas ékéàevov atpeww Toùs 


1 zà added by Dindorf. 2 So Post: čr ôè râv. 


1 The story of the friendship between Damon and Phintias 
(Pythias is incorrect) was widely known in the ancient world, 
and in many forms. Diodorus and Cicero, De Of. 3. 45; 
Tusc. Disp. 5. 22 (quoting the tyrant: “* Utinam ego tertius 
vobis adscriberer ! ”°} give the oldest version, the latter clearly 


58 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 4. 6—5. 2 


pectedly arrived on the run at the last moment, 
just as Damon was being led off to his fate. Such 
a friendship was in the eyes of all men a thing of 
wonder, and Dionysius remitted the punishment of 
the condemned man, urging the two men to include 
himself as a third in their friendship.? 

ő. The Pythagoreans also insisted upon a very 
great exercise of the memory, setting up the follow- 
ing way of giving it practice. They would not arise 
from their beds until they had frankly disclosed to 
one another everything they had done the day before, 
beginning with early dawn and closing with the even- 
ing. And if they had the time and more leisure than 
usual, they would add to their account what they 
had done on the third day past, the fourth, and 
even earlier days. This practice they followed to 
gain knowledge and judgement in all matters and 
experience in the ability to call many things to 
mind. 

The Pythagoreans trained themselves in the exer- 
cise of self-control in the following manner. They 
would have prepared for them everything which is 
served up at the most brilliant banquets, and would 
gaze upon it for a considerable time ; then, after 
through mere gazing they had aroused their natural 
desires with a view to their gratification, they would 
command the slaves to clear away the tables and 
connecting the event with the Elder Dionysius. The fullest 
account we possess, as given by Iamblichus ( Vita Pythag. 
233) on the authority, as he claims, of Aristoxenus, who is 
described as receiving the tale directly from the mouth of 
the tyrant himself at Corinth, makes the occasion of the 
event a scheme of the court of the Younger Dionysius to put 
the Pythagorean reputation of friendship to the test. The 


account by Hyginus (Fab. 257) was the source of Schiller’s 
famous Ballade, “ Die Burgschaft.” 
59 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


naîðas, kal mapaypipa čyevoroi T&v maparebév- 
rwv èywpitovro. (Const. Exc. 2 (1), pp. 220-223.) 

6. "Ori ó Ilvbayópas pereppúóywow ¿ðótaķe kal 
kpeodayiav œs drorpórarov WyeTo, mAvTwv TV 
tww ràs puyàs perà Odvarov eis EéTepa õa Àéyaw 
eicépyeoĵðai. rai aùròs ðè éavrov čpackev ènmi 
rv Tpwikôv ypõvæav pepviobai yeyevnuévov Ev- 
$opßov ròv IldvÂov pèv vióv, àvarpebévra è órò 
Meveàdov. 

2 “Or daciv aùròv év “Apyet notè mapemiðnuý- 
cavra kai Îeaodpevov rÔv Tpwixôv orúàwv doria 
npooyàwpévyy Šakpúeiw. êpwrnlévra è únrò r®v 
’Apyeiwv Tùy toô nmalovs airiav einetv ôti Tùv 
doniða raúrny elyev aùròs ev Tpoig yeyovæs Eù- 

3 ġopßos. armiorws òè ciarepévwv Kai paviav aùroĝ 
karayvworkóvrwv, onpeñov pety! čpnoev aànbès 
To rah oğrws ëye k ToÔ yàp evròs uépovs 
emiyeypádlar rův doria ypáppacıv ápxaíois 
EYPOPBOY. rmdvrwv õè ða Tò mapdõofov eiróv- 
Twv rabeàceiv aùrhv, èvros? ouvéßn tiv èmeypadhv 
evpelivar. 

4 "Or Kadipayos elre mepi Ilubayópov ĝiórti Tv 
ev yewperpig npoßàypdrwv Tà uèv eôpe, Tà Õè ék 
ris Alyúrrov mpõros eis Toùs “Edànvas hveyrev, 
ev ols Àéyet ört 

etebpe Dpòé Ečpopßos, oris ávôðpæros 
tTpiywva kal okaàņvà kal rýràov énta- 
1 So Dindorf: eúpeîv. 


3 aùrýv, évróòs Wurm: riy eikóva. 


60 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 5. 2—6. 4 


would at once depart without having tasted of what 
had been served. 

6. Pythagoras believed in the transmigration of 
souls and considered the eating of flesh as an abomin- 
able thing, saying that the souls of all living creatures 
pass after death into other living creatures. And as 
for himself, he used to declare that he remembered 
having been in Trojan times Euphorbus, the son of 
Panthus, who was slain by Menelaüs.? 

We are told that once, when Pythagoras was 
sojourning in Argos, he saw a shield from the spoils 
of Troy fastened by nails to the wall and wept. And 
when the Argives inquired of him the cause of his 
grief, he replied that he himself had carried this 
shield in the land of Troy when he was Euphorbus. 
And when all were incredulous and judged him to 
be mad, he replied that he would give them convin- 
cing evidence that what he had said was so ; for on 
the inner side of the shield there had been inscribed 


in ancient characters “ of Euphorbus.?” At this 


surprising answer all said to take down the shield, 
and on the inner side in fact was found the in- 
scription. 

Callimachus once said about Pythagoras that of 
the problems of geometry some he discovered and 
certain others he was the first to introduce from 
Egypt to the Greeks, in the passage where he 
writes’: 

This Phrygian Euphorbus ë first for men 

Found out, who taught abeut triangle shapes 


1 Cp. Iliad, 17. 1 f. 

2 Jambi, 124 f. 

3 A name given to Pythagoras because he claimed to be 
reincarnation of Euphorbus (cp. the preceding paragraph). 


6I 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


4 Q E 7 
Lúky Šiðaće vyorevew 
A ? ld e ANLI 709 e 7 

TÕv épnveóvrwv' oi TÒ oùò únýkovoav 

mavtes.? 

7. “Ori naperdàei Thv MróTnTa gnàoûv' TV yàp 
noàuréàciav dpa Tás TE ovalas Tv dvhpænwv ða- 
pheipew kai Tà oópara. Ttv yàp vóowv tv 
nÀeiorav eE œpöryros yiwopévaw, aÙTV TAÚTNV 
ek ris noàuredeias yivecĝat. moddoùs ðè čnegev 
ånúpois oriois xpiolar kal Wporoolais ndvra tTòv 
Piov verev toô rayala’ Onpõâcla TÀ KATÀ aàj- 
berav. rÕv ðè kab’ pâs et mis Únayopeðoerev ù 
évòs Ņ vetv dnéyeobari TÕv Hõéwv elvai okoúvvrwv 
3 292 37 e 1 3 + 3 Ag A Ir 
èr oàiyas uépas, aneinawr är thv hiàooogiav, 
phoavrtes eùnbes úndpxew råpavèės dyaßòv čnreîv 
agdévra tò pavepõv. käv pèv ðén Önpokoneiv ù 

1 The original lines of Callimachus have now been re- 
covered from a papyrus (Ogyrhynchus Papyri 1011, ed. by 
A. S. Hunt), and are restored and translated as follows in the 
edition of Mair in the L.0.Db.: 

toùċeðp ó pit Eðdopßlos], čorıs åvðprmwv 

tpliy]wva xai ak[aàņva] nmpõros čypla]e 

Kal kúkàov én[rapýke, NÈ vyorevew 

Tv epnved[vr]wv eļirev of & mýkovoeav 

où mavres, GAA? oŬs elyev [oŬŭrepos Saipww. 

(©... which the Phrygian Euphorbus discovered: who 
first of men drew triangles and scalenes and the seven-length 
circle and who bade men abstain from eating living things : 
and hbis teaching was hearkened to, not by all but by some 
misguided men.”) Diodorus’ Greek is clearly defective and 
had been variously emended before the discovery of the 


papyrus fragment. Schneider (Frag. 83 a) reconstructed 
the lines as follows : 

â Eepe Dpòé Eŭpoppos, oris dvðpænrovs 

Tpiywvåd Te okaàņvà kal KÚKÀWV ÉNTÀ 
uýky Siðače rýðiðage vyorevew 


62 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 6. 4—7. 3 


And scalenes, aye and a circle in seven lengths,’ 
And taught full abstinence from tasting flesh 
Of living things ; but all would not to this 

Give heed. 


7. Pythagoras urged his followers to cultivate the 
simple life, since extravagance, he maintained, ruins 
not only the fortunes of men but their bodies as well. 
For most diseases, he held, come from indigestion, 
and indigestion, in turn, from extravagance. Many 
men were also persuaded by him to eat uncooked 
food and to drink only water all their life long, in 
order to pursue what is in truth the good. And yet, 
as for the men of our day, were one to suggest that 
they refrain for but a few days from one or two of 
the things which men consider to be pleasant, they 
would renounce philosophy, asserting that it would 
be silly, while seeking for the good which is mseen, 
to let go that which is seen. And whenuver it 


1 T. Heath (4 History of Greek Mathematics, 1, p. 142) 
thinks these words “ unintelligible . . . unless the ‘ seven- 
lengthed circle’ can be taken as meaning the ‘lengths of 
seven circles °’ (in the sense of the seven independent orbits 
of the sun, moon and planets) or the circle (the zodiac) com- 
prehending them all.” Mair (see critical note) discusses the 
meaning of the passage at considerable length; see also 
further in Heath and Hunt. 


TÂv épmveóvrar ot © äp oùx Úmýkovoav 

mávres. 

To bring Diodorus’ quotation into agreement with the 
Greek of the papyrus (itself mutilated, though the restora- 
tions appear plausible and yield sense) would require such 
drastic emendation that the Greek is left as it is given by 
the codex. 

2 So Dindorf: rara. 

3 dneinawr äv Wurm : åmeînov, 


63 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Ea A ~ > fa 7 
moàunpaypoveiv mepi TÖV dÀàoTplwv, gyoàdtovot 
bi e ? 3 hi 3 7 25 b3 la 2 
kal úr oùðevos eumoðigovrar: av ðè yiveohar Sén 
mepi mobeiav kal Tiv TÕv Iô êmokevýv, axat- 
peîv pasow, ÖTE doxodetoba Lèv eùoyodoûvras, 
axony OH yew où oxoàdtovras. 
r A pg 
4 "Or daci ròv Tapavrivov ’Apyúrav ròv òvra 
Iuðayóperov èm peyáàois dðichpaow oikérais 
òpyioðivar, kai karefavaorávra To nmdlovs einetv, 
ws oùk àv eyevýfnoav dbo TyÀkraðra äuaprh- 
oavtes, el pù čTuyev opyt%ópuevos. 
a e lg lg ? m ld 
8. "Ori ot Iubayóperoi peyiornv èmoroðvro mpõ- 
A A m 
vorav tijs mpòs roùs piàovs Peßarótnros, Tv TÕv 
pw eùvorav déroàoywrartov dyalòv elvat TÕv év 
TÔ Biw SreAngpóres. 
2 "Orn péyoTov äv Tis ýyýoaro kal páňora bav- 
hl 
doa TÒ aitov ts mpòs Toùs piàovs evvoias. 
Tives yáp TOTE Ñoav ébiouol Ñ Tis Tpóros emirnõev- 
páTwv Ñ ris Àdyov SewóTns Òe ÑS éverpyábovro TÀ 
roravryv ĉialecw rois dpikvovpévors eis TÙY TOÔ 
3 Bíov kowwviav; rara yàp mool èv èmbuuh- 
vavres yvôvar TÕV čÉwbev êneßdàovro moàvnpay- 
~ k] 2 hS ? A m k4 [d N 
Loveîv, oùôénrore è oùðetis pabeîv HÕvvýðn. atriov 
Òè roô ĉiarnpetobari ràs rèp roúrwv úrobýras Tò 
roùs Ilubayopeiovs únóoraow čxeiww unðèv Tororo 
~ [d 
moreîv ëyypapov, AAÀd Stà pvýuNs čxew Tà mapay- 
yAdóueva. 
9. "Ori ó Ivhayópas mpòs rois dàdois mapy- 


1 Philosopher, statesman, general, and mathematician of 
the early fourth century B.c. 

2 Cicero (Tuse. Disp. 4. 36) quotes with warm approval 
the words of Archytas: *“ Quo te modo, inquit, accepissem, 
nisi iratus essem ” (“ What a visitation you would have got, if 
I had not been angry ”; tr. of King in L.C. L.) 


(9 


FRAGMENTS OTF BOOK X. 7. 3—9. 1 


becomes necessary to court the mob or to meddle 
in affairs whieh are none of their business, they have 
the time for it and will let nothing stand in their 
way ; whereas, whenever it becomes necessary to 
bestir themselves about education and the repairing 
of character, they reply that the matter is not oppor- 
tune for them, the result of it all being that they 
busy themselves when they have no business and 
show no concern when they are concerned. 

We are told that Archytas! of Tarentum, who was 
a follower of Pythagoras, once became angry with 
his slaves because of some serious offences; but 
when he recovered from his rage, he said to them, 
“ You would not have got off without punishment 
after such misconduct, had I not lost my temper.” ? 

8. The Pythagoreans laid the greatest store upon 
constancy toward one’s friends, believing as they did 
that the loyalty of friends is the greatest good to be 
found in life. 

A man may consider that the greatest and most 
marvellous thing about the Pythagoreans was the 
cause of their loyalty to their friends. What indeed 
were the habits, what the manner of their practices, 
or the powerful arguments which enabled them to 
inculcate such a disposition in all who joined their 
common manner of life? Many outsiders, being 
eager to know the cause, expended great effort on 
the endeavour, but no man of them was ever able 
to learn it. The reason why their system of instruc- 
tion for this purpose was kept inviolate was that the 
Pythagoreans made it a fundamental tenet to put 
nothing on this subject in writing, but to carry their 
precepts only in their memory. 

9. Pythagoras, in addition to his other injunctions, 


65 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


yede roîs pavldvovoi oraviws pèv òuvývar, ypnoa- 
uévovs è toîs ópkois mávrwş èppévew ral mpòs 
Téàos dyew rèp v dv tis ðpóon mpaypárwv, où% 
óuoíav anóġaow moroúpevoşs Avodvðpw Tte T® 

2 4 lA ~ kd ld D e A 
Adkævi ral Anuáðņn TÔ `Alnvaiw, ðv ó pėv 
anepaivero Toùs pèv matas etv ekararâv rois 
dortpaydàois, Toùs è dvðpaşs roîşs ôpkKkoişs, ő 
Sè craßeßaroúpevos órıe e? rò Avorreàéorarov 
wonep rl TÖV Aw, otw kal eml TÔV pruv 
aipetoĝa: òpâv òè Tòv emoprýoavra Tapaypiua 
TÔT Eyovra mept ©v poce, Tov Ò eùvopkýoavra 
davepôs Tò iðiov amoúvra. ToúTwv yàp ékárTe- 
pos où kabdrep Iulayópas úreorýoarto Tov prov 
elvat miorews èvéyvpov Béßarov, AAN aicyporep- 
cias kal andrs ðéàeap. 

(Const. Exc. 4, pp. 293-295.) 

“Ore Ivlayópas mapýyyeààe roîs pavlávovor 
oraviws pèv opvúvar, ypņnoapévovs ðè Toîs ôpkois 
navrws èppévew. 

"Ori ó aùròs Ivlayópas kal mepi Tv appoðı- 
oiwv ekàoyičóuevos TÒ avubépov mapýyyeňde karà 
èv tò bépos pù) mànoidbew yuvaiki, kara è Tòv 
yeuðva npociévar Terapevuévws. Kabódov yàp 
Tò yévos tÕv àdpoðıciwv úneàdufavev eîvaı Pàa- 
Bepóv, tův òè ovvéyerav aùrðv rTeàéws dobheveias 
Kal oAébpov momTtikiv èvóurte. 

(Const. Exc. 2 (1), p. 423.) 

"Ore Ivlayópav haciv únó Twos êpwrybévra 
móTeE ypnoréov ġpoðisíiois eineîv, “Orav éavroĝ 
Oéàns hrræv yevéobar. 

1 & edopkýoavra Wurm : 8è ópkl{ovra, 
2 âè added by Valesius. 
66 


FRAGMENTS OTF BOOK X. 9. 1-4 


commanded his pupils rarely to take an oath, and, when 
they did swearan oath, to abide by it under any circum- 
stances and to bring to fulfilment whatever they have 
sworn to do; and that they should never reply as did 
Lysander the Laconian and Demades the Athenian, 
the former of whom once declared that boys should be 
cheated with dice and men with oaths, and Demades 
affirmed that in the case of oaths, as in all other 
affairs, the most profitable course is the one to choose, 
and that it was his observation that the perjurer 
forthwith continued to possess the things regarding 
which he had taken the oath, whereas the man who 
had kept his oath had manifestly lost what had been 
his own. For neither of these men looked upon the 
oath, as did Pythagoras, as a firm pledge of faith, but 
as a bait to use for ill-gotten gain and deception. 

Pythagoras commanded his pupils rarely to take 
an oath, and when they did swear an oath, to abide 
by it under every circumstance. 

The same Pythagoras, in his reflections upon the 
pleasures of love, taught that it was better to ap- 
proach women in the summer not at all, and in the 
winter only sparingly. For in general he considered 
every kind of pleasure of love to be harmful, and 
believed that the uninterrupted indulgence in them 
is altogether weakening and destructive. 

It is told of Pythagoras that once, when he was 
asked by someone when he should indulge in the 
pleasures of love, he replied, “ When you wish not 
to be master of yourself.” ? 

1 Lysander, a Spartan admiral, died in 395 s.c.; Demades, 
the orator, in 319 s.c. Antipater once remarked of Demades, 
when he was an old man, that *“ he was like a victim when 
the sacrifice was over—nothing left but tongue and guts ” 
(Plutarch, Phocion, 1). 2 Cp. Plato, Rep. 430 £. 


67 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


g e 
5 “Ori ot Ilvbayóperot Siýpovv kal tràs HArkias 
aoa 
Tv avbpónwv eis récoapa pépn, maðós, véov, 
l 
veaviokov, yépovros, kal Toútwv ékdorņyv čġasav 
e + A ~ m" 
opolav elvat Taîs karà ròv èvwavròv rÕv ©pôv 
Pas ` A ~ 
ueraßoàaîs, rò èv čap TÔ marði diôdvres, rò Sè 
Lg “~ 3 ~ “~ 
pOwónwpov T árpi, Tòv ÔÈ yeru ðva TÔ yépovri, 
A A + ~ la t 
TÒ ÔÈ lépos TÖ végy. (Const. Exc. 4, p. 295.) 


6 "Ore ò aùròs Iubayópas mapńýyyeňe mpòs roùs 
Oeoùs mpooiévar Toùs Búovras uù) moduredeîs, åÀàà 
Àaumpàs kal kabapàs čxovras cbras, óuolws &è 
uÙ) uóvov Tò côpa kabapòv mapeyopévovs máns 
aðikov mpáčews, dà kal ùv puyiv dyvevovoav. 

(Const. Exe. 2 (1), p. 223.) 

7 "Ori ô aùròs dnepaivero rois Îeoîs ceŬyeobar Sev 
Tà àyalà roùs ppoviuovs úrèp rv dppóvwv: rToùs 
yàp douvérovs ayvoeîv ri noré otw èv TÔ Piw 
katà aàńberav àyabóv. 


8 "Ori ó aùròs épaore ðeîv èv raîs eùyaîs árnàðs 
eùyeobar råyald, kal uù) karà uépos óvouáčew, 
otov etovoíav, ioyúv, kdos, mÀoðrov, TAa Tà 
ToVToS Čuo ToÀdkis yàp ToŬTwV EkaoTov TOÙS 
kar êmbupiav aùrôv ruygóvras Toîs öàois åra- 
Tpénmew. kal ToÎTo yvoly àv Tis èmoTýoas ToîÎs év 

1 òv ôè added by Herwerden. 


1 Ll. 1364-1375. The passage runs : 


Then, gazing Argos-ward, Polyneices prayed : 
“ Queen Hera—for thine am F since I wed 
Adrastus’ child, and dwell within thy land— 
Grant me to slay my brother, and to stain 
My warring hand with blood of victory ! ” 


[Continued on p. 69.] 
68 


FRAGMENTS OI BOOK X. 9. 5-8 


The Pythagoreans divided the life of mankind into 
four ages, that of a child, a lad, a young man, and 
an old man ; and they said that each one of these 
had its parallel in the changes which take place in 
the seasons in the year’s course, assigning the spring 
to the child, the autumn to the man, the winter to 
the old man, and the summer to the lad. 

The same Pythagoras taught that when men ap- 
proach the gods to sacrifice, the garments they wear 
should be not costly, but only white and clean, and 
that likewise they should appear before the gods with 
not only a body clean of every unjust deed but also a 
soul that is undefiled. 

Pythagoras declared that prudent men should pray 
to the gods for good things on behalf of imprudent 
men ; for the foolish are ignorant of what in life is 


in very truth the good. 

Pythagoras used to assert that in their supplica- 
tions men should pray simply for “ all good things,” 
and not name them singly, as, for example, power, 
strength, beauty, wealth, and the like; for it fre- 
quently happens that any one of these works to the 
utter ruin of those who reeeive them in reply to their 
desire. And this may be recognized by any man who 
has reflected upon the lines? in The Phoenician 

But unto golden-shielded Pallas’ fane 

Eteocles looked, and prayed : “ Daughter of Zeus, 

Grant that the conquering spear, of mine hand sped, 


Yea, from thìs arm, may smite my brother’s breast.” 
Tr. of Way in the L.C.L. 


69 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Taîs Eùpiriðov Dowiosos OTiXOLS, ev ols oi mepi 
ròv Iloàuveikny eùyovrar roîs beos, dv Å px) 
Bàépas ès ”Apyos, 
ws 
eis orépv dðeàdot roð am dAévys Badeiv. 
oŬror yàp okoðvres éavroîs eùyeolar Tà kádiora 
raîs dàn beiars kaTapõvrat. (Const. Eze. 4, p. 295.) 

9 "Ori ô aùròs moàààd kal Aa Sradeyóuevos Tpos 
Bíov awppovos Fidov kal mpos dvòpeiav TE kal 
kaprepiav, ëTL òè tàs Adas åperás, toa Îeoîs mapà 
tois Kporwvidrars èriuâro. 

(Const. Exc. 2 (1), p. 223.) 
10. “Ore ó Iuhayópas pidocopiav, dà? où co- 
piav èrdàe TV WðDiav aipeow. kaTapeppópevos 
yàp Toùs mpo ağroĵ kekànuévovs ÉTTA gopoùs* 
čàeyev, œs cohòs èv oùvôeis ori dvÂpwros &v 
kal moňÀdkis ĝia Thv achéverav tris púoews oùk 
ioyúwv mdávra rarophoðv, ð è Cyàðv ròv roû 
copo rpórov tre kal piov mpoonkóvrws äv hié- 
gogos ovoudġorro. 

2 AAY pws TAcavrys Tpokorhs yevouévys mepi 
TE Huĝayópav aùròv Kal Tods uer èkeîvov Huba- 
yopelovs Kal TocoúTwv åyalðv attiot yevópevor 
Taîs TóÀcow, oÛToL TÒV nÁVTA Tà kañà Avpawóme- 
vov ġlóvov où Sréhvyor: oùðėv ydp, oîuat, TV map 
åvlpærois KaÀAÕV oŬTw ovvéoTnKev Dore pN òcuiav 
aùr phopdv Te kal Õidàvow yevvioar TÒV moveri 


xpõvov. (Const. Exc. 4, p. 296.) 
1 So Herwerden : roîĉs ... Kekànjuévors . . . cogoîs. 
1 e, 530 BC. 
70 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 9. 8—10. 2 


Maidens of Euripides which give the prayer of Poly- 
neices to the gods, beginning 


Then, gazing Argos-ward, 
and ending 
Yea, from this arm, may smite my brother’s breast. 


For Polyneices and Eteocles thought that they were 
praying for the best things for themselves, whereas 
in truth they were calling down curses upon their 
own heads. 

During the time that Pythagoras was delivering 
many other discourses designed to inculcate the 
emulation of a sober life and manliness and persever- 
ance and the other virtues, he received at the hands 
of the inhabitants of Croton honours the equal of 
those accorded to the gods. 

10. Pythagoras called the principles he taught 
philosophia or love of wisdom, but not sophia or wis- 
dom. For he criticized the Seven Wise Men, as they 
were called, who lived before his time, saying that 
no man is wise, being human, and many a time, by 
reason of the weakness of his nature, has not the 
strength to bring all matters to a successful issue, 
but that he who emulates both the ways and the 
manner of life of a wise man may more fittingly be 
called a “ lover of wisdom.” 

Although both Pythagoras himself and the Pytha- 
goreans after his time made such advancement and 
were cause of so great blessings to the states of 
Greece, yet they did not escape the envy which be- 
smirches all noble things. Indeed there is no noble 
thing among men, I suppose, which is of such a nature 
that the long passage of time works it no damage 
or destruction. 


71 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


11. “Ore Kporwviárys ris Kúňwv övopa, TÑ où- 
ciq kat ón mpõTos rÔv noùrtôv, enehúunoe 
Ivbayópeiros yevécðar. ðv Sè yaňeròs kal Biaos 
TÒv TpóTov, čri ÔÈ oraciaoTýs Te kal Tvpavvirós, 
dreõokdoby. mapoćvvðeis ov TÔ ovorńýparı 
rôv Ilvlayopeiwv, éraipeiav peydànv ovveorýoaTo, 
kal Õeréňet mdvra kal Àéywv kal mpátrwv kar 

Éi ~ 
aùrôv. 

2 "Or Años ó Iuhayóperos eis Ońßas tjs Boww- 
Tias yevóuevos ðdokaños ’ Erauwævõov, Torov 
Lèv réàceiov dvôpa mpòs dper)v karéorņoe, kal 
matnp aùroĝ beròs yévero &! eüvorav. ó è Era- 
pivavõas tis te kapteplas kat ùróryros kal TrÔv 
wv aperðv èk rìs Iubayopeiov fidocopias 
évaúopara’ \aßóv, où póvov Onßaiwv, dààà xal 
mdvrwv TrÕv kaf’ aùròv enpórtevoev. 

12. “Ori Sè rv mpoyeyovórwv dvpôv ý rv 
Biwv dvaypaġù) Svoroíav pèv mapéyerat roîs ypa- 
povaw, œpeàe? © où perpiws tov rowòv Blov. 
ETà mappnoias yàp ðnàoñsa Tà kas te Kal 
kakôs? mpayhévra roùs èv ayaboùs koopeî, Toùs 
òè movnpoùs raneiwoî, ia Tv olkeliwv ékdorois? 
eyrwpiwv tre kat póyaw. dore © ò pèv čnmawos, 
Ws äv Tis eimoi, énalÀov dpers aðdravov, ó è 

2 póyos Tuwpia havàótnros vev màņnyñs. rkaňòv 
è roîs perayeveorépois únokeîobar iðri Biov olov 
dv Tis EÀnTa ôv, Toraúrys dérwbýoerar perà Tòv 

1 So Salmasius : évdapara. 


, Ž Te kal kaxôs added by Wurm; Büttner-Wobst suggests 
úps for kadðs. 3 So Reiske: éxdarovs. 


1 The distinguished Theban general and statesman, 
e. 420-362 B.C. 


T2 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X, 11, 1—12, 2 


11. A certain inhabitant of Croton, Cylon by name, 
the foremost citizen in wealth and repute, was eager 
to become a Pythagorean. But since he was a harsh 
man and violent in his ways, and both seditious and 
tyrannical as well, he was rejected by them. Conse- 
quently, being irritated at the order of the Pytha- 
goreans, he formed a large party and never ceased 
working against them in every way possible both by 
word and by deed. 

Lysis, the Pythagorean, came to Thebes in Boeotia 
and became the teacher of Epaminondas; and he 
developed him, with respect to virtue, into a perfect 
man and became his father by adoption because of 
the affection he had for him. And Epaminondas, 
because of the incitements toward perseverance and 
simplicity and every other virtue which he received 
from the Pythagorean philosophy, became the fore- 
most man, not only of Thebes, but of all who lived 
in his time. 

12. To recount the lives of men of the past is a 
task which presents difficulties to writers and yet is 
of no little advantage to society as a whole. For 
such an account which clearly portrays in all frank- 
ness their evil as well as their noble deeds renders 
honour to the good and abases the wicked by means 
of the censures as well as the praises which appro- 
priately come to each group respectively. And the 
praise constitutes, one may say, a reward of virtue 
which entails no cost, and the censure is a pun- 
ishment of depravity which entails no physical 
chastisement. And it is an excellent thing for later 
generations to bear in mind, that whatever is the 
manner of life a man chooses to live while on this 
earth, such is the remembrance which he will be 


73 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Oávarov pvýunņs, iva uù) mepi tràs tv Abvwv 
uvyueiwv katackevàs onovòawow, & kal TTOV 
éva karéyei kal plopâs déelas Tuyydver, dAÀA Trepi 
Àóyov kal tàs dÀÀas dperds, at navry porrot Sià 
Ts huns. ó ðè ypõvos ð mdávra uapaivwv TÄANG 
TaŬTaAS dbavdrovs puàárret, kal  mpeoßórepos yevó- 

3 pevos aùròs? TaúTas ToreÎ vewrépas. ÖHAov è émi 
Toúrav? TtÕv dvðpðv éyévero TÒ Tpoepnuévov": 
mda yap yeyovóres wonmep võv vres Úno mdávrwv 
uvnuoveðovrat. (Const. Exc. 2 (1), pp. 223-224.) 

13. “Ore Kôpos ô rôv Hepoðv Baoıideùs* èneðh 
TÕV Bafvàwviwv kal TÕv Mýðwv TV Xopav kar- 
enoàéuņoae, rais ério râcav mepieàduBave TV 
oikovuévyv. TÔv yàp vvarðv kat peyáñaw ebvõv 
katanenoieunuévov eêvõuiģe pnòéva ÚTE Paoidéa 
pýTe uov únoorýoeobat TÅv iav Suvav: TÕVv 
yap èv èfovoioms dvurevÂłúvoiř ðvræv etwbaow 
evor Tv eùTuyiav u) pépew kar àvlpwrov. 

(Const. Exc. 4, p. 296.) 

“Ori ô Kaußúons v uèv púoei uavıkòs Kal 

mapakekwykws Toîs Aoyıopoîs, moàù ðè udov 

aùròv œp ov kal vnephýhavov roiet Tò tijs faci- 
Àcias uéyelos. 

2 "Orn Kapßúons ó Iépons perà tiv dÀàwow 
Méudews kat Ilnàovoiov thv eùtvygiav où pépwv 
davôpwnrivws, ròõv Audos To nmpórepov Beßaocı- 
Àeukóros trahov avéokaev. evpwv ðè êv ri bhrn 

1 So Dindorf: aùràs. 

2 roýrwv added by Oldfather. 

3 bov... Tò npoeipnuévov Vogel: RAOS . e e mpoepy- 
pé&rvos. 

1 Baoıàcùs added by Mai. 

è So Dindorf: dvvrevłúvwv. 


74 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 12. 2—14. 2 


thought worthy of after his death ; this principle 
should be followed, in order that later generations 
may not set their hearts upon the erection’ of 
memorials in stone which are limited to a single 
spot and subject to quick decay, but upon reason 
and the virtues in general which range every- 
where upon the lips of fame. Time, which withers 
all else, preserves for these virtues an immortality, 
and the further it may itself advance in age, the 
fresher the youth it imparts to them. And what 
we have said is clearly exemplified in the case of 
these men who have been mentioned!; for though 
they were of the distant past, all mankind speaks of 
them as if they were alive to-day. 

13. Cyrus, the king of the Persians, after he had 
reduced the land of the Babylonians and the Medes,? 
was encompassing in his hopes all the inhabited 
world. For now that he had subdued these powerful 
and great nations he thought that there was no king 
or people which could withstand his might; since 
of those who are possessed of irresponsible power, 
some are wont not to bear their good fortune as 
human beings should. 

14. Cambyses? was by nature half-mad and his 
powers of reasoning perverted, and the greatness 
of his kingdom rendered him much the more cruel 
and arrogant. 

Cambyses the Persian, after he had taken Memphis 
and Pelusium,‘ since he could not bear his good for- 
tune as men should, dug up the tomb of Amasis, 
the former king of Egypt. And finding his mummified 


ł Diodorus is probably still speaking about the Pytha- 
goreans. ? 550 B.C. 
3 King of Persia, 529-522 B.C. 4 525 B.C. 
75 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


TÒV VEKpÒV TETApPIXEVLÉVOV, TÓ TE CÔLA TOÔ TETE- 
Àcurykóros ġkicaro kal mâocav Vßpw eis trov oùK 
aiohavóuevov ciceveyrápevos* reňevTaîov nmpocéraće 
Karakaĝosaı Tòv vekpőv. oùk elwbórwv yàp mup 
mapaðiðóvar Trv yywpiwv Tà cöpara TÕv Te- 
reàevrykórwv, ómeàdußave Kal dià ToÚTOV ToÔ 
tpórov nÀnppeiýoew Tòv tdàat mpotereňevrykóra. 

3 "Orn Kapßúons péwv orparteðew er Aibo- 
niay? čmepje pépos Tis Šuvápews èr’ ’Aupwviovs, 
nmpoordčas roîs Úyepóot TÒ pavrečov auýoavras 
eurtphoa, Toús Te mepiorkoñvras TÒ iepòv anmavTtas 
etavõparoðicaohar. (Const. Exe. 2 (1), pp. 224-225.) 

15. “Ori Kaußúcov rof Hepoðv Bacidéws kupie- 
gavros náoņs Alyúrrov, mpòs Torov oi Aipves 
kal Kupnvaîor, ovveorpaTevróres Toîs Aiyurriois, 
ànéorer\av ÕÔpa, Kal TÒ NMPOOTATTÓHEVOV TOTE 
emnyyeiñavro. (Const. Exe. 1, p. 397.) 

16. "Ori ó Ioàvkpárys ó Trõv Zauíwv Túpavvos 
els TOÙS ÈTLKULPOTÁTOUS TÖTOVS åmooTéàwv Tprý- 
pes eàýorevev dnavrtas ToùS nÀéovras, åreðiðov 
ôè póvois ToîsS ouppáyos Tà Anghévra. „ TPOS òè 
toùs ueupopévovs TÔv avvýðwv Eeyev ÓS TávTES 
oi piñor mÀeiova ydpiv Eovow ånoapóvres àTep 
ånéßañov ġrep apxùv pnòèv dmopadóvres. 

2 "Ori raîs aðixois mpdéeow Ws èninmav åroñovbet 
miş vépeois olkelovs Tiuwpias Toîs dpaprávovow 
emihépovoa. 

1 Hertlein, Vogel add rò after eioeveykápevos. 
2 So Valesius : Aiborias. 


1 The site of the oracle of Ammon, the present oasis of 
Siwah. 2 c, 540-523 B.C. 


76 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 14. 2—16, 2 


corpse in the coffin, he outraged the body of the dead 
man, and after showing every despite to the senseless 
corpse, he finally ordered it to be burned. For since 
it was not the practice of the natives to consign the 
bodies of their dead to fire, he supposed that in this 
fashion also he would be giving offence to him who 
had been long dead. 

When Cambyses was on the point of setting out 
upon his campaign against Ethiopia, he dispatched 
a part of his army against the inhabitants of Am- 
monium,! giving orders to its commanders to plunder 
and burn the oracle and to make slaves of all who 
dwelt near the shrine. 

15. After Cambyses, the king of the Persians, had 
made himself lord of all Egypt, the Libyans and 
Cyrenaeans, who had been allies of the Egyptians, 
sent presentis to him and declared their willingness 
to obey his every command. 

16. Polycrates the tyrant of the Samians,? used to 
dispatch triremes to the most suitable places and 
plunder all who were on the seas, and he would 
return the booty which he had taken only to those 
who were allies of his.* And to those of his com- 
panions who criticized this practice he used to say 
that all his friends would feel more grateful to him 
by getting back what they had lost than by having 
lost nothing in the first place. 

Unjust deeds, as a general thing, carry in their 
train a retribution which exacts appropriate punish- 
ments of the wrongdoers.* 


3 Polycrates’ purpose was clearly to force all who sailed 
the seas to become his allies. 

4 The reference could well be to the deserved punishment 
of Polycrates (cp. Herodotus, 3. 125). 


TT 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


3 “Or mêca yápis dperapéànros ooa kañòv ëyet 
Kkapràv TÒV mapa TOv TÕv edepyerovuévwv énmawov 
kal yàp àv u) mávres, eis yé ris? TÕV eb nenrovbórwv 
eviore Tv únèp andvrwv ànéðwke? yádpw. 

(Const. Exc. 4, p. 296.) 

4 "Ore Avõoi rives heúyovres Tùv `Opoirov To 
oarpárov Šuvaoreiav kaTénÀevoav eis bdpov erTà 
mov xpnudrwv kal roô Iloàvkpdrovs ikérar 
eyivovro. Ò è Tò èv npôrov aùroùs pioppóvws 
úneðéćaro, uer dÀiyov è mdvras aroopdéas Tv 
xpnuárwv ykparůs èyévero. 

17. “Ore Oerradòs ó Ileiorpárov viòs ooßòs 
únapywv åreinaro Tùy Trupavviða, kal Thv ioóTyTa 
Cnàóoas peydàns droðoyhs ŅéroðTo mapà Tois mo- 
Airas: oi dè doi, “Irrmapyos kal ‘Irrias, Biaror 
kal yaàerol kaleorðres érvpdvvovv TS TÓÄcwWS. 
Tod òè mapavouofvres cis roùs `Abnvaiovs, kai 
mwos pepakiov ĝiahópov Tv öv “Inrmapyos èpa- 

2 obeis Sià roro ékwõúvevoev. . . .  uèv ov erl 
Toùs rupávvovs riðleois kal ) mpòs Tw Tis maTpi- 
Sos edevhepiav omovòðù) kow) Tv mpoepnuévwv 
únipéev avðpðv: ń Sè év raîs Paodvois mapáoracis 
Tis puxis kal rò kaprepixòv Tis TÕv Õewôv vro- 
Lovĝs mepi uóvov êyevýðņ ròv *Apioroyeírova, ôs 
év rots poßepwrárois kupoîs úo péyiora Serýpnoe, 
Týv Te mpòs Toùs hiñovs mioTtw kal Tv mpòs ToÙs 
êxylpoùs Tıuwpiav. (Const. Exc. 2 (1), p. 225.) 


1 òv added by Capps. 
2 ns added by Herwerden. ë So Dindorf: čwke. 


1 A by-name of Hegesistratus. 
2 Hippias was the real ruler, 527—510 B.c.; Hipparchus 
was slain in §14 B.C. 


78 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 16. 3—17. 2 


Every act of kindness, since attended by no regret, 
bears goodly fruit in the praise of those who benefit 
therefrom ; for even if not ali the recipients repay 
the kindness, at least some one of them, it some- 
times happens, makes payment on behalf of all. 

Certain Lydians, who were fleeing from the domin- 
eering rule of the satrap Oroetes, took ship to Samos, 
bringing with them many possessions, and became 
suppliants of Polycrates. And at first he received 
them kindly, but after a little time he put them all 
to the sword and confiscated their possessions. 

17. Thettalus,! the son of Peisistratus, was wise 
enough to renounce the tyranny, and since he strove 
after equality, he enjoyed great favour among the 
citizens of Athens ; but the other sons, Hipparchus 
and Hippias, being violent and harsh men, maintained 
a tyranny over the city. They committed many 
other acts of lawlessness against the Athenians, and 
Hipparchus, becoming enamoured of a youth? of 
extraordinary beauty, because of that got into a 
dangerous situation. . . + Now the attack upon the 
tyrants and the earnest desire to achieve the freedom 
of the fatherland were shared in by all the men men- 
tioned above; but the unyielding steadfastness of 
soul amid the tortures and the stout courage to endure 
cruel pains were shown by Aristogeiton alone, who, 
in the most fearful moments, maintained two supreme 
virtues, fidelity to his friends and vengeance on his 
enemies. 


3 Harmodius; Thucydides (6. 54-57) gives the most trust- 
worthy account of this famous affair; cp. Book 9. 1. 4. 

4 The rest of the story, such as the indignation of the 
citizens, the attack upon the tyrants in 514 B.c., the slaying 
of Hipparchus and Harmodius, and the like, are lacking in 
the Greek. 


79 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


3 "On ò ó 'ApioToyeirav mõow  ĉnoinoe pavepòv os 
ń Tís yuyijs eùyévera katıgyúer TS peyioras ToÛ 
cópuaros dàynõóvas. 

18. “Or Zývwvos To puiosógov òa riv èm- 
Povàùy Tùy kaTà TOÔ Neápxov TOÔ Tupdvvov KaTà 
Tàs êv raîs Pagávors „váykas epwTwuévov rò 
Nedpyov TISS hoav ot avveðóTes, "Ogedov Yáp, 
čpnoev, ÖETEp TÄS YADTTNS Elut KÚPLOS, OŬTW KaL 
TOÔ coparTos. (Const. Exe. 4, pp. 296-297.) 

2 "Ore tupavvovuévns rìs Tartpiðos inò Nedpxov 
okàņnpôs, empovàùv kar roô Tupávvov avveoTh- 
caro. katahavis òè yevómevos, kal kaTà tàs év 
Taîs Paodvois åváyras SrepwTóuevos ÚTo To 
Nedpyov Tives Ñoav ot gvveðóres, "Qpedov yap, 
épnoev, ØoTeEp TIS YÀDTTNS eimi rúpios, oŬTws 

3 ÓmĤpxov kal To swuarToşs. ToÛ Öè Tupávvov ToÀùÙ 
LĜêMov traîs Pacdvois mpocemireivavros, ò Zúvwv 
péxpi pév Twos Šieraptépev merà è raðra orev- 
wv droùvhivai more TÀs dvaykys kal dua Tiuw- 
pýoacłaı ròv Néapyov, êmevońoaró ti roroñrov. 

4 KATA TÀV ETITOVWTATNV ênirac’ Tis Baodvov 
npoorombels evôðóvas Thv puxi Tais åìynséow 
åvékpayev, "Apere, pô yàp nõoav áńlevav. ws 
Ò davijkav? héiwoev aùròv àkoðoat kar iõiav 
mpooeàlóvra: modà yàp eÎvar TÕv Aéyeolar Leà- 

5 Aóvrwv & ovvoise Typeîv év åmopphrw. ToÎ òè 
Tupávvov rposeàlóvros dopévws kal TÀv arov TÔ 
orópaTe mapapadóvros, ó Zúývwv To Övváorov 
Tmepiyavav TÒ oÛs evénmpioe roîs oðoûoi. TÕv ğè 
Ûnnperðv Tayt npocðpapóvrwv, kal mâcav TÔ 

1 So Valesius : érioraow, 
3 So Reiske: drfîrev. 


80 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 17. 3—18. 5 


Aristoge ton made it clear to all men that nobility 
of soul is alle to prevail over the greatest agonies of 
the body. 

18. When Zeno the philosopher! was suffering the 
agonies of the torture because of the conspiracy 
he had entered into egainst the tyrant Nearchus 
and was being asked by Nearchus who his fellow 
conspirators were, he replied, “ Would that I 
were as much the master of my body as I am of my 
tongue ! ” 

When Zeno’s native city was being ground down 
by the tyranny of Nearchus, Zeno formed a con- 
spiracy against the tyrant. But he was found out, 
and when he wcs asked by Nearchus, while suffering 
the agonies of the torture, who his fellow conspirators 
were, he replied, “ Would that I were as much the 
master of my body as I am of my tongue!” And 
when the tyrant made the torture more and more 
zevere, Zeno still withstood it for a while ; and then, 
being eager to be rid at last of the agony and at 
the same time to be revenged upon Nearchus, he 
devised the following plan. “During the greatest in- 
tensity of the torture, pretending that his spirit 
was yielding to his bodily pains, he cried out, 
“ Relax it! I will tell the whole truth.” And when 
tley did so, he asked Nearchus to come near and 
listen to him privately, asserting that many matters 
he was about to disclose would best be kept secret. 
When the tyrant came up to him readily and placed 
his ear close to Zeno’s lips, Zeno took the tyrant’s ear 
into his mouth and sank his teeth into it. And when 
the attendants quickly approached and applied every 


1 Zeno of Elea (Velia in Italy) in the middle of the 5th 
century B.C.; see the following paragraph. 


81 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Bacavıouévw mpoodepóvrwv tipwpiav els Tò ya- 
6 Àdoat To Òfjyua, modd uov mpoosevepúero. TEÀoS 
© où Õvvápevot Tàvõpòs vikoa Tùv eùyvyiav, 
TapekévTqoov" aùròv iva Õun Toùs dðóvras. kal 
ToroTo Texvýuarti Tôv dàynõóvwv anreàvin kal 
Tapà TOÔ Tupdvvou Tùv evõeyouévyv éàaße Tiuw- 
piav. (Const. Ezec. 2 (1), p pp. 225-226.) 

[Moats ČoTepov yeveaîs Awpeùs ó Aareða- 
póvos karavrýoas eis Tùy Xikeàlav kal Tv yopav 
ånodaßov ËkKTLOE mów ‘Hpdràcerav. Tayò Ò ağ- 

Tis aÙČouÉvNsS, ot Kapynðóvior plovýoavres pa 
kal poßnlévres pýnoTe TmÀéov ù ioxúoasa tis Kap- 
xnåóvos aġéànrar rv owikuv Tùv Ñyepoviav, 
aTpateóoavTes em aùrùv peyáňais Õuváueot Kal 
katà kpåTos éñdvres katéorahav. SAAÀ mept uèv 
ToúTrwv Tà KaTà puépos èv Toîs oikelois ypõvois 
dvaypáopev.] (Diodorus, 4. 23. 3.) 

19. "Or: Toîs emi TWOV TPAYÓTWV ŝroptġo- 
uévos ós oùk àv note mpayfnoopévwv éorkev 
enakodovleîv woavei ris vépeois EAéyyovoa TÙV 

avôpwnrivyv acléverav. 

"Ori Meyaßútov ToÔ kal Zwrúpov, pov õvros 
Aapeíov Toĝ Paoidéws, paortrywcavros © éavròv 
kal Tà Tepl TÒ TPÉTwTOV åxpwrýpia åTokópavros 
Stà Tò aùrópodor? yevéoðar kal Baßvàðva mpoðoð- 
vai Ilépoais, paot Bapéws hépeiw ròv Aapeîov kal 
eineîv Bovàcohar ròv Meyáfvtov, eè Svvaròv ñv, 


1 So Döhner : mapekdàņoav. 2 So Dindorf: oirrovov. 


1 ¢.510B8.c. An account of the chequered career of Dorieus, 
of the royal line of Sparta, is given by Herodotus, 5. 41-48. 

2 On the south coast of Sicily near Agrigentum. 

3 The passage probably refers to the remark of a Baby- 


82 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 18. 5—19. 2 


torment to make Zeno relax his hold, he held on all 
the tighter. Finally, being unable to shake the forti- 
tude of the man, they stabbed him to death that 
they might in this way break the hold of his teeth. 
By this device Zeno got release from the agonies he 
was suffering and exacted of the tyrant the only 
punishment within his grasp. 

[Many generations later Dorieus! the Lacedae- 
monian came to Sicily, and taking back the land 
founded the city of Heracleia.? Since the city grew 
rapidly, the Carthaginians, being jealous of it and 
also afraid that it would grow stronger than Carthage 
and take from the Fhoenicians their sovereignty, 
came up against it with a great army, took it by 
storm, and razed it to the ground. But this affair 
we shall discuss in detail in connection with the period 
in which it falls.] 

19. When men make definite pronouncements on 
certain matters, saying that they can never possibly 
be brought to pass, their words usually are followed 
by a kind of retribution which exposes the weakness 
which is the lot of mankind.’ 

When Megabyzus, who was also called Zopyrus 
and was a friend of King Darius, had scourged him- 
self and mutilated his countenance,* because he had 
resolved to become a deserter ë and betray Babylon 
to the Persians, we are told that Darius was deeply 
moved and declared that he would rather have Mega- 


lonian that Darius would take Babylon when mules bear 
offspring. See Herodotus, 3. 151 and passim for details 
of the account of the taking of Babylon. 

4 Literally, “cut off the extremities of his face,” i.e. the 
nose and ears; the story is given by Herodotus, 3. 153 ff., 
who calls Zopyrus the son of Megabyzus, 520-519 s.c. 

5 In order to trick the Babylonians, 


83 


3 


r 


6 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


k m~ ~ e h] 
čpriov yevópevov ) éra Baßvňðvas Aaßetv úrò 
~ 3 id 
tùv éźovoiav, kaimep dmpáktTov Ts êmÂuvpias 
oŬoNs. 
ki £ 
“Ori oi Baßvàwvioi orparnyòv eiavro Meydpv- 
~ + Ca + 
Cov, ayvooðvres rı Tv eðepyeolav ris peovons 
droàovleiv dnwàcias oiovel éàcap aùroîs po- 
A 1 
Ohoer. 
u u o 1 a~ , (O e B 
Ori Tò? aroréàceopa rÕv èmTevyudrwv ikavóv 
~ + 
ègrt paprúpiov Tv npoppnhévTuw. 
“~ ~ 4 e Z: 
“Ori Aapeîos ris `Acias oyeðòv dàns kvprevoas 
lA A A 
rv Epóny” ènehúue: karaorpéjacðar. Tas yap 
~ ig > ig s N m~ 
To nÀclovos émÛuuias dopioTtovs eéywv Kal T® 
m A LA + 
peyébei ris Ilepocñs vvdpews merobos, mepi- 
[A 3 y T ? 
eàdußave tùv oikovpévyv, aioypòv evar vopibwv 
A t 
toùs mpò aùroð fPeßaodevkóras karaðecorépas 
` , A IN a 
dġopuàs kKrnoapévovs tà péyiora rv élvõv 
A y, 
kataneroeunkévar, aùròv è TqÀùkavras éyovra 
A Kan A A ~ 3 
Õuvaueis hAlkas oùðeis rv mpò aùro? éoye py- 
la 2 La ~ d 8 
ôcuiav aéióàoyov mpäéw kateipydolar. 
E ~ ~ t 
“Ore oi Tuppyvol õià Tròv rv Ieprðv hóßov 
~ e + 
ekùróvres tv Aĥĵuvov čĥpaokov ðs ıd Twas 
A M J m~ id 
xpnapoùs TOUTO TMTOLELV, kal TAUVTNVY TQ Màrdòn 
, pP ` , E 4 Gi 
mapéðwkav. taðra è mpåčavros “Eppwvos* toô 
~ ~ 2 A + 
npoeornkóros rv Tvppnvôv, ovvéßn ràs Toravras 


1 So Wurm: npolýoewv. 


2 rò Mai: ôé. 3 So Dindorf: ris Eipwrys. 


84 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 19. 2-6 


byzus whole again, if it were possible, than bring ten 
Babylons under his power, although his wish could 
not be achieved. 

The Babylonians chose Megabyzus to be their 
general, being unaware that the benefaction he would 
render them would be a kind of bait to entice them 
to the destruction which was soon to follow. 

The successful turn of events constitutes a sufficient 
proof of what has been predicted.! 

After Darius had made himself master of practi- 
cally the whole of Asia, he desired to subdue Europe.? 
For since the desires he entertained for further pos- 
sessions were boundless and he had confidence in the 
greatness of the power of Persia, he was set upon 
embracing in his power the inhabited world, thinking 
it to be a disgraceful thing that the kings before his 
time, though possessing inferior resources, had re- 
duced in war the greatest nations, whereas he, who 
had forces greater than any man before him had 
ever acquired, had accomplisled no deed worthy of 
mention. 

When the Tyrrhenians* were leaving Lemnos, 
because of their fear of the Persians, they claimed 
that they were doing so because of certain oracles, 
and they gave the island over to Miltiades.* The 
leader of the Tyrrhenians in this affair was Hermon, 

2? This probably refers to the boast of the Babylonians 
(Herodotus, 3. 151) that the Persians would only take 
Babylon * when mules bear offspring.” A little later one 
of Zopyrus’ mules foaled. 2 519 Bc. 

3 o. 520 Bc. Not to be confused with the Tyrrhenians 
(Etruscans) of Italy. These Tyrrhenians came to Lemnos in 
all probability from Asia Minor e. 700 B.c. 

4 The famous hero of Marathon, 490 B.c. 


* "Eppwros added by Mai. 
85 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ydpıiraşs dm’ érewwv rv ypõvæav ‘Eppwveiovs 
nposayopevb iva. (Const. Exc. 4, pp. 297-298.) 
20. “Ori Aevkiov Tapkvwiov roô ‘Pwpaiwv Ba- 
oiàéws ó vios Lééros eéeðńunoev eis mów Kod- 
Àariav kaàovpévnv, Kai karéàvoe mpòs Neúkiov 
Taprvivov àvepiðv ro Pacidéws, éxovra yvuvaîka 
Aovepnriav, Ņris v eùnper)s pèv Thv pw, ow- 
hpwv è ròv tpórov. émi orparonéðov yap övros 
ravôpós, ó éévos vvrrós éyepleis k toô koirõvos 
öpunoev èrm rùv yvuvaîka kotpwpévyy čv Tvi 
2 aàduw. emoràs Sè raîs Búpars àdvw kal ora- 
oduevos TÒ éifos, mapacrevdoachai pèv éhnoev 
oikéryy emTúðciov eis dvaipeow, ovykaracpdgew 
Sè kåkeivnv, os ml poiyelg KateAnuuévyv Kal 
TETEvyviav TÀS Tpoonkoúons Tiwpias, úno ToÛ 
OVYYEVETTÁTOV TÖ OVVOLKOÛVTL. ÖLÖTEP AÉPETWTEpOV 
óndpyew novpyjoa raîs êmÂvuias abro? sw- 
nôcav: Ańpeobar Sè Enabov ris xápıros Swpeds 
Te peyáìas kal Tùv per abro ovupiwow kal 
yevýocoba BaciMocav, ibiwriis orias eénàay- 
3 uérnv hyepoviav. ġ Sè Aovkpnria dià rò Tapá- 
Soćov éknàay)s yevopévn, kai poßnleica prore 
Taîs dànbelars Sóén à rův pocyeiav åvypiolar, 
TóTe èv hovyiav éoyev' huépas è yevopévns ô 
Eétros èywpioðny' ù ðe ékdeoe roùs olkeiovs, kal 
hiou uù mepuðeiv dareuwpnrov Tòv åoeßýoavra eis 
éeviav dpa ral ovyyéverav. éavríj è phoaca pù 
1 éni added by Reiske. 3 So Valesius : yevéoĝar. 


1 These are presumably presents made out of dire neces- 
sity. Modern historians say that Miltiades “ conquered ” 
Lemnos c. 510 or c. 493 B.c.; see Herodotus, 6. 140. 

2 535-510 B.C. 


86 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 19. 6—20. 3 


and as a result presents of this kind have from that 
time been called “ gifts of Hermon,” 1 

20. Sextus, the son of Lucius Tarquinius (Super- 
bus), the king of the Romans, left ? and came to the 
city of Collatia, as it was called, and stopped at the 
home of Lucius Tarquinius, a cousin of the king, 
whose wife was Lucretia, a woman of great beauty 
and virtuous in character. And Lucretia’s husband 
being with the army in camp, the guest, awakening, 
left his bed-room during the night and set out to the 
wife who was sleeping in a certain chamber. And 
suddenly taking his stand at the door and drawing 
his sword, he announced that he had a slave all ready 
for slaughter, and that he would slay her together 
with the slave, as having been taken in adultery and 
having received at the hand of her husband’s nearest 
of kin the punishment she deserved. Therefore, he 
continued, it would be the wiser thing for her to 
submit to his desires without calling out, and as a 
reward for her favour she would receive great gifts 
and be his wife and become queen, exchanging the 
hearth of a private citizen for the first place in the 
state. Lucretia, panic-stricken at so unexpected a 
thing and fearing that men would in truth believe 
that she had been slain because of adultery, made no 
outcry at the time. But when the day came and 
Sextus departed, she summoned her kinsmen and 
asked them not to allow the man to go unpunished 
who had sinned against the laws both of hospitality 
and of kinship. As for herself, she said, it was not 


3 510 Bc. He was in the Roman army which was 
besieging the city of Ardea ; see Livy, 1. 57 ff., Dionysius 
Hal. 4. 64 ff. ; Dio Cassius, frag. 10. 12 ff. 

4 He had the surname Collatinus. 


87 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


mpoońkew èġopâv tròv Arov Tnàkaúrns vßpews 
neneipapévnyv, EipiSiw mardfasa rò orbo; éavris 
reheirnoe. (Const. Exc. 2 (1), pp- 226- -227.) 
"Ori Tîs Avkpnrias poryevb zi ions mapa 
Sérov kal éavriv dveñovons Sa Tò åápáprnpa, 
oùk grov hyoúuela rò yevvaîov tÅs mpoarpésews 
mapañıreiv dvemiońuavtov. TÙÅV yàp émotosav 
ékovoíws TÒ hv Toîs perayeveorépois eis kaàòv 
Ehàov mpoonkóvrws äv eùpnuias dfioîpev åbavd- 
e t 4 m~ LA e + AS A 
TOV, TWS at TV TOÔ owpaTos dyveiav katà mÂv 
dvemiànnrov mapéyeola mpoarpoúpevat mpos ènmi- 
Terevypévov apyéTvrov ntapaßáàwvrat. al pèv obv 
Aa yuvaîkes kàv pavepôs Ti TÕV TooVTWV mpd- 
wo, Krarakpúrmrovoi TÒ ouvvreàeolév, eùàaßov- 
Levar Thv únèp trõv uaprnuévav Tiuwpilav: Ù è 
TÒ Àdôpe mpayhèv morýoaca mepißónrov ånéodačev 
éavtýv, Kal Thv ToÔ Biov TedevTýv kadiornv Ýrèp 
3 abris ånodoyiav dréie. Kal TÕV GAÀAWV é eni Tõv 
årovoíwv TIV avyyvópn TpoPañopévwv, aùr m 
perà Bias vßpw éryrýoaro Bavárov, iva Nò’ € 
Tis embun Pàaognueiv, Tùy éfovoiav č ëxn' Karn- 
yopeîv TÅ mpoarpésews ws? érovoíov YEYEVNuÉVNNS. 
arv yàp dvlpóorav púset Tàs Àoðoplas èralivwv 
TpOTUYLOVTON, TÙÀV TÕv piàariwv árékoyie kary- 
yopíav, aloypòv eivai vouiķovoa rõv dwy eire 
Twa ĝióti ÕvrTos TOÔ karà võuovs ovufioðvros 
avðpòs érépov Tapavőuws meipáðn, kal kab’ oô’ ot 
vóuot Toîs mpáćacı dvarov tiðčacı Trò mpóoTiuov, 


X 


1 emboui . »_. čxnņ Boissevain, èmIupoln . e . čxor Dindorf, 
Vogel : émb vuÎ ee e Eye 

2 às added by Dindorf. 

3 So Boissevain, kaf’ &v Dindorf, Vogel: xaĝór. 


88 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 20. 3—21. 4 


proper for the victim of a deed of such wanton inso- 
lence to look upon the sun, and plunging a dagger 
into her breast she slew herself. 

21. In connection with the violation of Lucretia by 
Sextus and her suicide because of the wrong done her, 
we do not believe it would be right to leave no record 
of the nobility of her choice. For the woman who 
renounced life of her own will in order that later 
generations might emulate her deed we should judge 
to be fittingly worthy of immortal praise, in order 
that women who choose to maintain the purity of 
their persons altogether free from censure may com- 
pare themselves with an authentic example. Other 
women, indeed, even when such an act as this on 
their part is known, conceal what has been done, 
as a means of avoiding the punishment which is 
meted out for guilty acts ; but she made known to 
the world what had been done in secret and then 
slew herself, leaving in the end of her life her fairest 
defence. And whereas other women advance a claim 
for pardon in matters done against their will, she 
fixed the penalty of death for the outrage done to 
her by force, in order that, even if one should 
wish to defame her, he should not have it in his 
power to condemn her choice as having been made 
of her own free will. For since men by nature 
prefer slander to praise, she cut the ground from 
under the accusation men who love to find fault 
might raise ; for she considered it to be shameful 
that anyone could say that while her husband, to 
whom she was wedded in accordance with the laws, 
was still living, she had had relations with another 
man, contrary to the laws, and shameful also that 


she who had been involved in an act for which the 


89 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


roro maboðsav ròv nàelw ypóvor! dıňopuyev, 
iva ròv mávrws ogeróuevov mapà ts púsews 
Odvarov Bpaxù mpoàaßoðoa ris aioyúvns ddàdénrTar 
5 Toùs peyiorovs émaivovs. Toryapoðv où uóvov bv- 
To Biou õófav dhdvarov dvrixarņààdéaro Sià ris 
iias aperis, QÀÀà kal roùs ovyyeveîs kal mavras 
TOÙS moàíras mpoerpéjaro Àaßeùv anmapairņnrov 
hJ ~ 3 > hi 2 

Tuwpiav mapà TÕV els aùrùhv mTapavounodvrwv. 

22. “Ori Aeúkios Tapkvivios ó Baoiàeùs Tupav- 
vxôs kal Biaiws dpyæwv trÕv moùrõv Toùs eùró- 
povus Tv ‘Pwpalwv avýper, pevõeis êmpépwv airias 
évekev TOÔ voohicaclai tàs oùoias aùrðv. Siórep 
Aeúkios 'Ioúvvios, ôppavòs &æv kal mávraw ‘Pw- 
paiwv mÀàovorwraTtos, Òe dupórepa trův roô Tap- 
kuwiov nàcoveéiav únmwnrtevev: decàdiðoûs © dr 
aùroð kal map Ekaora TÒ Paciàe? ovvæv,? mpoo- 
enor pwpòs evar, dpa pèv Bovàðuevos ròv 
únèp roô úvacðaí re plóvov èkkàívew, dua & 
àvuvnovońýTws maparnpeîv TÒ nparróuevov Kal TOS 
Tis Pacıidcias epeðpevew kaipoîs. 

23. “Ori oi Dußapirai pera tpidrovra pupidðwv 
ekorparedoavres émi roùs Kporwvidras kal móe- 
Lov dôikov èrmaveàópevot Tois Öàois EmrTaoav, kal 
Tùv evðaruoviav oùk eveykóvres emÒeéiws tkavòv 
mapáðcerypa Tv iðiav åmøàceav karéùmov rToÔ 


1 So Dindorf : râv màeiw ypóvwv. 

2 & av added by Dindorf. 

3 So Boissevain, ovrðowos Dindorf, Vogel: cvvðov (no 
accent}. 


1 Much the same liberty has been taken with the transla- 
tion as the Byzantine excerptor undoubtedly took with the 
Greek of Diodorus, who never went to quite such pains to 
point a moral or was so involved. 


90 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 21. 4+-—23. 1 


laws decree the penalty of death upon the guilty 
should cling to life any longer. And so she chose 
by a brief anticipation of death, a debt that in any 
case she owed to nature, to exchange disgrace for 
the highest approval. Consequently, not only did 
she win immortal glory in exchange for mortal life 
through her own act of virtue, but she also impelled 
her kinsmen and all the people to exact implacable 
punishment from those who had committed this 
lawless act against her. 

22, King Lucius Tarquinius ruled in a tyrannical 
and violent fashion and made it his practice to slay 
the wealthy citizens among the Romans, advancing 
false charges against them in order to appropriate 
their possessions. Consequently Lucius Junius 
(Brutus), since he was an orphan and the wealthiest 
of all the Romans, for both these reasons viewed 
with mistrust Tarquin’s grasping ambition; and 
because he was the king's nephew and therefore 
close to him on every occasion, he acted the part 
of a stupid person, his purpose being both to 
avoid arousing envy because of any ability of his, 
and at the same time to observe, without rousing 
suspicion, whatever was taking place and to watch 
for the favourable moment to strike at the royal 
power. 

23. The people of Sybaris who took the field with 
three hundred thousand men against the inhabitants 
of Croton and had entered upon an unjust war, were 
completely unsuccessful ? ; and since they were not 
shrewd enough to bear their prosperity, they left 
their own destruction as a sufficient warning example 


2 The war, which took place in 510 s.c., is described more 
fully in Book 12. 9-10. 
91 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


modd pâdov ðeîv mposéyeiw èv raîs llais eùrvyiais 
yrnep êv raîs raàaimwpiats. 

24. “Ori mept ‘Hpoðórov pyoiv ò Arddwpos, Kal 
rara mapetéßnpev oùx oŭrws ‘Hpoôórov rary- 
yopĥoar Bovàņlévres ws únoðeîfai öre trÕv Àóywv 
oi Îavpdoioi toùs dànbeîs karıogúew elóhaow. 

2 “Or nmpooĝkóv ori tiuâchar rhv åperýv, räv ġ 
napà yvvağiv. 

3 “Ori 'Abnvaîot Sers ri viry xpnoáuevot kai 
vikýoavres Borwroús re kat Xaàkıðeis, eùbùs darò 
Tis páxns Xaàkiðos èkvpievoav. èk ris opeàecias 
rìs rôv Borwrðv ðekádryv pua yaàkoûv eis Tùv 
ákpóroňtv åvélesav róðe rò éeyetov ypdýavres,? 


élvea Borwrôv ral KXaàkiðéwv audoavres 
matðes AGnvaiwv épypacw év moàédpov? 

eou® év åyàvóevri oiðnpéw čoßeoav ùßpw" 
Ov innovs ðekdryv Iadàdsı rdoð Ebecav. 


d 
25. "Ori rò rarakalew Tà tepà mapà ‘Edàńvwv 
bed t A A a 
éuabov Ilépoar, tùy aùrhv roîs mpoaðicýoacwv 
ànoðiðovres Ùßpw. 
1 Sexdryv Vogel: ðexdrys. 


1 So the MSS., èmypáavres Herwerden, Vogel. 
3 So Dindorf: moàéuw. 


1 Over the Spartans ; c. 506 B.C. 

2 This is the form in which Herodotus (5. 77) quoted the 
inscription as he read it upon the four-horse chariot. The 
original inscription was destroyed in 480 s.c. by the Persians 
when they sacked and burned the Acropolis and either 
melted down or carried off the bronze chariot. A sizable 
fragment of each of the two inscriptions has been recovered 
(I.G. i. 394; M. N. Tod, Greek Historical Inscriptions, 
12, 43). The original inscription stressed the chains, giving 
the lines of the inscription before us in the order 3, 2, 1, 4. 


92 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 23. 1—25. 1 


that men should be on their guard far more in times 
of their own good fortunes than of their afflictions. 

24. Diodorus says with respect to Herodotus, “ We 
have made this digression, not so much out of any 
desire to criticize Herodotus, as to show by examples 
that tales of wonder are wont to prevail over tales of 
truth.” 

It is fitting that bravery be honoured, even when 
it is shown by women. 

The Athenians made a clever use of their victory,! 
and after defeating the Boeotians and Chalcidians, 
they at once after the battle made themselves 
masters of the city of Chalcis. And as a tenth part 
of the booty won from the Boeotians they dedicated 
a bronze chariot on the Acropolis, inscribing upon 
it the following elegiac lines : 


Having conquered the tribes of Boeotia and those 
of Chalcis 
Midst the labours of war, sons of Athenians 
quenched 
Insolence high in dark bonds of iron ; and taking 
the ransom’s 
Tithe set up here these mares, vowed unto Pallas 
their god.? 


25. The Persians learned from the Greeks the 
burning of temples, repaying those who had been 
the first to offend justice with the same wanton act.’ 


The latest extended discussion of the dedication together with 
a reconstruction of the chariot, mares, and driver, which 
were life size, is given by G. P. Stevens, Hesperia, 5 (1936), 
pp. 504 f. 

3 Herodotus (5. 102) says that the Persians gave the burn- 
ing by Greeks of the temple of Cybelê in Sardis as an excuse 
for their burning the temples of Greece. 


93 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


v “m e 4 m 
2 "Orn Kâpes órò Iepoôv rararovoúuerot ér- 
LA A ld 3 
npaTNoav Tepi ovppayias et npooàdfoiwro My- 
+ Cai 
oiovs ovpudyovs. ó è aveîdev, 
Z kd D 
ndc nor ġoav àkipor Miorot. 


3 Où pùv aAA ó dóßos yyðs reipevos èroinoev 
aùroùs emidaléolar ris mpos dAńàovs pioriuias, 
mpòs è TÒ mÀnpoðv ràs Tprýpeis karà ráyos ovv- 
nvdáykačev. 

4 "Or “Ekaratos ó MAýoros mpeoßeurhs dreorad- 
pévos nò rõv lóvav, dpórnoe &è Ñv airiav 
amorte? aùroîs ó `Apradépvns. roð Sè eiróvros, 
Lýnore nèp v karanoieunlévres kakôs ërabov 
urnoikakjowow, Oùkoðv, dpnoev, eè tò merovlé- 
va kaks Tv dmoriav nepinoreî, TÒ mabey äpa 
eÛ nmorýoet ras nódes Ilépoas eùvooúoas. àno- 
Seápevos Sè rò pnÂèv ð `Apra$épvys årnéðwrke 
ToÙs vópous taîs móňeci kal Tarkroùs ópovs karà 
Súvapıv ènéračev. 

26. “O yàp rToîs moois mapà! rôv moMrôv 
$lóvos ròv éuTpoobev xpóvov ykpvrrTóuevos, ère- 
ù) kapòv čaßev, Opous èčeppáyn. Sià Sè Thv 
pidoriav Toùs oúdovs ŅÀevlépwsav, pâňov Bov- 
Aðpevor roîs oikérais peraðoðvar TÅS éàevbepias Ñ 
Tots edevlépois TÅs moMreias. 


1 N x ; 
napà MSS., Boissevain, xarà Vogel, mapà tots ré A 
1 mag TOÎS TOÀN 
roa. Dindorf. Ees map 5 9s Ta» 


2? The reference is to the Ionians as the 
A saw themsel 
threatened by the Persian fieet. Cp. Herodotas. 6. TE ves 
Herodotus, 5. 36, 125 f. mentions Hecataeus in connec- 


94 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 25. 2—26. 1 


When the Carians were becoming exhausted in 
their struggles with the Persians, they made inquiry 
respecting an alliance, whether they should take the 
Milesians to be their allies. And the oracle replied : 


Of old Miletus’ sons were mighty men. 


But the terror which lay close at hand caused them 
to forget their former rivalry with one another and 
compelled them to man the triremes with all speed.t 

Hecataeus, the Milesian, whom the Ionians dis- 
patched as an ambassador,? asked what cause Arta- 
phernes had to put no faith in them. And when 
Artaphernes replied that he was afraid that they 
would harbour resentment because of the injuries 
they had received during their defeat,’ Hecataeus 
said, “ Well then, if suffering ill treatment has the 
effect of creating bad faith, receiving kind treatment 
will surely cause our cities to be well disposed toward 
the Persians” And Artaphernes, approving the 
statement, restored to the cities their laws and laid 
upon them fixed tributes according to their ability 
to pay. 

26. The hatred which those who possessed citizen- 
ship held for the commons, though it had been con- 
cealed up to this time, now burst forth in full force, 
when it found the occasion. And because of their 
jealous rivalry they freed the slaves, preferring rather 
to share freedom with their servants than citizenship 
with the free.* 


tion with the Ionian revolt, but not with any embassy like 
this, which has every appearance of being an invention. 

3 The naval battle of Ladê, in 494 B.c. 

å This may refer to Argos, where the slaves got control 
of the city for a time, because so many citizens had been 
slain in the wars with Sparta (cp. Herodotus, 6. 83). 


95 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


27. “Ori Aârtis ô râv Iepoðv orparnyós, Mos 
av rò yévos kal nmapà TÕV npoyóvwv mapernpòs 
öre Mýðov roô ovornoapévov rv Mnåiav Abn- 
vaîot kaleorýkaow* dnóyovot, &méoTerÀe mpòs TOÙS 
’Abnvaiovs nÀ” Ós mdápeore perà Ŝvváduews 
amarhowv trv pyy tv npoyovkýv: Mñðov yàp 
TÕv éavroô mpoyóvwuv npeopýrarov” yevóuevov 
apapebivar rýv Paciàeiav úrò rôv °Abnvaiwv ral 
mapayevópevov cis Tv ° Aciav krisar thv Mnòiav. 

2äv uev ov aðrÔ rùv àpxv dmoððcw, åpebúý- 
ceolar Tis aitrias raúrņst kal ris mè Edpões 
orpareias: v è évavrıwbÂocı, moù Õewórepa 
3 meiocolar rôv 'Eperpéwv. ó 8è Miridõns år- 
erpiðy darò ris rÔv ŝéka orparnyðv yvøuns, Šiðrı 
kaTà Tòv TÕv npeoßpevrõv Àdyov pňov mpoońket 
tis Mýðwv dpxfs rupievew ’Abnvaiovs Ñ Arw 
Ts `Abnvaiwv móàcws: tùv uèv yàp rôv Mý- 
wv Paoiàciav *Abnvaîov ăvõpa ovorýoaoĝðar, ràs 
õè 'Abúvas pyõérore Mov rò yévos dvëpa 
KkaTeoyykévat. Ò Ò mpòs uaxqv dkovoas rara 
mapeokevádbero. (Const. Exc. 4, pp. 298-301.) 

28. “Ort ‘Innmokpárys ó Teàĝðos Túpavvos rovs 
Zuparovolovs veviknkws kareorparonéðevoev eis 
Tò Toĝ Aios iepóv. karéňaße Õè aùròv ròv iepéa 
kai tÕv Evpakovoiwv tiwvàs kaĥarpoðvras åvabý- 
para xpvoĝ, kai páMora ipártiov To Aiòðs mepi- 

1 So Boissevain, karéorņoav Mai, Vogel : Kaļ||||]ow. 


2 nóv Boissevain, elmeîv Mai, Vogel: space of 5 letters. 


3 So Capps for mpeopúrepov Arw which is deleted by all 
editors. 


t So Boissevain, Ts mpörns alrias Mai, Vogel; aġlên- 
III] ]l]airias ravrņns. Capps suggests re after raúrņs. 


1 Of expelling his ancestor. 


96 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 27. 1—28. 1 


27. Datis, the general of the Persians and a Mede 
by descent, having received from his ancestors the 
tradition that the Athenians were descendants of 
Medus, who had established the kingdom of Media, 
sent a message to the Athenians declaring that he 
was come with an army to demand the return of the 
sovereignty which had belonged to his ancestors ; for 
Medus, he said, who was the oldest of his own ances- 
tors, had been deprived of the kingship by the 
Athenians, and removing to Asia had founded the 
kingdom of Media. Consequently, he went on to 
say, if they would return the kingdom to him, he 
would forgive them for this guilty act * and for the 
campaign they had made against Sardis ; but if they 
opposed his demand, they would suffer a worse fate 
than had the Eretrians.? Miltiades, voicing the 
decision reached by the ten generals, replied that 
according to the statement of the envoys it was more 
appropriate for the Athenians to hold the mastery 
over the empire of the Medes than for Datis to hold 
it over the state of the Athenians; for it was a 
man of Athens who had established the kingdom of 
the Medes, whereas no man of Median race had ever 
controlled Athens. Datis, on hearing this reply, 
made ready for battle. 

28. Hippocrates, the tyrant of Gela, after his vic- 
tory over the Syracusans,? pitched his camp in the 
temple area of Zeus. And he seized the person of the 
priest of the temple and certain Syracusans who were 
in the act of taking down the golden dedications and 
removing in particular the robe of the statue of Zeus 


2 Eretria was plundered and burned by the Persians a few 
days before the battle of Marathon, 490 B.C. 
3 In the battle of Helorus, c. 491 B.C. 


97 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


apovuévovs èk Todo kateokevacuévov ypvolov* 

2 kal Toúrois pèv emnmÀànéas œs iepooúàois eréìevoev 
ameàbeîv eis rhv mów, aùròs è rôv dvaðnuártwæwv 
anéoyero, pidoĝotioai Oéwv kai vouitwv Sev tòv 
TnÀàoôrov énmavapoúpevov móàcuov unðèv èt- 
auaprtdvew eis TÒ Îeîov, åa è voulwv diafdàew 
ToÙùs npoeorÂÕTas TÂv év Lvpakovoais mpaypárTwv 
npòs Tà nÀàýín ià rò ĝoxeõv arods mÀeoverTtikÂsS, 
GAN où ònpotikÂs odò tows äpxew. 

3 "Orn Ońýpwv ô ’Akpayavrivos yévei ral mÀoúrw 
Kal TÑ mpòs TÒ nÀàñbos pidavbpwrig Toàù mpoeîyev 
où uóvov TÕv moùTÂÕv, GAA kai? rÔv DikeÀwrõv. 

(Const. Exc. 2 (1), p. 227.) 
29. Téwva Zupakovoiov kaf’ rvovs Sè foðvra, 
kepauvofpàùs yàp čotev veipois yeyovévar, 
ó kúwv Îopvßoðpevov àuérpws yvoùs ereîvov, 
rkaĥuvàarrõv oùr éàntev čws èyeipei roîrTov. 
Torov e$éowoé more kal Àúrkos ek Îavdárov. 
oxoàf mposkabnuévov yàp étt mabiov õvros 
Aúkos Abav aphpraće rův ŠéàrTov rův èreívov. 
To è pauóvros mpòş aùròv tTòv Àŭkov kal 
TùV ÒEÀTOV, l 
karaceicheîoa ġ) oyo) Babpõbev karaninrei, 
kal oúumavras dnékteive maias oùv Šida- 
okdàw. 
Tõv maiðwv è ròv dpıðuòv oi ovyypageîs 
Boôo, 
Tiparo, Arovúcioi, Atóðwpoi kal Alwy, 
màclw Teàoñvra ékaróv. tò Ò dkpipès oùr 
olôa. (Tzetzes, Hist. 4. 266-278.) 


1 ypvolov MSS., Büttner-Wobst, xpvooôĝ Dindorf, Vogel. 
2 mávrwv added after xal by Valesius, Vogel. 
98 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 28. 1—29. 1 


in the making of which a large amount of gold had 
been used. And after sternly rebuking them as 
despoilers of the temple, he ordered them to return 
to the city, but he himself did not touch the dedica- 
tions, since he was intent upon gaining a good name 
and he thought not only that one who had com- 
menced a war of such magnitude should commit no 
sin against the deity, but also that he would set the 
commons at variance with the administrators of the 
affairs of Syracuse, because men would think the 
latter were ruling the state to their own advantage 
and not to that of all the people nor on the principle 
of equality. 

Theron? of Acragas in birth and wealth, as well as 
in the humanity he displayed towards the commons, 
far surpassed not only his fellow citizens but also the 
other Sicilian Greeks. 

29. Gelon of Syracuse? cried out in his sleep, for he 
was dreaming that he had been struck by lightning, 
and his dog, when he noticed that he was crying out 
immoderately, did not stop barking untilhe awakened 
him. Gelon was also once saved from death by a 
wolf. As a boy he was seated in a school and a wolf 
came and snatched away the tablet he was using. 
And while he was chasing after the wolf itself and his 
tablet too, the school was shaken by an earthquake 
and crashed down from its very foundations, killing 
every one of the boys together with the teacher. 
Historians, like Timaeus, Dionysius, Diodorus, and 
also Dio, celebrate the number of the boys, which 
amounted to more than one hundred. The precise 
number I do not know. 


1 Tyrant of Acragas, 488—472 B.C. 
2 Tyrant, but nominally “ General,” of Syracuse, 485- 
478 B.C. 
99 


DIODORUS OPF SICILY 


30. "Ori roð Miàrdðov viòs ó Kipwv, TEÀEUTý- 
gavros ToÔ TATPOS, aùroð év t Önuocig puvàarĝ 
ŝia TÒ uù ioyôoa ékTica Tò öpànua, iva àdpn tò 
oôpa toô matpòs eis rapńv, éavrtòv eis Tův ġv- 
dakùv mapéðwke kal Õeðééaro rò öpànpa. 

2 "Orn ò Kiuwv diàóripos &v els Tv TÔv kowôv 


Sioikyow, eÉ úorépov åyaßós orparņyòs èyevýðn, 


kal ôa Tis iðias åperñs evõóčovs mpáćes kar- 
epydocaTo. (Const, Exc. 2 (1), pp. 227-228.) 


31. Kíipwv við } Sr í 
- Kipwy viòs kard twas úripxe Miàrıdõov, 
kartà ò érépovs Ñv maTtpòs Tv kàĝñow Ery- 
oayópov. 
eE I i 2 Ens e A e [g 
eE looðixns Troúrw nais órñpyev ó Kadias 
Ka ? a 
ó Kipa oŭros dðeàphv iav Eàmwirnv 
e A € 
elyev, ùs Irodepatos Lèv Čorepov Bepevirny, 
e 
kal Zes tv “Hpav mpò aùrôv, kal vôv 
~ kJ 
IHeprôv rò yévos. 
7 b3 
Kadas Sè mevrýkovra ráavra Čnuoðrta, 
e a e ` 
ömws ð Kipwv ó marÀp unåèv ŝewóv ri náb 
veka yápav TÕV aloypõv, Tis dðeàdopiéías. 
fe} à 
TÒ Ò boot raĝra ypáfovci uakpóv oti por 
Àéyew: 
x A AşO Eg ~ A 
ori yàp TAÑBos äreipov räv raðra yeypa- 
böra, 
e y y ey? 
ot kwpukol kal púropes, Atbõwpos, kal AÀdoL. 
(Tzetzes, Hist. 1. 582-595.) 


1 The distinguished Athenian admiral in the war betw 
the Confederacy of Delos and the Persian Empire, and ihe 
lead ler ofi e conservative party in Athens until his ostracism 

? Miltiades was fined fifty talents for hi ? 
attack upon the island of Patas in 489 s.c, $s unsucvessful 


100 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 30. 1—31. 1 


30. Cimon, the son of Miltiades, when his father 
had died in the state prison because he was unable 
to pay in full the fine,? in order that he might receive 
his father’s body for burial, delivered himself up to 
prison and assumed the debt. 

Cimon, who was ambitious to take part in the con- 
duct of the state, at a later time became an able 
general and performed glorious deeds by virtue of 
his personal bravery. 

31. Cimon, as certain writers say, was the son of 
Miltiades, but according to others his father was 
known as Stesagoras.? And he had a son Callias by 
Isodicê.t And this Cimon was married to his own 
sister Elpinicê 5 as Ptolemy was at a later time to 
Berenicê,' and Zeus to Hera before them, and as 
the Persians do at the present time. And Callias 
pays a fine of fifty talents, in order that his father 
Cimon may not suffer punishment because of his dis- 
graceful marriage, that, namely, of brother with 
sister. The number of those who write about this 
it would be a long task for me to recount ; for the 
multitude of those who have written about it is 
boundless, such as the comic poets and orators and 
Diodorus and others. 


3 Stesagoras was the brother of Miltiades and so Cimon’s 
uncle. 

4 Granddaughter of the wealthy Megacles. 

5 Elpinicê was the half-sister of Cimon, and Nepos (Cimon, 
1. 2) states that Athenian law allowed the marriage of 
brother and sister who had only the same father. But 
Wilamowitz-Möllendorf (Hermes, 12 (1877), p. 339, n. 23) 
clears Cimon of this scandalous charge. She was clearly a 
vigorous personality (cp. Plutarch, Cimon, 4, 15). The stories 
about Elpinicê became more scandalous in the course of 
time (cp. Athenaeus, 13, 589 c). 

s Three Ptolemies had sisters named Berenicê, 

101 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


32. "Ori Oeporokàijs ð roô Neokàéovs, mpoo- 
eàbóvros Twòs aùT® màovaiov kal nroðvros rn- 
Seorhv eúpeîv màoŬoiov, mapekecúoaTo aùT® Ünrev 
L) XPýLATO dvðpòs Šeópeva, Todd Õè pňov ävåpa 
XPNpáTwV evõeâ, anoðečapévov è ravôpærov Tò 
pyè ouvepoúdevoev aùr® ovvoikioat Tùv Ouvya- 
Tépa Tô Kipo. SLórep ek raútns tis airias ð 
Kipwv cùnophoas xpypáTwv aneàúðn rìs pvdarĵs, 
kai Toùs katakàcicavras dpyovras eùbúvas kara- 
Šíkovs érapev. (Const. Exc. 4, p. 301.) 

[ H pèr oðv mpo Taúrys Pipàos, Tis ÖÀNs ovv- 
Tágews oĝoa berdrn, TÒ Téos čoye rôv mpdčewv els 
Tòv mponyoúpevov énavròv tis Hépýov Šiaßdocws 
eis Tùy Eùpórnnv kai eis tràs yevopévas Šnunyo- 
pias év ti kowf ovvõðw rv ‘EMývav ev Kopivôw 
mepi tås Féwvos ovppayias tois "EAnow.] i 

(Diodorus, 11. 1. 1.) 

33. "Ore ôv ‘EMývwv ndvrwv Siarpeoßevoa- 
évwv npòs Féàwva mepi ovupayias, õre Bépëns 
SréBaive eis? rhv Eùpõrmyy, roô Sè ènrayyerauévov 
ovupayhioat kal oirapyĝoat, e ye tv hyepoviav 
aÙTÂ elTe Tùv katà yiv eire Tùv karà Îdàartrav 
mapéčovow, ń pèv Únèp tis ńyepovias hiìoðočía 
Tv ovupaygiav mapekpoðero, TÒ Sè uéyebos rîs 
Ponleias kat ó rv modeuiaw póßos nmpoerpérero 
peraðoðvar Tis déns TÖ Fédami. 

34. ‘H èv yàp rôv Ilepoðv únepox) mpòs tò 
kparĵoar ris èmbupias čyet ràs Öwpeds, ý Õè 

1 So Dindorf: ovroixĝoa. 


2 ets Boissevain, mpòs Mai, Vogel: Stéßawel]ji. 


102 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 32. 1—34. I 


32. Themistocles, the son of Neocles, when a cer- 
tain wealthy person! approached him to find out 
where he could find a wealthy son-in-law, advised him 
not to seek for money which lacked a man, but rather 
a man who was lacking in money. Anà when the 
inquirer agreed with this advice, Themistocles coun- 
selled him to marry his daughter to Cimon. This was 
the reason, therefore, for Cimon becoming a wealthy 
man, and he was released from prison, and calling to 
account the magistrates who had shut him up he 
secured their condemnation. 

[The preceding Book, which is the tenth of our 
narrative, closed with the events of the year? just 
before the crossing of Xerxes into Europe and the 
formal deliberations which the general assembly of 
the Greeks held in Corinth on the alliance between 
Gelon and the Greeks.] 

33. When all the Greeks, at the time Xerxes was 
about to cross over into Europe, dispatched an em- 
bassy to Gelon to discuss an alliance, and when he 
answered that he would ally himself with them and 
supply them with grain, provided that they would 
grant him the supreme command either on the land 
or on the sea, the tyrant’s ambition for glory in his 
demanding the supreme command thwarted the alli- 
ance; and yet the magnitude of the aid he could 
supply and the fear of the enemy were impelling 
them to share the glory with Gelon.* 

34. For though the supremacy which the Persians 
enjoy entails, for the satisfaction of cupidity, the 


1 Euryptolemus, son of Megacles. 

2 481 s.c. 3 480 B.C. 

4 See Herodotus, 7. 157 f. But Gelon himself was in 
danger from an attack of the Carthaginians upon the Greeks 
of Sicily. 

103 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Tupavvir) nÀcoveĝia kal Tà pikpà TÔv \ypuátwv 
r 
où mapinow. 

2 Beßaicráry yàp ris owrnpias púňaé ń amoria. 

3 Ilaiðes èv oŭðv dôıkoúpevor mpòs marépas kara- 
geúyovoi, móeis è mpòs toùs droikicavras ý- 
ovs. 

4 “OTi Tupdvvov mÀcovećia toîs uèv ndpxyovow où« 
dpkeïrar, rÕv è dàorpiwv èmbuue?, nmÀnpoôrar 
dè oùðérore. 

5 Toùs è karà ris Svvaorelas aùroð mepuróras 
éxwv kapòv oùk doet Õúvapuıv Àaßeîv. 

6 Ekevwv yàp rÕv avðpõv ore ànmóyovor o? tàs 
aŭúrðv dperàs perà Tòv Îávarov åbavdrovs rí) één 
Kkatañedoinmact. 

7 Tò yàp ënabàov ris cvupayias obk àpyúpiov 
aitei, oÔ modàdiaıs lev ort karaġpovoðvra kal 
Tòv pavàórarov iôrwrny nmendovrykóra, ÀX ëma- 
vov kal ðótav, mept fs ot ayaðboi rÔv dvðpórwv 
oùx òrvoðow dnobvjokew’ pobos ydp orw ù) 
óta peltwv dpyvptov. 

8 Ilapaàappdávovoi yàp ot Erapriâôraı mapà r@v 
naTépwv où% ©anep ot Àorrol mÀoŬTov, AÀÀÀ mpo- 
Oúuws reňevrâv nepil ris edevbepias, ore mávra 
Tà karà ròv piov ayabà evrepa riðeohar Ts 
SóéNs. 

9 M) rõôv éevikðv ðvvápewv embupoðvres tàs 
moùTiKàs anopdwpev kal Tv aðýàwv òpeyő- 
uevoi tÕv þavepðv u) kvpievwpev. 


1 This and the following excerpts may well be from the 
speeches of the Greeks as they weighed the choice between 


104 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 34. 1-9 


gifts they require, yet a tyrants greed does not 
overlook even any small gain.? 

For the surest guardian of safety is mistrust. 

Now children, when they are being ill treated, 
turn for aid to their parents, but states turn to the 
peoples who once founded them.? 

A tyrant’s greed does not rest satisfied with what 
he possesses, but it yearns after the property of others 
and is never sated. 

As for those whose character will oppose his domi- 
nation, he will not, when the opportunity offers, allow 
them to become powerful. 

For you are descendants of those men who have 
bequeathed to glory their own virtues, deathless after 
their death. 

For as the reward for the alliance it is not money 
he requires, which one can often see despised by 
even the lowest man in private life when he has once 
gained wealth, but praise and glory, to gain which 
noble men do not hesitate to die; for the reward 
which glory offers is to be preferred above silver. 

For the inheritance which the Spartans receive 
from their fathers is not wealth, as is the case with 
all other men, but an eagerness to die for the sake 
of liberty, so that they set all the good things which 
life can offer second to glory. 

Let us not in our eagerness for mercenary troops 
throw away our own citizen forces, and, in reaching 
for what is unseen, lose our mastery of that which 
is in sight. 
fighting the Persians, with possible defeat, and putting them- 
selves under the tyrant Gelon. 


2 That is, the mother-cities of Greece should not seek aid 
from the colonies they had once founded in Sicily. 


105 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


10 OÖ pnu karamenràñyðatr rò péyebos tis rôv 
epoðv ortparelas™ aper yàp ó módepos, où 
nÀýber Ppaßevera. 

Hapedńpaot yàp nò rv marépwv Čîv pèv 
éavroîs, reevrâv ©’ õrav xpeia taîs marpiow ènĝ. 
12 Ti poßnlðpev ròv ypvoðv & rekoounuévo: Basit- 
ovow eis tàs páyxas ©s yvvaîkes els ToùS ydpovs, 
Dore Tv vikyv uù póvov čmaðdov čyew Šóćav, 
dùd kai nàoôrov; où poßeîrat yàp ġ ApETÀ xpv- 
cóv, ôv ò oiðnpos EČwbev ğyew aiyudàwrov, dÀÀà 
Tù orparņyiav rÂv hyovuévwv. 

Iâsa yàp vvas únepaipovoa rùv ovuperpiav 
ú$ éavris Bàdnrerar rà mÀcîora. npiv ġ yàp 
droĝoat Tiv pañayya, phdoopev hueîs mpáčavres 
å Povàópela. (Const. Exc. 4, pp. 301-302.) 


1 So the MSS., Boissevain, orparıâs Dindorf, Vogel. 


196 


FRAGMENTS OF BOOK X. 34. 10-13 


I deny that I am dismayed at the magnitude of the 
Persians’ armaments ; for valour decides the issue of 
war, not numbers. 

For the inheritance they have received from their 
fathers is to live their own lives, and to die in 
response to their country’s need. 

Why should we fear the gold with which they deck 
themselves out as they go into battle, as women deck 
themselves for marriage, since as a result victory will 
bring us the prize not only of glory, but of wealth ? 
For valour fears not gold, which cold steel has ever 
taken captive, but the military skill of the leaders. 

For every army which exceeds the proper propor- 
tion carries in itself its undoing in almost every case. 
For before the serried ranks have heard the command 
we shall have anticipated them in obtaining our 
objectives. 


107 


INCERTA 


[Tò TeÀevraĝov moais yeveaîs Üorepov èk TÃsS 
'Irañias Tò TÕV Ziredðv élvos mavõnuel TEparw- 
bèv eis Tiv Zixehlav, TAV ÓT TÕV Likavôv eràe- 
pletoav yopav KkaTýrnoav. åel sè Ti mÀcovećig 
mpoPawóvrwv TÕv Duikeiðv, kal TV òpopov Top- 
bovvrav, èyévovro móàcepot TÀcovákis aùroîs mpos 
TOoÙS Zixavovs, ws ovvbýras Torgápevot avp- 
pævovs č öpovs člevro TîS, XOpas* Tepl OV TÀ KATA 
uépos & roîs olkelois ypõvois ávaypdjopev.] 

(Diodorus, 5. 6. 3-4.) 

1. Arówpos pévroi ciahopàav Toútrwv olðev èv 
ols Àéyer, Duikavôv kal Dikeàðv. 

(Eustathius, Commentary on the Odyssey, Book 20, 
p. 1896.1) 

Aróðwpos é mov rv ðekdrwv Pifiwv einov 
mepi Te DikeÀðv kal Zixavâv õradopav olev, œs 
ral mpoeppébn, Zikedoô ral Dikavoô. 

(Idem, Book 24, p. 1962.) 

2. Aóðwpos è ó Xıredòs kal ð Ormavòs tav- 
tyy rhv Nedroùw ú$ ‘Hparàéovs paol krobiva. 

(Tzetzes, on the Alexandra of Lycophron, v. 717.) 
3. Kal rò Iaddsior sè rhs ’AOnvâs rorodrov ñv, 
Tpimnyv, čúàwov, ¢ oùpavoð katraneoóv, s paow, 
1 Ed. Stallbaum, Leipzig, 1825-1830. 
2 Ed. E. Scheer, Berlin, 1911. 
108 


FRAGMENTS OF UNCERTAIN 
PROVENIENCE 


[And last of all, many generations later, the people 
of the Siceli crossed over in a body from Italy into 
Sicily and made their home in the land which had 
been abandoned by the Sicani. And since the Siceli 
steadily grew more avaricious and kept ravaging the 
land which bordered on theirs, frequent wars arose 
between them and the Sicani, until at last they struck 
covenants and set up boundaries of their territory, 
upon which they had agreed. With regard to these 
matters we shall give a detailed account in connec- 
tion with the appropriate period of time.] 

1. Diodorus, however, recognizes a distinction 
between them, when he speaks of Sicani and Siceli. 

Diodorus, when he speaks somewhere in the first 
ten Books about both Siceli and Sicani, recognizes 
a distinction, as I have already said, between Sicelus 
and Sicanus. 

2. Diodorus of Sicily and Oppian state that this 
city of Neapolis was founded by Heracles. 

3. And the Palladium 1 of Athena was like this we 
have mentioned, three cubits tall, made of wood, 
having fallen from heaven, men say, in Pesinous in 


1 An image of Pallas Athenê. 
109 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


év Ileowobvri ris Ppvyias, hev ó Móðwpos ra 
Alwv ròv rónov kìņbivai dacw. 
(Eudocia, Violarium, 322.) 
4. Kal Ardðwpos ärpav riwvà Trõv *Aànewv kopv- 
pv TOG cúumavros õpovs Šokoðsav oðpavoô páyw 
iarope? mapa TÕv êyywpiwv kadeîohai. 
(Eustathius, loc. cit. Book 1, p. 1890.) 
1 Ed. Flach, 1880. 


110 


FRAGMENTS OF UNCERTAIN PROVENIENCE 


Phrygia, and Diodorus and Dio say that the region 
received its name from this event 1 

4. And Diodorus records that a certain peak of the 
Alps, which has the appearance of being the highest 
part of the entire range, is called by the natives the 
“ Ridge of Heaven.” 


1 Pesinous from the stem pes in the verb “ to fall.” 


lil 


MANUSCRIPTS 


Codex Coislinianus, 15th century. 
Codex Laurentianus, 14th century, 
Codex Vaticanus, 16th century. 
Codex Parisinus, 16th century. 
Codex Claromontanus, 16th century. 
Codex Parisinus, 15th century. 
Codex Venetus, 15th century. 

Codex Patmius, 10th or 11th century. 


The designations of the MSS. are those of the 
Preface to the second volume of the edition of Vogel- 
Fischer. Of these MSS. only A contained any parts 
of Books 1-5. In the critical notes Vogel uses “ v ” 
to designate “ vulgate,” ” or the reading of all MSS. 
except P ; to designate the reading of AHL ; 
and “f” to designate the reading of FJKM. 


m 


I Z m pa S a E pe 


1 Designated “ I ” by Vogel in error. 


112 


BOOK XI 


Tade éveoriv év ri évðekáry rÕv 
Aroðwpov Bißàwv. 

Ilep ris Eéptov čraBdoews eis Tùy Eùpórnv. 

Ilep rÃs páxns Týs êv Oepporódais. 

Iep ris Fiépov vavpayias mpòs roùs "Eànvas. 

‘Qs OeuorokÀéovs karaotparyyýravros tòv E épny 
katevavpáxņnoav oi "Eààņves Toùòs Bappápovs mrepl 
Zadapiva. 

‘Ns Eépns Mapôóviov orparqyyòv åroMmòv perà 
pépovs Tis vvápews dripev eis Thv’ Aciav, 

‘Qs Kapxnõóvior peydàais Övváperiv értpárevrav eis 
Tiv Pikediav, 

‘Qs Téiov karartparyyýoas tToòs Bapßpápovs Tos 
pèr aùTav kaTékope, TOÙS È efOypnoev. 

‘Qs Téiwv enbévrov Kapyyõoviov xpýpara mpaĉá- 
pevos cuveyópnoer aùroîs Tùv epývnv. 

Kpísis Tõv dpiorevoávrov ‘EAiývov év Tẹ mohé. 

Máyxy rõvEààývøv pòs Mapõóriov xat Ilépras mepè 
Tiàatuids kal viky rôv ‘EAàývov, 

Ióàcuos "Pwpalois mpòs Aikoàavoòs xal toùs Tò 
Toĉokàov xaToikotvTas. 


114 


CONTENTS OF THE ELEVENTH BOOK OF 
DIODORUS 


On the crossing of Xerxes into Europe (chaps. 1-4). 

On the battle of Thermopylae (chaps. 5-11). 

On the naval battle which Xerxes fought against 
the Greeks (chaps. 12-13). 

How Themistocles outgeneralled Xerxes and the 
Greeks conquered the barbarians in the naval battle 
of Salamis (chaps. 14-18). 

How Xerxes, leaving Mardonius behind as com- 
mander, withdrew with a portion of his army to Asia 
(chap. 19). 

How the Carthaginians with great armaments 
made war upon Sicily (chaps. 20-21). 

How Gelon, after outgeneralling the barbarians, 
slew some of them and took others captive (chaps. 
22-23). 

How Gelon, when the Carthaginians sued for peace, 
exacted money of them and then concluded the peace 
(chaps. 24-26). 

Judgement passed on the Greeks who distinguished 
themselves in the war (chap. 27). 

The battle of the Greeks against Mardonius and 
the Persians about Plataea and the victory of the 
Greeks (chaps. 27-39). 

The war which the Romans waged against the 
Aequi and the inhabitants of Tusculum (chap. 40). 

115 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Iep ris karaoxevis To Ieparéws irò Oepirro- 
kàéovs. 

Ilep ris drorradeioņns pfBonheias Kupaćos ve 
'Iépwvos rob Baridéws. 

Ilep ro yevopévov moàépov Tapavriívois rpòs 
'Ilárvyas. 

‘Ns Oparvåaîos ó Oýpwvos pèv viós, Túpavvoşs ô 
Axpayavrivwv, hTryÂeis ird Zupakovoiwv dméßade Tùv 
Suvas rteiav. 

‘Qs Oeorokàñs pvyòv mpòs Sépénv kaì karnyopy- 
Beis Oavárov jAevÂepóðny. 

‘Qs ’AGyvaiot tràs karà thv `Aciav ‘Eàànvidas modes 
hAevléporav. 

Ilep ro yevopévov Tepod repèt rhv Aakwvikýv, 

Iep rs drosráoews rõv Meoonviwuv kal rõv Eió- 
Twv darò! Aakeôaipoviwv. 

"Qs Apyetot Mucývas karagkáyavres doikyrTov eroii- 
Tav tv mó. 

Rs ryv drò Téhwvos Barideiav karéàvoav oi Eupa- 
koŭstot. 

‘Qs Eépgov oħopovnhévros Aprafépéns èBasihevrev. 

Iep ris àrorrárews rôv Aiyvrriov árd Ieprðv. 

Iep erárewv Tõv yevopévwv ëv Taîs Xvpakoúrais. 

‘Ns 'Aĝnvatot Aiyivýras kat KopivÂiovs katerohé 
pNTav. 

‘Ns Pwkeîs mpds Awpieis érohéunoav, 


116 


CONTENTS OF THE ELEVENTH BOOK 


On the construction of the Peiraeus by Themi- 
stocles (chaps. 41-50). 

On the aid which king Hiero dispatched to the 
Cymaeans (chap. 51). 

On the war which arose between the Tarantini and 
the Iapyges (chap. 52). 

How Thrasydaeus, the son of Theron and tyrant 
of the Acragantini, was defeated by the Syracusans 
and lost his overlordship (chap. 53). 

How Themistocles, who had fled for safety to 
Xerxes and was put on trial for his life, was set at 
liberty (chaps. 54-59). 

How the Athenians freed the Greek cities through- 
out Asia (chaps. 60-62). 

On the earthquake that occurred in Laconia 
(chap. 63 

On the revolt of the Messenians and Helots against 
the Lacedaemonians (chaps. 63-64). 

How the Argives razed Mycenae to the ground 
and made the city desolate (chap. 65). 

How the Syracusans overthrew the royal line 
of Gelon (chaps. 67-68). 

How Xerxes was slain by treachery and Artaxerxes 
became king (chap. 69). 

On the revolt of the Egyptians against the Persians 
(chap. 71). 

On the civil discords which took place among the 
Syracusans (chaps. 72-73). 

How the Athenians defeated in war the Aeginetans 
and Corinthians (chaps. 78-79). 

How the Phocians made war on the Dorians 


(chap. 79). 


1 årò deleted by Vogel. 
117 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


‘Qs Mvpwviôns ó 'Aĝyvaïos ôAiyors oTpatórais Boro- 
A la E 3 2 
” Tobs ToàÀàamÀariovs ÖvrTas evikyoev. 
Iep rĝs Toàplõov orpareias eis Kepañànviav. 
Ilep To? yevopévov mohépov karà tyv Zixeàiav 
'Eyeoralors kat Aràvpaiois. 
Ilep ro? vopolernÂévrtos év Zupakoúrais Terao po?, 
Erpareia IepixÀéovs eis Ileioróvvyoov. 
Zrpareía Zupakovsiwv eis Tvppyviav. 
Hep rv èv Zixeàig Iadxâv õvopafopévøv. 
IL bi A A ld tr b A ` 3 
epi Tis Aovkeriov ÑTTAS Kal TS Tepl aŭtòy rapa- 


Sófov rwTypias. 


118 


CONTENTS OF THE ELEVENTH BOOK 


How Myronides the Athenian with a few soldiers 
defeated the Boeotians who far outnumbered them 
(chaps. 81-82). 

On the campaign of Tolmides against Cephallenia 
(chap. 84). 

On the war in Sicily between the Egestaeans and 
Lilybaeans (chap. 86). 

On the framing of the law of petalism by the 
Syracusans (chap. 87). 

The campaign of Pericles against the Peloponnesus 
(chap. 88). 

The campaign of the Syracusans against Tyrrhenia 
(chap. 88). 

On the Palici, as they are called, in Sicily (chap. 89). 

On the defeat of Ducetius and his astounding 
escape from death (chaps. 91-92). 


119 


(2 


BIBAO? ENAEKATH 


1. ‘H pèv ov mpò raúrns Bios, rÅs dàns ovv- 
ráčews oga Šekárn, TÒ TÉÀos čoye TÖV mpáğewv 
els ròv mpoņnyoúpevov èviavròv rs Zépćov ia- 
Bdocws eis rhv Eùpónmyv kal els tàs yevopévas 
Snunyopias êv t) kow gvvóðw rTÔv EMývwv 
e Kopivðw mepi ris Féwvos ovupayias rToîs 
"Edyow: év raúrņy è rò ovuveyès rìs iorTopias 
åvaràņpoðvres àpéópeða pèv dnò Tås Eépfov 
orpareias èmè roùs “Eànvas, karaňýgopev „òè 
ènì ròv mponyoúpevov êviavròv Tis 'AÎnvaiwv 
orparelas émi Kúrpov ýyovuévov Kipwvos. : 

Er äpyovros yàp ` Abývno KaMıdõov Pwpaîor 
karéornoav úndrovs Xrópiov Káociov kai I põràov 
Oùepyivrov Tpikoorov, 4x0 õè kal Tap? 'Hàeiors 
'Oàvpmàs mért mpos rais éBõouýkovra, kaf’ Ùv 
evira ordðiov ` Acrúdos Lupakóoios. eml è rovrwv 
Bépéns ó Pacieùs èorpdrevoev émi rhv ‘EMdôa 
Sià raúryv Tùv airiav. Mapõóvios ó Ilépons dve- 
piòs pèv kal knòeorhs v Zépéov, Sià dè ovveow 
Kal àvõpeiav páňora Bavuagópevos mapà Toîs Iép- 
cas. oĝros peTréwpos OV TÖ ppovýpartı kal Thv 
ŅAxiav akudbwv, ènebúpe peyáňwv Òvvduewv åg- 
nyýoacðar: Šıómep neoe ròv Bépénv karaðovàw- 
caclaı roùs “Edàyvas, del moàejukÂs Exovras mpòs 


120 


BOOK XI 


1. The preceding Book, which is the tenth of our 
narrative, closed with the events of the year just 
before the crossing of Xerxes into Europe and the 
formal deliberations which the general assembly of 
the Greeks held in Corinth on the alliance between 
Gelon and the Greeks ; and in this Book we shall 
supply the further course of the history, beginning 
with the campaign of Xerxes against the Greeks, 
and we shall stop with the year which precedes the 
campaign of the Athenians against Cyprus under the 
leadership of Cimon.!' 

Calliades was archon in Athens, and the Romans 
made Spurius Cassius and Proculus Verginius Tri- 
costus consuls, and the Eleians celebrated the Seventy- 
fifth Olympiad, that in which Astylus of Syracuse 
won the “ stadion.” It was in this year that king 
Xerxes made his campaign against Greece, for the 
following reason. Mardonius the Persian was a 
cousin of Xerxes and related to him by marriage, 
and he was also greatly admired by the Persians 
because of his sagacity and courage. This man, being 
elated by pride and at the height of his physical 
vigour, was eager to be the leader of great arma- 
ments ; consequently he persuaded Xerxes to en- 
slave the Greeks, who had ever been enemies of the 


1 That is, the Book covers the years 480-451 »B.c. 
121 


480 B.0 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


4 roùs Illépoas. ó è Zépéns meiwbeis aùr ral 
Povàčpevos mávraşs roùs “Eànvas dvaorárovs 
nojaa, Sienpeoßeóoaro npòs Kapynõoviovs mept 
kowonpayias kal ovvébero mpòs aùroús, wore 
aùròv pèv èm roùs týv ‘Eàdõa karoikoðvras 
“Eàànvas ortpareveiw, Kapynõoviovs Sè roîs aùroîs 
xpóvos peyáas mapackevádocacðaı Švuvádueis kal 
kararoàeuoar rÕv ‘Eývwv roðs mepi Puikeàiav 

5 kal 'Iraàíav oikoôvras. droàovbws obv raîs ovv- 
Oúkars Kapxnòórior pèv ypnuárwv milos åðpoi- 
cavres pobopópovs ovvĵyov črk re ris `Iraàias 
kat Aiyvorichs, ére Sè Tadarias kai `Ipnpias, 
mpòs è roúrois êk rs Apins drdons kai ris 
Kapyxnõóvos karéypaßov moňirikàs Švváuers* réàos 
òè rpreri xpóvov mepi tràs mapackevàs doyoàn- 
Oévres HOporocav mebõv' uèv önèp tàs Tpiákovra 
uvpidðas, vaðs è cıakocias. 

2. “O è Hépéns dpAúpevos mps Tv rtôv 
Kapynõoviwv omovðńv, úrepeßdàero máoais raîs 
mapaokevaîs Tocoĵrov oov kal TÔ mÀybe rôv 
éhvôv únrepeîye Kapynõoviwv. Npéaro è vavry- 
yeaa karà nâoav rův mapabaňdrriov Tv úr 
arov rarrouévyv, Atyurróv re kal Ďowikyy kal 
Kúrpov, mpòs ðè roúrois Kidiav kal IHappvàiav 
kal Iiobixýv, čne è Avkiav rat Kapiav kal 
Mvoiav kai Tpwdða kai tràs è ‘EdMnoróvrw 
nõàes kai rhv Bibvviav kat ròv IIóvrov. ópoiws 
òè roîs Kapxnõoviois tprerñ xpóvov mapackevasd- 
evos kareokeðace vaĵs pakpàs mÀelovs TÕV yı- 

2 Awv kal cakociwv. cuvefdàero Õè aùr kal ó 
marp Aapeîos, mpò ris reàevris mapackevàs 
nerompévos peydàwv Šuváduewv: kal yàp èkeîvos 
122 


BOOK XI. 1. 4—2. 2 


Persians. And Xerxes, being won over by him and 
desiring to drive all the Greeks from their homes, 
sent an embassy to the Carthaginians to urge them 
to join him in the undertaking and closed an agree- 
ment with them, to the effect that he would wage 
war upon the Greeks who lived in Greece, while the 
Carthaginians should at the same time gather great 
armaments and subdue those Greeks who lived in 
Sicily and Italy. In accordance, then, with their 
agreements, the Carthaginians, collecting a great 
amount of money, gathered mercenaries from both 
Italy and Liguria and also from Galatia and Iberia:; 
and in addition to these troops they enrolled men of 
their own race from the whole of Libya and of 
Carthage ; and in the end, after spending three years 
in constant preparation, they assembled more than 
three hundred thousand foot-soldiers and two hundred 
war vessels. 

2. Xerxes, vying with the zeal displayed by the 
Carthaginians, surpassed them in all his preparations 
to the degree that he excelled the Carthaginians in 
the multitude of peoples at his command. And he 
began to have ships built throughout all the territory 
along the sea that was subject to him, both Egypt 
and Phoenicia and Cyprus, Cilicia and Pamphylia 
and Pisidia, and also Lycia, Caria, Mysia, the Troad, 
and the cities on the Hellespont, and Bithynia, and 
Pontus. Spending a period of three years, as did 
the Carthaginians, on his preparations, he made ready 
more than twelve hundred warships. He was aided 
in this by his father Darius, who before his death 
had made preparations of great armaments ; for 


1 Gaul and Spain. 


? metôv added by Dindorf. 
123 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ýrryuévos úno `Abyvaiwv èv Mapabðvı Adriðos 
yovuévov, yaňenrðs ŠiékeTro mpos ToÙS vevikyKó- 
ras `Abnvalous. dAàà Aapeîos pèv péààwv ġÒN 
Sraßaivew ml roùs “EdÀnvas èpecoàaßhðn redev- 
týoas, ó è Bépéns ðid Te rùv ToÔ TATpÒS émi- 
Boàùv kal ùv roô Mapõoviov ovufovàiav, kaĝórı 
mpoeipnrat, Siéyvw moepetv rois “EMyow. 

3 ‘Qs Ò aùr mávra tà mpòs Tv otTparteiav rol- 
uaoro, toîs pèv vavápyois mapýyyeiňev dðpoítew 
tràs vas eis Kúuņv rail Dökraav, aùròs © èé 
únacðv rv oarpanerÂv ovvayay®v ràs Tebas Kal 
inmxàs Suváueis, mpofyev èk trôv Xoúowv. ðs 
© frev eis Ldpôeis, rýpukas éééneppev eis Tùv 
‘EdMdôa, mpoordéas els mdoas ràs móàes téva 

4 kal roùs “EAMnvas airev Úðwp kal yiv. Tův òè 

orpariàv Šieàópevos éganéoreiàe rToùs ikavoùs 

teðfar èv ròv ‘EdMhorovrov, ciaordpai Sè Tòv 

Abw karà ròv aùyéva tis Xeppovýoov, dpa pèv 

raîs Šuvápeoiw aoha kai oúvrouov Thv Õrégoðov 

moioúpevos, åa Sè T® peyéber rÕv épywv àri- 
twv npokrararàńéechar roùs “Ednvas. ot pèv ov 
meuplévres ènmi Tùv karackevùv trÕv épyæv Tayéws 
ivvov ià Tv moàvyeipiav rv èpyatopévwv. ot 

È "EMnves mvbópevoi rò péyebos ris rôv Iep- 

añv Õuvduews, ééénmeppav eis Oerrañiav puupiovs 

ónÀíras Toùs karaìnypopévovs tràs mept rà Témy 
mapõðovs’ ńyeîro è rv èv Aakxeðaruoviwv Xu- 
verós, rTÔv è Abnvaiwv OQeporokàñs. orot ðè 


(=i 


1 mept Hertlein : éri. 


21 i.e. from Asia into Europe via the Northern Aegean. 


124 


BOOK XI. 2. 2-5 


Darius, after Datis, his general, had been defeated 
by the Athenians at Marathon, had continued to be 
angry with the Athenians for having won that battle. 
But Darius, when already about to cross over ! against 
the Greeks, was stopped in his plans by death, where- 
upon Xerxes, induced both by the design of his father 
and by the counsel of Mardonius, as we have stated, 
made up his mind to wage war upon the Greeks. 

Now when all preparations for the campaign had 
been completed, Xerxes commanded his admirals to 
assemble the ships at Cymê and Phocaea, and he 
himself collected the foot and cavalry forces from all 
the satrapies and advanced from Susa. And when 
he had arrived at Sardis, he dispatched heralds to 
Greece, commanding them to go to all the states and 
to demand of the Greeks water and earth.? Then, 
dividing his army, he sent in advance a sufficient 
number of men both to bridge the Hellespont and 
to dig a canal through Athos? at the neck of the 
Cherronesus, in this way not only making the passage 
safe and short for his forces but also hoping by the 
magnitude of his exploits to strike the Greeks with 
terror before his arrival. Now the men who had been 
sent to make ready these works completed them with 
dispatch, because so many labourers co-operated in 
the task. And the Greeks, when they learned of the 
great size of the Persian armaments, dispatched ten 
thousand hoplites into Thessaly to seize the passes 
of Tempê; Synetusê commanded the Lacedae- 
monians and Themistocles the Athenians. These 

2 The submission of water and earth was a token of fealty 
or non-resistance. 


3 A Persian fleet had been wrecked off the promontory of 
Mt. Athos in 492 B.c. 


4 Herodotus (7. 173) gives the name as Euaenetus. 
125 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


mpos Tàs nóÀes mpeoßevràs drooreldavres Ņélovv 
anoortéMew otparuoras toùs kow ġvàdćovras 
Tàs mapõðovs’ orevõov yàp ámdoas tràs “EAàyvi- 
as móàcis deadapetv raîs mpopvàakaîs kal kowo- 

6 norýoacðat Tòv mpòs roùs Ilépoas móňepov. èrel 
Sè rv Oerradðv kal trôv dMwæv ‘EMúvav rôv 
TANTO XÓpov Taîs mapóðois čSwrav ot mÀelovs 
Úwp re kal yv ros åġrypévois åyyéňors årò 
Hépčov, danroyvóvres Tův mepi rà Téurmn pvàarhv 
enaviAlov eis tv olkeiav. 

3. Xpýoiuov è diopicar röv “EAMhvwv roùs rà 
qõv Pappápwv éìopévovs, iva Tvyydávovres ôveíðovs 
amotpénwot tTaîs Pàaopnuiais roùs mpoðóras äv 

2 yevopévovs Tis kowñs ¿àevbepias. Alviâves uèv 
ov kal Adàores kal Mnàeîs kai Ieppaßoi kai 
Mdáyvnres perà TÕv Bappápwv érdyônoav, ër 
mapovons TÅS év rois Tépreo: huvàakñs, 'Axyaroi 
õè Dhðraı kait Aokpot kal Oerraàol kat Borwrol 
ot mÀciovs roútwv dmeàlóvrwv drérÀwav mpòs roùs 

3 Bapßdpovs. oi Ò èv Ilobu ovveðpeúovres rôv 
EMývwv e&pnpicavro Toùs èv èledovti rôv ‘EÀ- 
\ývwv éÀopévovs Tà Hepoäv Sekareðoar roîs Îeoîs, 
ênàv TO Toépg KPOTHOWOL, Tpòs sè roùs Thv 
hovyiav čyovras ékmémþjat mpéoßeis róoùs mapa- 
kañécovras ovvaywvigeobai mepi tis kowñs èhev- 

4 Îepias. &v oi èv elovTo yvnoiws Tùv ovuuayiav, 
oi òè mapijyov èp’ ikavòv ypóvov, åvreyóuevot Tís 
iias uóvov dopaàeías kai kapaĝokoðvres TÒ To 


1 äv added by Reiske, who also suggests É 
which Vogel adopts. i Eg pangoni alone, 


2? The inhabitants of Malis (also called Melis) in S. Thessaly 
not of the island Melos in the southern Aegean. 


126 


BOOK XI. 2. 5—3. 4 


commanders dispatched ambassadors to the states 
and asked them to send soldiers to join in the common 
defence of the passes ; for they eagerly desired that 
all the Greek states should each have a share in the 
defence and make common cause in the war against 
the Persians. But since the larger number of the 
Thessalians and other Greeks who dwelt near the 
passes had given the water and earth to the envoys 
of Xerxes when they arrived, the two generals des- 
paired of the defence at Tempê and returned to their 
own soil. 

3. And now it will be useful to distinguish those 
Greeks who chose the side of the barbarians, in order 
that, incurring our censure here, their example may, 
by the obloquy visited upon them, deter for the 
future any who may become traitors to the common 
freedom. The Aenianians, Dolopians, Melians,! Per- 
rhaebians, and Magnetans took the side of the bar- 
barians even while the defending force was still at 
Tempê, and after its departure the Achaeans of 
Phthia, Locrians, Thessalians, and the majority of 
the Boeotians went over to the barbarians. But the 
Greeks who were meeting in congress at the Isthmus * 
voted to make the Greeks who voluntarily chose the 
cause of the Persians pay a tithe to the gods, when 
they should be successful in the war, and to send 
ambassadors to those Greeks who were neutral to 
urge them to join in the struggle for the common 
freedom. Of the latter, some joined the alliance 
without reservation, while others postponed any 
decision for a considerable time, clinging to their 
own safety alone and anxiously waiting for the out- 


2 At Corinth. 
127 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


moàépov réños’ `Apyeîot Sè mpéoßeis drooreiavres 
eis Tò Koivòv ouvéðpiov ènrnyyéàdovtTo ovuuayýoew, 
eav aùroîs uépos tt ris ģyepovias ovyywphowow. 

5ois oi oúveðpot iecodenoav, el pèv ŠewórTepov 
ýyoðvraı Tò orparqyòv čyew “Ednva Ñ) ðeoróryv 
Bápßapov, òps aùroùs ëyxev ýovyíav, e ðè 
piàoripoðvrar Aaßeîv riv rôv ‘EMhvov hyepoviav, 
éra raúrņs eiv čpacav aùroùs merpayóras èm- 
Enreiv rhv rnùàkaúrņnv õóčav. perà è rara rv 
mapà Hépfov mpéaßewv emóvrwv rv ‘Eňdõa kal 
yv ral Vðwp airovvrwv, al móàes draoa Šid 
TÔv ånokpioewv anmeðeikvuvTo TV mepi Ts kowñs 
éàevlepias orovõńv. 

6 Hépéns è ðs érmúbero rov 'EňMýonrovrov èleô- 
xai kal ròv "Alw ocáplba, mpoĝĵyev èk rv 
Edpõewr ép ‘EMnoróvrov tiv mopeiav moioúue- 
vos’ s è Ñkev eis “ABudov, cà Tot Geóyparos 
Tv Suvapuv ðiýyayev eis Tiv Eùpormyv. mopevó- 
evos Sè dià Ts Oprns moods mpocedaupávero 
otpatubrtas kal TÔv Oparôv kal TÕv ðpópav ToŬ- 

7 rois ‘EMývaw. ós © frev eis Tov ovopatópevov 
AopicKov, evraĝla pererémparo TÒ vavTikóv, ÖTE 
dapgorépas tàs Õuváueis eis éva rónov áðporoðñ- 
va. êrorýoaTo è kal rov eeraoòv tis oTpariâs 
ånáons: piðuýíņnoav è ris mets Švvduews uv- 
pidões mÀciovs rv oyõońkovra, vijes è ai cúp- 
macai pakpal màÀciovs TÕv yıiÀlwv kal Õiakosiwv, 
kal roúrwv ‘EMnviðes rpiakóorar kal elkooi, Tà 
128 


BOOK XI. 3. 4-7 


come of the war; the Argives, however, sending 
ambassadors to the common congress, promised to 
join the alliance if the congress would give them a 
share in the command. To them the representa- 
tives declared plainly that, if they thought it a more 
terrible thing to have a Greek as general than a 
barbarian as master, they would do well to remain 
neutral, but if they were ambitious to secure the 
leadership of the Greeks, they should, it was 
stated, first have accomplished deeds deserving of 
this leadership and then strive for such an honour. 
After these events, when the ambassadors sent by 
Xerxes came to Greece and demanded both earth 
and water, all! the states manifested in their re- 
plies the zeal they felt for the common freedom. 

When Xerxes learned that the Hellespont had been 
bridged and the canal ? had been dug through Athos, 
he left Sardis and made his way toward the Helles- 
pont; and when he had arrived at Abydus, he led 
his army over the bridge into Europe. And as he 
advanced through Thrace, he added to his forces 
many soldiers from both the Thracians and neigh- 
bouring Greeks. When he arrived at the city called 
Doriscus, he ordered his fleet to come there, and so 
both arms of his forces were gathered into one place. 
And he held there also the enumeration of the entire 
army, and the number of his land forces was over 
eight hundred thousand men, while the sum total of 
his ships of war exceeded twelve hundred, of which 
three hundred and twenty were Greek, the Greeks 

1 That is, all the states which had joined the aliance. 

2 The use of this canal “ is problematic ; and its existence 
has been questioned in ancient as well as modern times, but 


ìs guaranteed by Thucydides and by vestiges still visible ” 
(Munro in Camb, Anc. Hist. 4, p. 269). 


voL. IV 129 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


èv nàņpõpara rv àvôpðv mapeyouévwv rTÔv 
e 2 ` b3 t ~ z m 
Eààývwv, ra è okán roô Baoidéws yopnyoðvros: 
e “a m 
ai Sè orral nâo Bapfpapıxat karypiÂpoðvro' kai 
roúrav Aiyúmtioi èv ĵeakocias mapéoyovro, Doi- 
A a ld bi ? l4 
vikes è rpiakocias, Kirkes è dyoðoýrovra, 
+ b ld bi + hJ y 
Ildugudoi Sè Terrapdrovra, kal Aúkior tàs icas, 
npòs è rovrois Kâpes èv oyðoýkovra, Kúrpior 
h3 e hl + z m A e z 
8 ôè ékaròv kal nmevrýkovra, trÔv è “EňMúvwv 
Eneppav Awpieîs pèv oi npòs r) Kapi karoixoôv- 
e la 
Tes perà ‘Poðiwv kail Køwv rerrapakovra, "Lwves 
òè perà Xiaw kal Dapiwv ékaróv, Aiodeîs Sè perà 
Aeoßiwv kal Teveðiwv rerrapdrovra, ‘EdMnoróv- 
tiot Õe oyðoýkovra ùv rois repi ròv Ióvrov kar- 
~ m + A 
orkoĵot, vyorÂTaL È mevrýkovra’ TAS yàp výoovs 
tràs êvròs Kvavéwv kal Tpioniov kal Zouvviov 
1 T z EN 
9 npooņypévos v ð Baoideús. rprýpes pèv ov 
A A al e 
Tocaĵrarı TÒ nÀAÑlos mNpxov, inmaywyot è ðrrta- 
kóorat mevrýkovra, at è Tpinkóvropot TpioyiMar. 
ò pèv oŬv BépéNs mepi Tòv ¿$eraoporv tõv Õuvápeuw 
Siérpiße mept ròv Aopiokov. 
4. Tois ĝè cuvéðpois rõv ‘EMývwv, ène) màn- 
+ Eai Ea 
ciov elva npoocamnyyéàbnoav ai rv Hepoôv 
Õuvdueis, doke rayéws drooréàew TYV pèv vauri- 
A tA 3209 92 + “A ? [a z 
kv Šúvav êr '`Aprepiciov tis Eùßoias, eùberov 
opc rv TõTov ToÛTov mpos Tv åndvryow tÔv 
moàcuiwv, cis è ràs Oepporúdas roùs ikavoùs 
ònÀitas, mpokaraàņpopévous ràs év Toîs orevoîs 
mapóðovs kal kwÀvoovras npodyeiww emè rùv ‘Eà- 
Adõða roùs Bapßápovs’ čonevðov yàp troùs rà t®v 
130 


BOOK XI. 3. 7—4. 1 


providing the complement of men and the king 
supplying the vessels. All the remaining ships were 
listed as barbarian ; and of these the Egyptians sup- 
plied two hundred, the Phoenicians three hundred, 
the Cilicians eighty, the Pamphylians forty, the 
Lycians the same number, also the Carians eighty, 
and the Cyprians one hundred and fifty. Of the 
Greeks the Dorians who dwelt off Caria, together with 
the Rhodians and Coans, sent forty ships, the Ionians, 
together with the Chians and Samians, one hundred, 
the Aeolians, together with the Lesbians and Tene- 
dans, forty, the peoples of the region of the Helles- 
pont, together with those who dwelt along the shores 
of the Pontus, eighty, and the inhabitants of the 
islands fifty ; for the king had won over to his side 
the islands lying within the Cyanean Rocks! and 
Triopium and Sunium. Triremes made up the multi- 
tude we have listed, and the transports for the 
cavalry numbered eight hundred and fifty, and the 
triaconters three thousand. Xerxes, then, was 
busied with the enumeration of the armaments at 
Doriscus. 

4. The Greeks who were in assembly, when word 
came to them that the Persian forces were near, took 
action to dispatch the ships of war with all speed to 
Artemisium in Euboea, recognizing that this place 
was well situated for meeting the enemy, and a 
considerable body of hoplites to Thermopylae to fore- 
stall them in occupying the passes at the narrowest 
part of the defile and to prevent the barbarians from 
advancing against Greece ; for they were eager to 
throw their protection inside of Thermopylae about 


1 At the entrance to the Black Sea; Triopium and Su- 
nium are the promontories of Caria and Attica respectively. 


131 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


“EMývov mpoedopévovs evròs mepidaBetv kal oo- 
2 ev els Tò Õuvaròv Toùs ovpudáyovs. yero ðè roô 

A ld kI ? 2 e 
pèr aTóàov mavròs Eùpvfidðns ó Aarearuóvios, 
Tõv dè eis Oepporúàas eknepphévrwv Aewviðns 
ó TÕV Zrapriarâv ,Baoidevs, péya ppovâv im 
åvõpeíg kal oTparnyig. oĝTos ôe Aaßov TIV egov- 
ciav emýyyede x'Aovs? póvov mi TÙV aTparelav 
3 dkoàovleîv at. TÖV ôè èpópwv Àeyóvrwv ós 
òàiyovs mavreàðs dyert mpòs peydànv Šúvauıw, kat 
npoorartróvrwv nÀelovas mapaàaupavew, elme mpòs 
aùroùs ev amoppýrois õtte mpos pèv TÒ kwÀÖTa 
Toùs Bapßápovs Sedler ràs mapõõðovs dàíyot, mpòs 
pévror ye rhv npâéw è$ Ñv nopevovrar võv nodÀoi. 
4 aivrypaTóðovs sè kal åcapoðs Tìs dnrokpisews 
yevopévns, ênnpórnoav aÙTÒV €l TpÒS EVTEÀÑ Twa 
npâgw aùroùs õyew ðravoeîrar. anekpiðn òè ôri 
TÕ Àóyw pèv emi A pvàariy äyer TÕv amapóðwv, 
TÔ © épyw mepi Tis rows àevbepias dnmoba- 
vovuévovs' Wore eav pè oi yio mopevlõow, 
Empaveotépav, čoeobor Tiv Endpryv ToúTav TETE- 
Acurnkórwv, eav Sè mavònuel oTpareóowo Aake- 
Saruðviot, mavTedðs amoàeîobat TÙv Aakeðaiuova: 
oùôéva yàp aùrôv roàuýoew peúyew, iva Tóxy 
5 owrnpias. Tõv pè oŬv Aareðaruoviwv ĝoay 
yio, kat oùv aùroîs Drapriârat Tpiakóciot, TÕV 
ò dMwv ‘Edývwv rv dp aùroîs ovvekneuphév- 
Twv emi ràs OQepporúàas Tpioyior. 

ʻO pèv ov Aewviðns perà TerpakioytÀiwv Tpo- 
M f S. S hi + y A e + 
yev mi ras Oepporúàas, Aokpoi è ot mànciov 


1 yiàlous Kallenberg : yiàlors. 
2 rereàcevrykórwv Const, Exc. : teàevrnodrrwv. 


132 


BOOK XILI. 4. 1-6 


those who had chosen the cause of the Greeks and 
to do everything in their power to save the allies. 
The leader of the entire expedition was Eurybiades 
the Lacedaemonian, and of the troops sent to Thermo- 
pylae the commander was Leonidas the king of the 
Spartans, a man who set great store by his courage 
and generalship. Leonidas, when he received the 
appointment, announced that only one thousand men 
should follow him on the campaign. And when the 
ephors said that he was leading altogether too few 
soldiers against a great foree and ordered him to take 
along a larger number, he replied to them in secret, 
“ For preventing the barbarians from getting through 
the passes they are few, but for the task to whieh 
they are now bound they are many.” Sinee this reply 
proved riddle-like and obscure, he was asked again 
whether he believed he was leading the soldiers to 
some paltry task. Whereupon he replied, “ Osten- 
sibly I am leading them to the defence of the passes, 
but in fact to die for the freedom of all; and so, 
if a thousand set forth, Sparta will be the more 
renowned when they have died, but if the whole 
body of the Lacedaemonians take the field, Lace- 
daemon will be utterly destroyed, for not a man of 
them, in order to save his life, will dare to turn in 
flight.” There were, then, of the Lacedaemonians 
one thousand, and with them three hundred Sparti- 
ates, while the rest of the Greeks who were dis- 
patched with them to Thermopylae were three 
thousand. 

Leonidas, then, with four thousand soldiers ad- 
vanced to Thermopylae. The Locrians, however, 
who dwelt in the neighbourhood of the passes had 


1 Full citizens of the state of Sparta proper. 
133 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


„ A, 3 -m 
rv nmapõðwv karorkoðvres éðecwkeoav èv yiv 
A t L > 
rai Võwp rois: Iépoas, karennyyeàpévoi © ġoav 
+ ` ’ e , 3 l4 
nporaraàypechat tràs mapóðovs: ws È êmúlovro 
ròv Aewviðnv Ñkew eis Oepuoróas, perevónoav 
` l4 ` ` Ed ` bd 
7 kal perélevro npòs Toùs “Eàànvas. Ñkov ðè eis 
` z A ~ lå ~ Ld 
tàs Oepuorúàas kai Aokpoil yiMot kat Myàéwv 
Tocoĝrtot kal Dwkréawv où mod Àerópevot TÕV 
la e + è ` (0) ’ Ed A Fa e [4 
xiAlwwv, duoiws è kat Onfalwv årò ris érTépas 
pepiðos ws Terpakóoioi Örepépovro yàp oi rTàs 
A l4 ko 
Ojßas karorkoðvres mpòs dAAŃAovs mept TiS mpòs 
e 
tos Ilépoas ovppayias. ot uèv oŭv perà Aewvi- 
Sov ovvrayhévres “Edànves roooôrot ròv apıðpòv 
övres Õıérpißov mept ràs Oepporóňas, åvapévovres 
tv rôv Ilepoðv rmapovoiav. 
— p bi A ` ? ` m + 
5. Hépéns Õè perà ròv éteraopòv tÕv vvápewv 
TMpOoÑyYE ETÀ MAVTÖS TOÔ OTpaTEVLATOS, KaL péxpt 
pèv ‘Akdvbov nóews TÅ nelh arpar mopevopévw 
ovunapérnàe mâs óð oródos, èkeibev Sè karà rTòv 
bd 
cropvybévra Tórov ðekopioðnoav eis Tv éTépav 
4 "~ e 3 q 
2 Odàarrav ovvrópws kal doġaàðs. ðs Ò rev emt 
A ` ’ ? 2 ~ ig 
ròv Mnàakòv kóàrov, ermúðero roùs modepiovs 
t 2 3 m 
npokareiànpévat ras mapõðovs. črep vraha 
4 
npocavaiaßov Tùv úvajuv perenrépharto Toùs àmò 
tis Eùponns ovuuáyovs, où moù Àcinovras TÔv 
eikoot pupidòww, WOT EXE aùTòv TOS oúuTavTasS 
Eai r A - 
oùk éàdrrovs rõv ékaròv pvpádðwv ywpis TS 
- La e 2 y Dai 
3 vavrikis ðvváuews. ó ðè oúuras ðyÀos Tv Te èv 
Ttaîs parpaîs vavoiv ĝvrwv kat rv Tv àyopàv Kal 
AI Ed 4 lA 3 La Wg 
Tv AANV mapacreviy kopubóvraw oùk éÀdTrav Ñr 
1 So Wesseling : ovvayhévres. 


1 See note 1 on p; 126. 
2? Diodorus, in his eagerness to recount the safe passage 


134 


BOOK XI. 4. 6—5. 3 


already given earth and water to the Persians, and 
had promised that they would seize the passes in 
advance ; but when they learned that Leonidas had 
arrived at Thermopylae, they changed their minds 
and went over to the Greeks. And there gathered 
at Thermopylae also a thousand Locrians, an equal 
number of Melians,! and almost a thousand Phocians, 
as well as some four hundred Thebans of the other 
party ; for the inhabitants of Thebes were divided 
against each other with respect to the alliance with 
the Persians. Now the Greeks who were drawn up 
with Leonidas for battle, being as many in number 
as we have set forth, tarried in Thermopylae, await- 
ing the arrival of the Persians. 

5. Xerxes, after having enumerated his armaments, 
pushed on with the entire army, and the whole fleet 
accompanied the land forces in their advance as far 
as the city of Acanthus, and from there the ships 
passed through the place where the canal had been 
dug into the other sea expeditiously and without loss, 
But when Xerxes arrived at the Gulf of Melis,? he 
learned that the enemy had already seized the passes. 
Consequently, having joined to his forces the arma- 
ment there, he summoned his allies from Europe, a 
little less than two hundred thousand men ; so that 
he now possessed in all not less than one million 
soldiers exclusive of the naval eontingent.? And the 
sum total of the masses who served on the ships 
of war and who transported the food and general 


of the fleet through the canal, has anticipated. He now 
returns to the march from the European side of the Hellespont, 

3 The size of Xerxes’ army has been often discussed. 
Munro (Camb. Anc. Hist. 4, pp. 271 ff.) concludes that 
Xerxes had one hundred and eighty thousand combatants 
and a fleet of some seven hundred and thirty warships. 


135 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Tõv mpoepnuévwv, wore unõèv Îavpaoròv elvat 
TÒ Àeyóuevov ÚTėp ToÔ mAÑiovs TÕV ÚTÒ Hépčov 
avvayhévrwv" haoc yàp ToÙS devdovs ToTapovs Stà 
TÀ ToÎ màýbovs ovvéyerav émiÀreîv, TA Ôe meàdyn 
Toîs TÕv veðv torios Karakadvplivar. péyioTat 
uèv ov vvápeis TÕv els ioropiv pvýunv 
mapaðeðouévwv al perà Hépéov yevóuevat mapa- 
SéðovTat. 

Tâôv ðè Iepoðv rareorparoneðevkórwv mapa 
TÒV Xrepxerðv ToTaóv, ò uèv Hépns åméoredev 
ayyéàovs eis TàS Oepporúàas, ToÙS äpa pè kata- 
orehopévovs* Tiva Òıdvorav Exovor mept TOÔ mpòs 
ağrov moàéuov: nmpooérače & aŭroîs mapayyéàdew, 
ôrı Baoideùs Eépéns kedevet Tà uèv ônàa mdávras 
anobéolar, aùroùs è akwðúvovs eis tràs martpiðas 
damévar kal ovupáyovs elva Ilepoðv: kal trara 
nmpáčaoiv aùroîs ènņyyelaro woe ywpav rToîs 
"EMMgor TmÀciw kal Periw Tis võv r aùrõv KaT- 
5 eyouévns. ot ðè mepi TÒV y Aewviðny å akoúoavtes TÕV 
ayyéàwv dmekpivavro, őri kal ovupayoðvres TÖ 
Baoiàe? ypyoruwrTepor perà trÕv õTnÀàwv ésovrat kal 
TOÀELETV AVAYKACÕHEVOL LETA TOÚTWV YEVVALÓTEpOV 
únèp rs eàevhepias aywvioðvrar' mepl ÕèÈ TÅS xo- 
pas Ñv úmoyverat ÕWEV, OTL NATptŐV OTL TOTS 
“Eààņnot uù) cà kakiav, AÀàà Òe daperiw krâoba 

úpav. 

6. “O ôè Bacıidcùs dkoúoas mapa trv ayyéiwv 
tàs Ttõv ‘EMývæv ånorpioes nmposekaàésato An- 
pápaTtov Enapridryy, ék ris marpiðos Tepevyóra 
Tpos aùrtóv, Katayeàdoas sè TÖV ånorpioewv 
ennporyce tròv Adrwva, Ilórepov ot “Enves 
oġúrepov rv pôv Irro peúčovrar ù pòs 
136 


BOOK XI. 5. 3—6. 1 


equipment was not less than that of those we have 
mentioned, so that the account usually given of the 
multitude of the men gathered together by Xerxes 
need cause no amazement ; for men say that the 
unfailing rivers ran dry because of the unending 
stream of the multitude, and that the seas were 
hidden by the sails of the ships. However this may 
be, the greatest forces of which any historical record 
has been left were those which accompanied Xerxes. 

After the Persians had encamped on the Sper- 
cheius River, Xerxes dispatched envoys to Thermo- 
pylae to discover, among other things, how the Greeks 
felt about the war with him; and he commanded 
them to make this proclamation: “ King Xerxes 
orders all to give up their arms, to depart unharmed 
to their native lands, and to be allies of the Persians ; 
and to all Greeks who do this he will give more and 
better lands than they now possess.” But when 
Leonidas heard the commands of the envoys, he 
replied to them : “ If we should be allies of the king 
we should be more useful if we kept our arms, and 
if we should have to wage war against him, we should 
fight the better for our freedom if we kept them ; 
and as for the lands which he promises to give, the 
Greeks have learned from their fathers to gain lands, 
not by cowardice, but by valour.” 

6. The king, on hearing from his envoys the replies 
of the Greeks, sent for Demaratus, a Spartan who 
had been exiled from his native land and taken refuge 
with him, and with a scoff at the replies he asked the 
Laconian, “ Will the Greeks flee more swiftly than 
my horses can run, or will they dare to face such 


1 katackefouévovs Toùs rómovs dua è mevoopévovs suggested 


by Madvig ; „èv deleted by Dindorf, Müller. 
137 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


TmÀkavúras Šuvdpeis maparáčacðaı roàuýoovor; 
2rov è Anudparov eineùv haci os Os’ aùròs où 
Tùy åvôpeiav rÕv ‘EMivav dyvoeîs’ roùs yàp dh- 
iorapévovs Trv Bapßádpwv ‘EdMnvikaîs Suvápecı 
karamoeueis’: wore uÀ vóuře roùs únèp tĝs oñs 
apxñs ãpewov rôv Iepoðv åywvopévovs úrèp 
Tis dias devbepias rrov kwðuvevoew mpòs ToÙs 
Ilépoas. ó è Eépéns karayeàdoas aùroô mpoo- 
éračev dkodovbðeîv, mws iðn geúyovras rovs 
Aakeðapoviovs. 

Thv Sè Öúvajuv dvadaßàw frev émi toùs è 
Oepporóàais “Edànvas, mporáfas åndvrov tv 
élvðv Mýõovs, eire t” dvõpelav npokpivas aùroùs 
cire kal Bovàóuevos dmavras åmoàéoar: êvív yàp 
éri ppóvnpa rois Mýðois, rs Tv mpoyóvwv ýye- 
4 povias où ndai karanenovnuévns. ovvvnéðeiče 

Sè rots Myòois kal rôv ev Mapabðvı reredevrh- 

kórwv dðeàhoùs kal vioús, vopitwv roúrovs èk- 

Ovuórara tiuwpýoeołar roùs "Edànvas. ot pèv 

ov Mfðot roðrov ròv Tpõrov ovvraybévres mpoo- 

éneoov Toîs hvàdrrovoi tràs @epporúňas: ó Sè 

Aecwviðns e mapeckevacuévos ovvýyaye Toùs 

"Ednvas èmì Tò orevwrarov tis mapóõðov. 

7. Tevopévns ðè uaxns kaprepôâs, kal TÔv pèv 
Bapßápwv beariv yóvrwv rĝs aperĵs ròv Baocıàéa, 
Tôv dè ‘EMývwv puprnokopévwv ris èhevbepias 
kal mapakañovpévwv úno roô Aewviðov mpòs ròv 
dyôva, Îavpaoròv ovvéßaiwe yiveohar Tòv kivõvvov. 

2 ovoráðnv yàp oŭons rs páxns kal rÔv mÀnyôv 


(2 


1 The MSS. read: ovvéßn ôè év rots Mýôors elvat xal Tôv 
é&v Mapabðvı rereàevrnuórwv. avvunéðeite è xrà. Itis prob- 
able that ouvuréðerge . . . rereàcevrnxóræwv was in error written 


138 


BOOK XI. 6. 1—7. 2 


armaments in battle?” And Demaratus, we are 
told, replied, “ You yourself are not unacquainted 
with the courage of the Greeks, since you use Greek 
forces to quell such barbarians as revolt. So do not 
think that those who fight better than the Persians 
to maintain your sovereignty, will risk their lives less 
bravely against the Persians to maintain their own 
freedom.” But Xerxes with a scoff at him ordered 
Demaratus to stay by his side in order that he might 
witness the Lacedaemonians in flight. 

Xerxes with his army came against the Greeks at 
Thermopylae. And he put the Medes in front of all 
the other peoples, either because he preferred them 
by reason of their courage or because he wished to 
destroy them in a body ; for the Medes still retained 
a proud spirit, the supremacy which their ancestors 
had exercised having only recently been overthrown. 
And he also designated together with the Medes 
the brothers and sons of those who had fallen at 
Marathon, believing that they would wreak venge- 
ance upon the Greeks with the greatest fury. The 
Medes, then, having been drawn up for battle in 
the manner we have described, attacked the de- 
fenders of Thermopylae ; but Leonidas had made 
careful preparation and massed the Greeks in the 
narrowest part of the pass. 

7. The fight which followed was a fierce one, and 
since the barbarians had the king as a witness of 
their valour and the Greeks kept in mind their liberty 
and were exhorted to the fray by Leonidas, it fol- 
lowed that the struggle was amazing. For since the 
men stood shoulder to shoulder in the fighting and 


twice and ouvéßnņ . . . elvai was an attempt to correct this 
error. The text is that preferred by editors before Vogel, 


139 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ék yepòs ywopévwV, ETL ÖÈ TS CVOTÁTEWS TME- 
mukvwuévys, mè moàùòv ypóvov ioópporos v ý 
uáxq. Tõv & ‘EMývæv vrepeyóvræv raîs àperais 
kal TÔ peyéber rÔv donlðwv, uõyis évéðwrav ot 
MGõor modol pèv yàp aùrôv ëmecov, oùx oÀlyo' 
òè karerpavuarioðyoav. rois è Mýðois èmire- 
rayuévoi Kiosco kal Ldrkat kar åpeT)V ÈTiÀEkTOL 
Sreðéfavro Tùv uáxqv, kal veoyuoit mpòs iare- 
movnuévovs cvußaňðvres ðÀíyov pèv xypővov ré- 
pevov tòv kivõuvov, kTewóp evot È ÚTÒ TÕV TEpl TÒV 

3 Acwviðny kal Biaobévres Ýneyopnoav: dorici yàp 
Kal méàrais perpaîs oi Bappapoi ypõópevor rarà èv 
tàs eùpvywplas ènàcovékTovv, eÙkWNToL yivópevot, 
karà Õè ràs orevoywplas Toùs èv moeulovs oùk 
eùxepôs èrirpwokov, ovuneppayuévovs kal peyá- 
ais dorici okeratouévovs ov TÒ cpa, aùrTol 
Sè Sià ràs kovpóryras rÕv okenaorņnpiwv õmÀwv 
eÀarroúuevot mukvoîS TPAŬACL TEPLÉTITTOV. 

4 Téios òè ô Bépëns ópôv ndvra uèv TÒv Tepl TàS 
mapóðovs TómTov vekpõðv oTpwpévov, Toùs òè Bap- 
Bápovs oùx úropévovras tràs rv ‘EMývwv åperás, 
mpocénewhe troùs rÕôv Iepoðv èmdékrtovs ôvopa- 
touévouvs dĤavárovs ral okoðvras raîş dvðpaya- 
biais npwreúew tv ovorparevopévwv. s ÕÈ 
Kal oôrot Bpayùv åvriordvres ypővov čßġvyov, TórTe 
uèv rs vurtòs emAaßoúons ðeàdbyoav, mapa pèv 
Toîs Bapßápois nmoðv avņpnuévwv, mapà òè Toîs 
"EAnow òàiyav merrwkórwv. 

8. TA © óorepaig épés év, mapà mpooðoriav 
aùr TÅs páxs Aaßoúons Tò rédos, €E åmávrwv 


140 


BOOK XI. 7. 2—8. I 


the blows were struck in close combat, and the lines 
were densely packed, for a considerable time the 
battle was equally balanced. But since the Greeks 
were superior in valour and in the great size of their 
shields, the Medes gradually gave way ; for many of 
them were slain and not a few wounded. The place 
of the Medes in the battle was taken by Cissians 
and Sacae, selected for their valour, who had been 
stationed to support them ; and joining the struggle 
fresh as they were against men who were worn out 
they withstood the hazard of combat for a short 
while, but as they were slain and pressed upon by 
the soldiers of Leonidas, they gave way. For the 
barbarians used small round or irregularly shaped 
shields, by which they enjoyed an advantage in open 
fields, since they were thus enabled to move more 
easily, but in narrow places they could not easily 
inflict wounds upon an enemy who were formed in 
close ranks and had their entire bodies protected by 
large shields, whereas they, being at a disadvantage 
by reason of the lightness of their protective armour, 
received repeated wounds. 

At last Xerxes, seeing that the entire area about 
the passes was strewn with dead bodies and that the 
barbarians were not holding out against the valour 
of the Greeks, sent forward the picked Persians 
known as the “ Immortals,” who were reputed to 
be pre-eminent among the entire host for their deeds 
of courage. But when these also fled after only a 
brief resistance, then at last, as night fell, they ceased 
from battle, the barbarians having lost many dead 
and the Greeks a small number. 

8. On the following day Xerxes, now that the 
battle had turned out contrary to his expectation, 


141 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


TÕv élvõv éréàce roùs okovras dvêpelg kal 
Opdoet Siahépeiw, kal modà ðenleis aùrôv rpo- 
eîmev, dtt Biacapévois pèv aùroîs riv eicoðov w- 
peàs déioàóyovs woe, pevyovor Sè Bdvaros orar 

2 TÒ mpóaTiov. ToÝTwvV ÕÈ peTà peyáàns ovotpo- 
pis kal Pias êmppa$ávræwv roîs “Eqo, of mepi 
Acwviðny rõre ouuppáćavres kal Teie maparin- 
oiav momoduevor Tv cúcraow èkbúpws Ñywvi- 
Tovro. èri rocobro òè npoéßyoav raîs mpobvpias, 
üre Toùs elwbóras ék Siadoyis peradapßdávew 
TiS páxns où cvveywpnoav, AÀA TÑ ovveyeig rs 
kakonmaĥeias mepvyevõðpevot mooùs dvýpovv trv 

3 êmàékrwv BapBápwv. évnuepeðovres* 8è roîs 
kwðúvois AAðvro mpòs dAAýàovs: of uèv yàp 
mpeoßórepot mpòs tàs TÕv véwv dkpàs mapeßáà- 
ÀovTo,? oi Ôè vewTepot mpòs tàs TÕvV npeoßurépwv 
eunepias te kal òófas Avro. rédos &è 
pevyóvrwv kal tÕv èmÀékTwv, oi Tùv èmTeray- 
Lévy orádow êyovres TÔv Bappápwv ovuġpáčavres 
oùk elwy peúyew Toùs emÀérTous’ Õiórep vayká- 
Tovro náà dvaortpéßew kal páycobar. 

4 ‘Anopoupévov è toô Baciàéws ral vouibovros 
pnõéva roàuýoew črni udyeobar, Åke npòs aùròv 
Tpayivnós Tis TÕv êyxwpiwv, éunepos @v ris 
òpewis xøópas. oŭros T® Zépén mpoceàbàv enny- 
yeiaro ôid twos dtpanoð orevis kal mapakph- 
vov roùs Ilépoas óònyhoeiw, wore yevéobar Toùs 
cvveàlóvras aùr® karón TÕv mepi Tòv Aewviðny, 
kal roútw TÔ Tpónw mepiànphévras aùroùs eis rò 

5 Lécov pgðiws dvarpebýocoðar. ó Sè Baorňeùs nepi- 

2 So Dindorf: égnpepevovres. 
2 So Vogel: úrepeßdàovro. 
142 


BOOK XI. 8. 1-5 


choosing from all the peoples of his army such men 
as were reputed to be of outstanding bravery and 
daring, after an earnest exhortation announced 
before the battle that if they should storm the 
approach he would give them notable gifts, but if 
they fled the punishment would be death. These 
men hurled themselves upon the Greeks as one 
mighty mass and with great violence, but the 
soldiers of Leonidas closed their ranks at this time, 
and making their formation like a wall took up the 
struggle with ardour. And so far did they go in 
their eagerness that the lines which were wont to 
join in the battle by turns would not withdraw, but 
by their unintermitted endurance of the hardship 
they got the better and slew many of the picked bar- 
barians. The day long they spent in conflict, vying 
with one another ; for the older soldiers challenged 
the fresh vigour of the youth, and the younger 
matched themselves against the experience and fame 
of their elders. And when finally even the picked 
barbarians turned in flight, the barbarians who were 
stationed in reserve blocked the way and would not 
permit the picked soldiers to flee ; consequently they 
were compelled to turn back and renew the battle. 
While the king was in a state of dismay, believing 
that no man would have the courage to go into battle 
again, there came to him a certain Trachinian, a 
native of the region, who was familiar with the moun- 
tainous area. This man was brought into the presence 
of Xerxes and undertook to conduct the Persians by 
way of a narrow and precipitous path, so that the 
men who accompanied him would get behind the 
forces of Leonidas, which, being surrounded in this 
manner, would be easily annihilated. The king was 


143 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


xaps èyévero, kal tuuýoas Šwpeaîs ròv Tpayiviov 
ovvefémeppev aùr oTpatwras iouvpilovs vukrtós. 
Tõv Sè mapà roîs Ilépoais ris övopa Tuppaori- 
dáðas, TÒ yévos ðv Kvuaîos, hiàókaños è kal ròv 
TpôTov ðv dyaĝðós, ðıaðpàs èk ris rv Ilep- 
côv mapeppois vukTÒS ke mpòs ToÙS mepi TÒv 
Aewvðny, kal Tà mepi ròv Tpaxíivov dyvooĝow 
ESnAwoev. 

9. 'Akovoavres è’ ot “Eààyves ovvýðpevoav mepi 
pévas výórtas kal eBovàevovro mepi rôv èmghepo- 
pévwv Kwõuvwv. čvor pèv ofv é$acav ôeîv mapa- 
xpîua kata\ıróvras tàs mapõðovs ıacwgechar 
Tmpòs Toùs ovuuáxovs" aðúvarov yàp elvat toîs 
pewact Tuyeîv owTnpias: Aewviôns Sè ò Bacideùs 
Tõv Aareðairpoviwv pidottuoúpevos aT Te Šótav 
Tepbeivor peydìnv kal roîŭs Erapridtas, mpoo- 
érage ToÙs pèv čAovs “Ednvas dnavras åmiévar 
kat owġew éavroús, iva karà ràs &Ààas páyas 
guvvaywvigwvrai Toîs “EAnow, aùroùs Sè rtoùs 
Aakeðarpoviovs čpnoe Seîv pévew ral rùv fuari 
TÕv mapóðwv uù) Àmeiv: nmpémew yàp rods ýyov- 
pévovs rìs “EdMdôos úrèp rv npwrelwv åywvgo- 
pévovs anoĝvýokew éroipws. eùbùs ov ot pèv 
dAdo mávres annààdyņnoav, ò ðè Aecwviðns perà 
Tv moùrõv ýpwikàs nmpáćeis kal mapaðóćovs 
enereàéoaTo, ôÀiywv © övræv Aakeðarpoviwv (Oe- 
omeîs yàp póvovs mapakartéoye), kal roùs oúumav- 
Tas ëywv où màelovs TÕv mevrakogiwv, EToos Ñv 
úroðétaoðar ròv rèp ris 'EMdõos bdvarov. 


1 The heroism of the Spartans has been depreciated by 
144 


BOOK XI. 8. 5—9. 2 


delighted, and heaping presents upon the Trachinian 
he dispatched twenty thousand soldiers with him 
under cover of night. But a certain man among the 
Persians named Tyrrhastiadas, a Cymaean by birth, 
who was honourable and upright in his ways, desert- 
ing from the camp of the Persians in the night came 
to Leonidas, who knew nothing of the act of the 
Trachinian, and informed him. 

9. The Greeks, on hearing of this, gathered together 
about the middle of the night and conferred about 
the perils which were bearing down on them. And 
although some declared that they should relinquish 
the pass-at once and make their way in safety to the 
allies, stating that any who remained in the place 
could not possibly come off with their lives, Leonidas, 
the king of the Lacedaemonians, being eagerly desir- 
ous to win both for himself and for the Spartans a 
garland of great glory, gave orders that the rest of 
the Greeks should all depart and win safety for 
themselves, in order that they might fight together 
with the Greeks in the battles which still remained 5; 
but as for the Lacedaemonians, he said, they must 
remain and not abandon the defence of the pass, for 
it was fitting that those who were the leaders of 
Hellas should gladly die striving for the meed of 
honour.: Immediately, then, all the rest departed, 
but Leonidas together with his fellow citizens per- 
formed heroic and astounding deeds ; and although 
the Lacedaemonians were but few (he detained only 
the Thespiaeans) and he had all told not more than 
five hundred men, he was ready to meet death on 
behalf of Hellas. 


Munro (Canò. Ane. Hist. 4, pp. 297 f.) who thinks that 
Leonidas believed he had “ one day more.” 
145 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


3 Mera ôè raðra oi pèv pera roô Tpaywiov IMépoai 
mepreàlóvres tràs Övoywpias vw Toùs mepi ròv 
Aecwviðnv åréiaßov eis Tò péoov, ot 8 “EAMNves Thv 
Lèv cwrnpiav droyvóvrtes, Tv © eùðoćiav éÀópevot, 
u pav rov hyovpevov Nélouvv dyew èri roùs 
moàepiovs, npiv ) yvôvar Toùs IMépoas tiv tÔv 

4 liwv nmepioðov, Aewviðns ðè ryv éTouóTnTa TrÕv 
OTPATLWTÕV ANOĞEÉAJMLEVOS, TOÚTOLS NAPHYYELAE Ta- 
xéws apioronoreîohar, ws év ”Aiov ðeinvyoopévovs: 
aùròs © dkoàoúlws TÀ napayyeàig tpopiv mpoo- 
yvéykarto, vopibaw oŭtrw Suvýocolat moàðv ypóvov 
ioyýeiv kal pépew Tùv èv roîs kiwõúvois Únropovny. 
enel Öè ouvvróuws dvaaßóvres aúroùs éToruot 
TÁVTES ÛNIPEAV, MAPHYYELAE TOS CTPATLÖTALS ele- 
mecóvras eis TV mapeppoàùv povede roùs évrvy- 
xávovras kal èr aùrùv òpufoa rùv roô Baciàéws 
okyyýv. 

10. Oroi èv ov axoàovlws raîs mapayyeàiais 
ovphpáčavres vurròs cicénecov ełs rv tôv Ilep- 
ocv orparoreðeiav, npokabnyyovpévov trod Aewvi- 
Sov: oi è Pápßpapor ıd re Tò mapáðoćov kal rův 
äyvorav perà Tmoààoð Bopúßov ouvérpeyov ék rôv 
oknvôðv ATdKTWS, Kal VOpITAVTES TOÙS META TOÜ 
Tpayıviov mopevopévovs amoàwàévar kat tv Šúva- 
pw anacav Tõv ‘EMývaw napetvar, karenàdynoav. 

280 kal modol èv únò r&v nepi rov Aewviðnv 
avnpoĝvro, mÀeclovs Õè úrò rÕv iww ws Únò mode- 
piw ĵà rv &yvorav àmwàovro. Ù Te yàp vò 


1 Herodotus (7. 223) knows nothing of this assault by the 
Greeks upon the Persian camp, and it is of course altogether 
incredible ; he says that the fighting began about the time 


146 


BOOK XI. 9. 3—10. 2 


After this the Persians who were led by the 
Trachinian, after making their way around the 
difficult terrain, suddenly caught Leonidas between 
their forces, and the Greeks, giving up any thought 
of their own safety and choosing renown instead, 
with one voice asked their commander to lead 
them against the enemy before the Persians should 
learn that their men had made their way around 
them. And Leonidas, welcoming the eagerness of 
his soldiers, ordered them to prepare their breakfast 
quickly, since they would dine in Hades, and he 
himself, in accordance with the order he had given, 
took food, believing that by so doing he could keep 
his strength for a long time and endure the strain of 
contest. When they lad hastily refreshed themselves 
and all were ready, he ordered the soldiers to attack 
the camp, slaying any who came in their way, and 
to strike for the very pavilion of the king. 

10. The soldiers, then, in accordance with the 
orders given them, forming in a compact body fell 
by night upon the encampment of the Persians, 
Leonidas leading the attack 1; and the barbarians, 
because of the unexpectedness of the attack and 
their ignorance of the reason for it, ran together 
from their tents with great tumult and in disorder, 
and thinking that the soldiers who had set out with 
the Trachinian had perished and that the entire 
force of the Greeks was upon them, they were struck 
with terror. Consequently many of them were slain 
by the troops of Leonidas, and even more perished 
at the hands of their comrades, who in their ignorance 
took them for enemies. For the night prevented any 


“ when the market-place is crowded,” ġe. in the forenoon, 
on the initiative of the Persians. 


147 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


àġnpeîro TÀ áànbwàv eniyvwow, Ñ TE TApaXÀ 
kab’ dànv ovog TÀV orparoneðeiav eùAóyws ToÀùv 
éroiet póvov: čkTewov yàp dAàńàovs, où Stbovons 
Ts TEPLITÄTEWS TÒV eferaopòv åkpipi Sià TÒ ÚTE 
ýyeuóvos mapayyeàlav pýrTe ovvbýpaTos épóTnaw 
3 phre, Aws Sravoias karáoraow úndpyew. e pèv 
ov ð Pacideùs é epewev enè Tis paoMñs oKqvis, 
paðiws äv kal aùròs úrò Tv ‘EAAývowv åvýpnTo 
kal ò móňepos Čras Tayelas üv érereúyet kaTa- 
Aúoews: võv ® ó uev Bépéns ĝv éknemnònkos mpòs 
TÅ Tapaxýv, ot © “Enves elaneaóvres eis Tùv 
rnv TOÙS eykaraàngbévras év aùr oyeðov 
4 dmavras èġóvevoav. Tris Dè vukròs vabeoróons 
érìavôvro kab? sànv TÀ mapeppoàùv EnToðvres 
ròv Bépénv eðàóyws" huépas Šè yevopévns kal TS 
öANs meporáoews nAwherons, ot pèv Ilépoar bew- 
poôvTes dAiyovs č Övras TOÙS “Eħnvas, kareppóvnoav 
aùrôv, kal karà orópa pèv où ovvemÀékovTo, 
popoúpevor TÒS dperàs aùrõv, ek è TÕv màayiwv 
Kal e£ómabev mepuoTápevot kal mavraxóbev Točeú- 
ovres Kal drovriķovres äravras dnmékrewav. ol 
pèv oùv peTà Acwviðov ras év Oepporódas Tap- 
óðovs rnpoðvres roroðrov čoyov roð piov rò 
Têos. 
"Qv ràs dperàs Tis oùk äv bavpdoerev; ot- 
TivesS paĝ WHN, xonoápevor Tùv pèv åġwpionévny 
račw úno ris ‘Edos oùk EATov, TÒv éavrõv 
Sè Biov mpobópws enéðwrav eis Thv kowhv TÔv 
“EdAjvwv cwrnpiav, kal pÂMov elÀovTo TEÀcUTĜV 
kañðs Ņ Ehv aioypôs. kal TÀv rôv Ilepoðv ðè 
2 karárànéw OÙK ÄV TIS ATMOTHOAL yevéobos, Tis 
yàp äv rv Papßpápaw úréňaße rò yeyevnuévov; 
148 


BOOK XI. 10. 2—11. 2 


understanding of the true state of affairs, and the 
confusion, extending as it did throughout the entire 
encampment, occasioned, we may well believe, great 
slaughter ; since they kept killing one another, the 
conditions not allowing of a elose serutiny, because 
there was no order from a general nor any demanding 
of a password nor, in general, any recovery of reason. 
Indeed, if the king had remained at the royal pavilion, 
he ałso could easily have been slain by the Greeks and 
the whole war would have reached a speedy conclu- 
sion ; but as it was, Xerxes had rushed out to the 
tumult, and the Greeks broke into the pavilion and 
slew almost to a man all whom they caught there. 
So long as it was night they wandered throughout 
the entire camp seeking Xerxes—a reasonable action; 
but when the day dawned and the entire state of 
affairs was made manifest, the Persians, observing 
that the Greeks were few in number, viewed them 
with contempt ; the Persians did not, however, join 
battle with them face to face, fearing their valour, 
but they formed on their flanks and rear, and shoot- 
ing arrows and hurling javelins at them from every 
direction they slew them to a man. Now as for the 
soldiers of Leonidas who guarded the passes of 
Thermopylae, such was the end of life they met. 

11. The merits of these men, who would not regard 
them with wonder ? They with one accord did not 
desert the post to which Greece had assigned them, 
but gladly offered up their own lives for the common 
salvation of all Greeks, and preferred to die bravely 
rather than to live shamefully. The consternation or 
the Persians also, no one could doubt that they felt. 
it. For what man among the barbarians could have 
conceived of that which had taken place? Who 


149 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ris È dv mposeðórnoev öt mevTaróoior TÒV dptðpòv 
Ğvres éróàunoav ènmibécðar rañs ékaròv uvpidot; 
Siò kal ris oùk äv TÔv uerayeveorépwv Enàóoa 
tv àperiv TrÔv àvòpõv, oirwes TÔ peyébet ris 
MEPLOTACEWS KATEOXN EVOL TOS ÈV CØUACL KAT- 
enovýðnoav, raîs 8è Ypuyais oùx rrýðnoav; roryap- 
ov obrot uóvor rÔv pvnuovevopévwv rparņÂévres 
evõoćórepoi yeyóvacı Tv Awv TÖV Tàs kaàÀloras 
vikas åmevyveyuévwv. Xp yàp oùk èk TÕV åToTE~ 
\coudrwv kpivew roùs dyahoùs åvõpas, aAX’ êr Tìs 
3 mpoaipéoews’ TOÔ èv yàp Ñ TÚXN kupia, TOÔ È h 
mpoaipeois Õoktudberar, Tis yàp åv èkeivwv åpei- 
vovs ăvðpaşs kpiverev, oitwes oùÔÈ TÖ gıNoor 
pépet TÕv modepiwv ïoor ròv åpiðpòv övres Èrőà- 
uyoav roîs dmiorovpévois nmÀàńbeoi maparádéat TV 
éavtrÂv àperýv; où kpatrýoew TÕv TocoŬrwv vpid- 
Swn èàribovres, AAN dvôpayaðiq Toùs mpò aùrôv 
ånavras únmepßpaňeiv vouibovres, kat tùv pèv 
uáyxnv aðroîs! elvai kpivovrtes mpòs Toùs Bapßdpovs, 
ròv ayva Sè ral rv nèp TÕv àpiorelwv kpiow 
mpòs dmavras Toùs èr’ dperi Bavpakopévovs ór- 
4 dpxew. óvo yàp TÖV ÈE aiðvos pvypovevopévwv 
eiàovro pêňov typeîv troùs ris móàews vópovs ù 
tàs llas puyds, où Svopopoðvres émi r peyi- 
arovs éavToîs eßeordvai kivÕúvovS, AÀÀd kKpVovTes 
eùkraiórartov elvat ToîS ApeT)V AOkOÔOL TOLOÚTWV 
5 àyavwv ruyydvewv. Šıkaiws È’ dv Tis ToÚToVS kal 
tis kowĝĵs rÊv ‘EMývæv édevbepias airiovs ýy- 
1l abroîs} év aùroîs FMK, éavroîs Eichstädt. 
150 


BOOK XI. 11. 2-5 


could have expected that a band of only five hundred 
ever had the daring to charge against the hundred 
myriads ? Consequently what man of later times 
might not emulate the valour of those warriors who, 
finding themselves in the grip of an overwhelming 
situation, though their bodies were subdued, were 
not conquered in spirit ? These men, therefore, alone 
of all of whom history records, have in defeat been 
accorded a greater fame than all others who have 
won the fairest victories. For judgement must be 
passed upon brave men, not by the outcome of their 
actions, but by their purpose; in the one case 
Fortune is mistress, in the other it is the purpose 
which wins approval. What man would judge any to 
be braver than were those Spartans who, though not 
equal in number to even the thousandth part of the 
enemy, dared to match their valour against the un- 
believable multitudes ? Nor had they any hope of 
overcoming so many myriads, but they believed that 
in bravery they would surpass all men of former times, 
and they decided that, although the battle they had 
to fight was against the barbarians, yet the real con- 
test and the award of valour they were seeking was 
in competition with all who had ever won admiration 
for their courage. Indeed they alone of those of 
whom we have knowledge from time immemorial 
chose rather to preserve the laws of their state than 
their own lives, not feeling aggrieved that the 
greatest perils threatened them, but concluding that 
the greatest boon for which those who practise valour 
should pray is the opportunity to play a part in con- 
tests of this kind. And one would be justified in 
believing that it was these men who were more 
responsible for the common freedom of the Greeks 


151 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


t m ki y ’ 
caro Ñ} roùs Čorepov èv raîs mpòs Bépény páxas 
RS ~ # s 
vixúoavras’ ToúTwv yàp TÕv mpáewv uvņuoveģov= 
i uèv Bd, Àd t Sè “EAN 
Tes oi èv Pdppapot karenàdynoav, oi ðè yves 
A y e Fa Ed [g 
napwéúvőncav npòs tùv ðuoíav åvðpayaðliav. 
Pa ae A A A e 
e Kaĝódov è uóvoi rv nmpò éavrõv Šid TÅv Ýmep- 
A ra la l4 
Boàùv rĝs àperĝs eis dðavaoiav perýàñačav. Šid- 
A ~ Eag fà 3 y 
mep oùx oi TÔv ioropiðv ovyypageîs uóvov, Aň\à 
~ F ? M y 
Toààol kat rÔv nmomrôv kahúuvyoav aùTõv Tàs 
i last ©v yé Ep2 (Ò 5 pedo~ 
úvðpayaðías: v yéyove Kat ipwviðNS, Ò u 
A “~ L] Ka [4 ? [A 
mows, dérov Tis dperijs aùrôv morýoas éykúpov, 
ev © Àéyer 
m ? 
TÔv èv Oepponúàais Bavóvrwv 
? e $ 
eùòkÀehs èv à TÚXa, kaàòs Ò’ Ö TÖTHOS, 
, 2 ` ps e g 
Bwuòs & ó ráġos, mpò yõðwv’ Sè pvâoris, ò Ò 
olros ëmawos. 
? 2 bi A E ? “N 
evrddiov è Toroĝrov oŬT eùpòs 
> LA 2 
où? ò nmavðapárwp åuavpwoet gpõvos. 
m 2 + 
dvpðv & dyabðv ðe onkòs oikérav eùõotiav 
~ A h lá 
“EAdôos elero’ paprupe? Sè ral Acewviðas 
A + A 
ó Enrdápras Baoiňeús, åperâs péyav Acoms 
+ 
kőógpov dévaóv Te KÀćOS. 


12. ‘Hpeîs Bè åprovvrws mepi ris Toórwv rõv 
ávôpðv dperís eipnkóres návipev mi Tà ovvexñ 
Toîs eipnpévois. Hépéns yàp TÕv mapõðwv rTòv 
elpnuévov Tpónrov kparýoas kat katTà TV Taporuiav 


1 The text of Bergk and of Smyth is preferred to that of 
Vogel, except Bergk’s olxros (l. 3). 
npò yówrv Eichstädt : mpoyóvwr. 
3 So Bergk: drôpôr áyaßðv. ó é. 
152 


BOOK XI. 11. 5—12. ł 


than those who were victorious at a later time in 
the battles against Xerxes; for when the deeds of 
these men were called to mind, the Persians were 
dismayed whereas the Greeks were incited to per- 
form similar courageous exploits. 

And, speaking in general terms, these men alone 
of the Greeks down to their time passed into immor- 
tality because of their exceptional valour. Conse- 
quently not only the writers of history but also many 
of our poets have celebrated their brave exploits ; 
and one of them is Simonides, the lyric poet, who 
composed the following encomium :! in their praise, 
worthy of their valour : 


Of those who perished at Thermopylae 

All glorious is the fortune, fair the doom ; 
Their grave’s an altar, ceaseless memory’s theirs 
Instead of lamentation, and their fate 

Is chant of praise. Such winding-sheet as this 
Nor mould nor all-consuming time shall waste. 
This sepulchre of valiant men has taken 

The fair renown of Hellas for its inmate. 

And witness is Leonidas, once king 

Of Sparta, who hath left behind a crown 

Of valour mighty and undying fame. 


12. Now that we have spoken at sufficient length 
of the valour of tliese men we shall resume the course 
of our narrative. Xerxes, now that he had gained 
the passes in the manner we have described and had 


1 Frag. 4 (Bergk). “ Encomium ” is not to be taken in the 
technical sense it had in the fifth century s.c. There is con- 
siderable reason to think that the following lines were part 
of a poem sung at the shrine of the fallen in Sparta. See 
C. M. Bowra in Class. Phil. 28 (1983), pp. 277-281. 


VOL. IV 153 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Thv Kaðpeiav vikyy vevrnkos, oàiyovs pèv TÔv 
moàeuiwv avee, moàanàacious 8è rôv bSlwv 
dmwàeoev. enel Õe meti rÂv mapõðwv ekuplevoe, 
Tv karà Tùv Îdàarrav àywovæv ëkpiwe Àaußdvew 

2 meîpav. eùbùs ov ròv adnyoúuevov To oróov 
Meyaßdryv mpooradeodpevos Siekedcúsaro màe 
emi rò Tv “EM ývæv vavrixòv kal meipâobai mavr 

37 oróàw vavuayetv mpòs roùs “EdÀnvas. ó 8è 
taîs roô Baciàéws mapayyeàlars dkoàovĝððv èk 
Iurns ris Maredovixis avýxðn mavri TÔ oróàw, 
kal karérìevoe ris Mayvnoias mpòs čkpav tùv 
òvopatouévyv Enmidða. vraha Sè peyáàov nveú- 
paTos eniyevouévov dnéßañe vaðs pakpàs? pèv órèp 
tàs Tpiakocias, innmaywyoùs è kal rv AA\wv 
maumànleîs. Ańkavros Sè roô nmveduaTtos dvayðbels 
karénàevoev eis Agéras ris Mayvnoias. ereibev 
òè Siakooias tpiýpeis ekénreupe, mpooráčas roîs 
hyepóot nmepiràcõoar Kal riv Eŭßoiav Sefiàv 
Aapóvras kuvkàwocachart roùs modepiovs. 

4 Oi è "EMnyves Öppovv uèv èr 'Apreoiw ris 
Evßoias, eîyov è rås ndoas rprýpeis Siarocias kal 
oyõońkovra’ kal roúrwv ñoav T©v èv ° Abnvaiwv 
ékaTov kal rerTapdkovra, at Õè Àormal rÕv ÄANwv 
“EMývæv. roúrwv õè vavapyos èv fv Eùpvußidðns 
Ò Lrapridrys, roket è rà mept ròv oróàov Qe- 
piorokàñs ó `Abnvaios: oros yàp Šid oúveow kal 
oTparnyiav peyáňns åmoðoxfs erúyyavev où uóvov 
ev rois karà TÒ vavtikòv “EAnow, dààà kal map 
aùr® T Eùpvfidðn, kal mávres Toúrw mpocéyov- 

ö res mpohbópws nmkovov. mporebelons è Bovis 


1 rpýpes after paxpås deleted by Dindorf. 
154 


BOOK XI. 12. 1-5 


won, as the proverb runs, a “ Cadmeian victory,” ! 
had destroyed only a few of the enemy, while he 
had lost great numbers of his own troops. And after 
he had become master of the passes by means of his 
land forces, he resolved to make trial of contest at 
sea. At once, therefore, summoning the commander 
of the fleet, Megabates, he ordered him to sail against 
the naval force of the Greeks and to make trial, with 
all his fleet, of a sea-battle against them. And 
Megabates, in accordance with the king’s orders, set 
out from Pydnê in Macedonia with all the fleet and 
put in at a promontory of Magnesia which bears the 
name of Sepias. At this place a great wind arose 
and he lost more than three hundred warships and 
great numbers of cavalry transports and other vessels. 
And when the wind ceased, he weighed anchor and 
put in at Aphetae in Magnesia. From here he 
dispatched two hundred triremes, ordering the com- 
manders to take a roundabout course and, by keep- 
ing Euboea on the right, to encircle the enemy. 
The Greeks were stationed at Artemisium in 
Euboea and had in all two hundred and eighty 
triremes ; of these ships one hundred and forty were 
Athenian and the remainder were furnished by the 
rest of the Greeks. Their admiral was Eurybiades 
the Spartan, and Themistocles the Athenian super- 
vised the affairs of the fleet ; for the latter, by reason 
of his sagacity and skill as a general, enjoyed great 
favour not only with the Greeks throughout the fleet 
but also with Eurybiades himself, and all men looked 
to him and harkened to him eagerly. And when a 


1 The reference is to the dearly won victory of the Thebans 
over the “ Seven,” described in Book 4. 65. The phrase is 
defined by Diodorus himself in Book 22 frag. 6. 


155 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


& Toîs qõv veâv ýyepóor mepit Tis vavuayias, 
ot pèv dÀàor mdvres Tùv hovyiav ékpwav xew kal 
ròv ènimàovv tÕv moàepiwv avaðéyechar, uóvos è 
Oepiorokàñs Thv vavriav drepývaro™ yvóunv, Ši- 
doxwv õri ovppépet mavti T CTOÀAW ovvreraypévw 
mÀeîv eml Toùs modeuiovs: oùrw yàp aùroùs mÀco- 
verTýoew Apóars Taîs vavoiv èmnÀéovras roîs ĝià 
TÅv Tapayhv deonraouévny čyovori Tv TáČW, ©s Àv 
èk nmoðv kal ĝieorykórav Mpévwv èknàéovor. 
Téàos è kara rhv Oeporokàéovs kpiow ot Eà- 
Aves mavti T oTóÀw Tos modeuiois énénàevoav. 
6 rv ðè Papßápwv èk Tmoðv Apévæv åvayopévwv, 
Tò èv npõrTov oi mepi ròv Oeiorokàéa reonap- 
uévois rois Ilépoais ovunàekóuevot mods pèv 
vas karéðvoav, oùk ðÀiyas ðè pvyeîv dvayka- 
oavres uéypi Ts yis kareðiwéav: perà è rara 
mavròs To oTóàov ovvaylévros kal yevopévys vav- 
payias ioyvpõs, pépet èv trÕv vev éráTepoi 
enpotépnoav, oùðérepor Sè ddosyepe? viky mÀco- 
vekTýoavTES vuKTòs emAagovons crcAvlnoarv. 

13. Merà ðè TÒ vavpayíav xena èmvyevópevos 
péyas moàààs È ekTòs TOÔ Apévos ó ópuovoas Tv veðv 
Srépherpev, Dore ðokeîv rò beîov åvriňaußáveołar 
rôv ‘EMývæv, iva roô nmàýbovs zâ Papßapıixôv 
vev rarewwbévros avriraños Ņ) TÊv “EM ývwv 
vvas yérqra Kat mpos TàS vavayias &ÉLÓ%pewsS. 
ÖióTep ot pè “Enves del pâdàov éláppovv, oi òè 
Pápßapor àe pòs Toùs kivõúvovs êyivovro Seró- 
Tepot. où piy AAN _Avañaßóvres éavroùs êk Tis 
vavayias ådráous raîs vavotv avýxðņoav mi Toùs 

2 moàeuiovs. ot © “Edyves, mpooyevopévww aùroîs 
1 So Dindorf: drekpivaro. 


156 


BOOK XI. 12. 5—13. 2 


meeting of the commanders of the ships was held to 
discuss the engagement, the rest of them all favoured 
waiting to receive the advance of the enemy ; but 
Themistocles alone expressed the opposite opinion, 
showing them that it was to their advantage to sail 
against the enemy with the whole fleet in one array ; 
for in this way, he declared, they would have the 
upper hand, attacking as they would with their ships 
in a single body an enemy whose formation was 
broken by disorder, as it must be, for they would be 
issuing out of many harbours at some distance apart. 
In the end the Greeks followed the opinion of Themi- 
stocles and sailed against the enemy with the entire 
fleet. And since the barbarians put out from many 
harbours, at the outset Themistocles, engaging with 
the scattered Persians, sank many ships and not a 
few he forced to turn in flight and pursued as far as 
the land; but later, when the whole fleet had 
gathered and a fierce battle ensued, each side gained 
the superiority in one part of the line but neither 
won a complete victory, and at nightfall the engage- 
ment was broken off. 

13. After the battle a great storm arose and des- 
troyed many ships which were anchored outside the 
harbour, so that it appeared as if Providence were 
taking the part of the Greeks in order that, the multi- 
tude of the barbarians’ ships having been lessened, 
tle Greek force might become a match for them and 
strong enough to offer battle. As a result the Greeks 
grew ever more bold, whereas the barbarians became 
ever more timorous before the conflicts which faced 
them. Nevertheless, recovering themselves after the 
shipwreck, they put out with all their ships against 
the enemy. And the Greeks, with fifty Attic triremes 


157 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Tpýpwv mevrýkovra Arttrikðv, avrimaperáyðnoav 
Troîs Bapßdpois. v © aùrôv ) vavpayia mapa- 
nmÀNoLos Taîs mept ras OQepuorúas uáyas* ot èv 
yàp Iépoai Sieyvórecav Piáoachar roùs “Ednvas 
kai ròv EŬpirov ĝieknieoa, ot § “Enves èp- 
ppáčavres Tà oTevà mpoepáyovro rv èvròs TiS 
Eùßoías cvuuayoúvrwv. yevopévns Šè vavpayias 
ioyvpâs moal vies Tap auporépwv Srepldpnoav, 
kal vvkTòs Emvyevopévys ivaykáoðnoav åvaráp- 
mTew ènmi rovs oikelovs Àtuévas. apioreðoat Õè év 
duporépais raîs vavuayiaiıs hacl mapà pèv Toîs 
"Edno ’Abrvaiovs, napa Sè roîs Bappápois Dı- 
wviovs. 

3 Merà è raôra ot “EdMnves åároúoavres tà mepi 
Oepporúàas yevõueva, nmvÂðpevoi è ral rToùs 
Iépoas met mpodyew mi tràs `Abúvas, ġ0úuN- 
cav: Ŝidnep anonàeúcavres eis Ladauîva rérpipov 

4 évraĝla. oi È `Abyvaŭor Bewpoðvres navõnpet 
kwòuveðovras rovs èv raîs 'Abývas, tTékva kal 
yuvaîkas kat rv AÀàwv ypyoiuwv oa Õvvaròv 
hv eis ràs vas évlévres Šierópoav cls Zañauîva. 

56 è rôv Iepsôv vavapyos mvlópevos röv rôv 
roàepiwv ånóràovv, karhpev eis rhv Eŭßorav perà 
mavròs To oróàov, kal Tùy tÕv ‘Ioriaéwv móàw 
Piq xepwodpevos kal dapráoas rv yæpav aùrôv 
Eòjwoev. 

14. “Aua Ôe TouToLS mparropévois Eépëns aro 
rÕv OQepporvàðv dvatevtas mpoĝye Sa ris Dw- 
Kkéww yópas, mopłðv pèv ràs róàeis karadlheipwv 
158R 


BOOK XI. 13. 2—14, 1 


added to their number, took position opposed to the 
barbarians. The sea-battle which followed was much 
like the fighting at Thermopylae ; for the Persians 
were resolved to overwhelm the Greeks and force 
their way through the Euripus,! while the Greeks, 
blocking the narrows, were fighting to preserve their 
allies in Euboea.? A fierce battle ensued and many 
ships were lost on both sides, and nightfall coinpelled 
them to return to their respective harbours. The 
prize of valour, we are told, in both battles was 
accorded to the Athenians for the Greeks and to the 
Sidonians for the barbarians. 

After this the Greeks, on hearing of the course 
events had taken at Thermopylae and discovering 
that the Persians were advancing by land against 
Athens, became dispirited ; consequently they sailed 
off to Salamis and awaited events there. The 
Athenians, surveying the dangers threatening each 
and every inhabitant of Athens, put on boats their 
children and wives and every useful article they could 
and brought them to Salamis. And the Persian 
admiral, on learning that the enemy had withdrawn, 
set sail for Euboea with his entire fleet, and taking 
the city of the Histiaeans by storm he plundered and 
ravaged their territory. 

14. While these events were taking place, Xerxes 
set out from Thermopylae and advanced through the 
territory of the Phocians, sacking the cities and des- 


2 The straits between Euboea and the mainland. 

2 Herodotus (8. 4) says that the Euboeans asked the fleet 
to remain at Artemisium until they could get their families 
and possessions off the island. 


1 pèv after rékva deleted by Dindorf. 
159 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


òè ras émi ris xöpas kroes. oi ĝè Dwreîs rà! 
rôv ‘EMývov Hpnpévor, kat Bewpoðvres avroùs 
oùk dioudyovs övras, tràs pèv néces dndoas 
egéùrov mavõnuei, mpòs è ràs Svoywpias tràs èv 
270 Ilapvaso®ð karéġvyov. perà òè rara ð 
Baoiàcùs rùv uèv rôv Awpiéwv yøpav Sueérov 
oùðèv hike ovvepdyovv yàp Ilépoais: abrod? Sè 
uépos pèv tis? Õuvdpews anéùirme, kal npooéraġev 
eis Aeàdoùs iévat kal rò èv Tépevos To °`AróÀ- 
Àwvos éunpioat, Tà è dvabýpara ovcar, aùròs 
òè perà rÕv dàwv Bapßápwv mpoeàbaàv eis TÀv 
3 Borwriav Kareorparoréðevoev. ot © èm riv 
oúňņow To pavreiov nmepphévres mpoñAbov pèv 
Lexpt ToÔ vaot ris Ilpovaias °Abnvâs, vraha Sè 
mapaðótws* öuppwv peyádňwv kal kepavrôv mod- 
ÀAðv èk ToÔ mepiéyovros meoðvrwv, mpòs è rovrois 
TÕv yepovwv mérpas peydàas dmoppnédvrwv eis 
rò orparóreðov TÕv Bapßpápwv, ovvéßn Šraphapivar 
ovyvoùòs rv Ilepoðv, mdvras òè karanàayévras 
4 rv Trv leðv évépyerav hvyeîv èk trÔv Trómwv. Tò 
èv ov év Aeàpoîs pavreîov Õarpovig Tivù mpo- 
volg Thv oúàņnow ðépvyev: ot dè Aeàgot ris TÕv 
bev emgpaveias dÂdvarov Úrópvņnua raraàıreîv 
Toîs perayeveorépois Bovàðpevot, TpóTaov čornoav 
mapà rò ris Ilpovaias °Abnvâs iepóv, ev ®© róðe rò 
éeyeîov evéypapav, 
vând rT aàcédvòðpov moàéuov kal paprupa vikas 
Aeàgġoi ue ortâĉcav, Zavit yapıiópevor 


1 rà Rhodomann : perà. 
* rs added by Dindorf. 


160 


2 aùroô Reiske: aùros. 
t So Dindorf: mapaĝóĉwv. 


BOOK XI. 14. 1—4 


troying all property in the countryside. Now the 
Phocians had chosen the cause of the Greeks, but 
seeing that they were unable to offer resistance, the 
whole populace deserted all their cities and fled for 
safety to the rugged regions about Mount Parnassus. 
Then the king passed through the territory of the 
Dorians, doing it no harm since they were allies of 
the Persians. Here he left behind a portion of his 
army and ordered it to proceed to Delphi, to burn 
the precinct of Apollo and to carry off the votive 
offerings, while he advanced into Boeotia with the 
rest of the barbarians and encamped there. The 
force that had been dispatched to sack the oracle 
had proceeded as far as the shrine of Athena Pronaea, 
but at that spot a great thunderstorm, accompanied 
by incessant lightning, suddenly burst from the 
heavens, and more than that, the storm wrenched 
loose huge rocks and hurled them into the host of 
the barbarians ; the result was that large numbers 
of the Persians were killed and the whole force, dis- 
mayed at the intervention of the gods, fled from the 
region. So the oracle of Delphi, with the aid of 
some divine Providence, escaped pillage. And the 
Delphians, desiring to leave to succeeding genera- 
tions a deathless memorial of the appearance of the 
gods among men, set up beside the temple of Athena 
Pronaea + a trophy on which they inscribed the 
following elegiac lines : 


To serve as a memorial to war, 
The warder-off of men, and as a witness 
To victory the Delphians set me up, 
Rendering thanks to Zeus and Phoebus who 
2? This temple of Athena Pronaea (“ of the fore-shrine ”) 
lay just outside the shrine of Apollo (Paus. 10. 8. 6). 
F2 161 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


còv Poißw mToàinophov arwoapévors! oriya 
Mýðwv 


` r e 1 1 f4 
kal yaàkooréġavov pvoauévois™ Téuevos. 


5 Zépéns ðè pà tis Borwrias Sreéuov TÅV pèv Tõv 
Oeoméwv xópav katéplerpe, Tàs de IHdaraids è pý- 
Lovs oŭoas événpnoev' oi yàp èv Traîs ródeo. rav- 
TALS KATOLKOÕVTES enepebyecav eis I càoróvvņoov 
mavõnpei, perà sè TaÎra eis TYV 'ATTuehy eußa- 
ÀóvTes TůV pèr xópav édýwoar, tàs Sè Abivas 
katéoroapav Kal roùs rÔv beðv vaoùs evénpnoav. 
To ôè Paoiéws Tepi Tañra ŝraTpiBovros, KaT- 
énÀevoev ò aróàos è ek TÎS Eùßoias eis TÀV 'ArTuchv, 
menoplyros Týv re Eŭßorav kal Tùv mapdàov ris 
P ATTiKÎS. 

15. Kard òè roôrov rov Kupòv Keprupaîor pèv 
mÀnpõTavres éEýrovra Tprýpes SréTpipov mepi TYV 
Ileàoróvvņoov, œs èv avro aow, où Õvvdpevot 
kámpar rò mept ròv Maàéav akpwrńpiov, œs ðé 
Twes TÖV avyypaßéwv iotopoĝot, kapaðokoûvres 
TàS To® Toàépov porás, mws Hepoðv pèr kpa- 
Tyodvrwv éreîvors dâo twp kal yiv, TÔv & 
“EAAývov niróvrav Sófwow aùroîs Peponlnrévar. 

2 oi Òè mept TÀ Zadauîva Srarpibovres ’Abnvañor, 
Bewpotvres TÀ ArTiiy muproñovuévyv kal rò ré- 
pevos TÌs °Abnvâs drovovres kateokágðar, ewôs 
HOúuovv. dpoiws ðè kal roùs dààovs “EM nvas 
Tods kareîye póßos mavrayóbðev auveànàapévovs 
els aùTův TÀv Iedoróvvnoov. Ebočev ov aùroîs 
ndávras Toùs ep hyeuovias terayuévovs ovveðpeð- 


1 50 Valckenaer (followed by Wurm) for årwodpevot and 
pvodpevo: of the MSS. 


162 


BOOK XI. 14. 4—15. 2 


Thrust back the city-sacking ranks of Medes 
And threw their guard about the bronze-crowned 
shrine. 


Meanwhile Xerxes, as he passed through Boeo- 
tia, laid waste the territory of the Thespiaeans and 
burned Plataea which was without habitants ; for the 
residents of these two cities had fled in a body into 
the Peloponnesus. After this he entered Attica and 
ravaged the countryside, and then he razed Athens 
to the ground and sent up in flames the temples 
of the gods. And while the king was concerned 
with these affairs, his fleet sailed from Euboea to 
Attica, having sacked on the way both Euboea 
and the coast of Attica. 

15. During this time the Cercyraeans, who had 
fitted out sixty triremes, were waiting off the Pelopon- 
nesus, being unable, as they themselves allege, to 
round the promontory at Malea, but, as certain his- 
torians tell us, anxiously awaiting the turn of the war, 
in order that, if the Persians prevailed, they might 
then give them water and earth, while if the Greeks 
were victorious, they would get the credit of having 
come to their aid.: But the Athenians who were 
waiting in Salamis, when they saw Attica being laid 
waste with fire and heard that the sacred precinct 
of Athena ? had been razed, were exceedingly dis- 
heartened. And likewise great fear gripped the 
other Greeks who, driven from every quarter, were 
now cooped up in the Peloponnesus alone. Conse- 
quently they thought it desirable that all who had 


1 Herodotus (7. 168) says the same thing about the 

Cercyraeans, but with more bitterness. They later alleged 

that the etesian winds prevented their rounding Cape Mailea. 
2 The temenos of Athena was the entire Acropolis. 


163 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


4 2 hi + + 
oat kal Bovàcúoaocðar, katrà molovs TóTovs ovu- 
pépet morîohat tùv vavuayiav. mov ðè kal 
r 2 e + e bi + 
moiwv Àdywv pnhévrwv, ot èv Iledorovvýowt, 

A 207 2 > + + H 
Tis iðiaş uóvov doßadelas hpovriovres, čpaoav 
òeîv mept rov 'Iobpov ovorjoachðat rov dyôva: 
TeTeLyiouévov yàp aùroĵ kaìðs, dv Te mept Tiv 
vavpayiav yévņnrar mratopa, uvýoeolat Toùs 
Ñruynkóras eis éroyorátrnv &oßhádeirav karaġvyečv 
Tiv Iedoróvvnoov: dv õè ovyràeiowow éavroùs els 

~ 4 “a A 

pikpàv vioov tův Lañapiva, SvoßonlýTois kakoîs 
4 mepineceiohar, Oeiororàfjs dè ovveßovdevoe mepi 
Tiv Dañauõiva mowiohar ròv dyôrva rv veðv: 
Toà yàp mÀcoverrýoew év taîŭs otevoywplats 

4 3) 7 z ld A 

Toùs OÀiyois okdpeot ðraywvibouévovs mpos moda- 
l A 2 4 ` A hi ? hi 
nàacias vas. ralóňou ðè ròv mept rov `Iobpòv 
tónov ånepaivero navreàðs älerov čoeolar mpòs 
Ttùv vavuayiav: čoeobar yàp meàdyiov ròv dyðva, 
Kal roùs Ilépoas Sà Tùv eùpvywpiav paðlws 
karanovýoeolai tràs ðÀiyas vas raîs moaràa- 
cía. ópoiws è ral àa modà Siadeyheis 
oikeîa ris mepioráoews, dmavras čmeoev aùr® 
avufhhovs yevéoðar ToðTov Tv TpõTov. 

16. Téàos è rowo óyuaros yevopévov repi 
Zadauîva vavuayetv, oi uèv “Enves mapeokevá- 
tovto tà mpòs roùs Ilépoas kat mpòs tòv kivõvvov. 
ó ò ov Evpvfidðns mapañaßov ròv Oeuorokàéa 
mapakaàeîv éreyeipet TÀ TANIN kal mporpéneobar 
mpòs Tòv émipepópevov rivðuvov. où uv TÒ TmÀAÑOos 


Dindorf: merorioba.. 
164 


BOOK XI. 15. 2—16. 1 


been charged with command should meet in council 
and deliberate regarding the kind of place that would 
best serve their purpose in fighting a naval battle. 
Many ideas of various kinds were expressed. The 
Peloponnesians, thinking only of their own safety, de- 
clared that the contest should be held at the Isthmus ; 
for it had been strongly fortified with a wall, and so, 
if they should suffer any reverse in the battle, the 
defeated would be able to withdraw for refuge into 
the most suitable place of safety available, the Pelo- 
ponnesus, whereas, if they cooped themselves up in 
the little island of Salamis, perils would beset them 
from which it would be difficult for them to be 
rescued. But Themistocles counselled that the con- 
test of the ships be held at Salamis, for he believed 
that those who had few ships to fight with would 
have many advantages, in the narrows of Salamis, 
against a vastly superior number of vessels. And 
speaking generally, he showed that the region about 
the Isthmus would be altogether unsuitable for the 
sea-battle ; for the contest would take place on the 
open sea, and the Persians because of the room for 
manæuvring would easily subdue the small force of 
ships by their vastly superior numbers. And by 
presenting in like fashion many other facts pertinent 
to the occasion he persuaded all present to cast their 
votes with him for the plan he recommended. 

16. When at last a decision was reached by all to 
fight the sea-battle at Salamis, the Greeks set about 
making the preparations necessary to meet the 
Persians and the peril of battle. Accordingly Eury- 
biades, accompanied by Themistocles, undertook to 
encourage the crews and incite them to face the 
impending struggle. However, the crews would not 


165 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Únýkovev, QAÀà mdvrwv karanenànypévwv TÒ péye- 
bos rv Iepoicðv Suvapewv obeis mpooeîye Tois 
hyepóow, dAX čkaoros ék tis Lañapivos ékmàeîv 

2 čonevðev eis TIV Ilcàoróvvnoov. oùðèv © Ñrrov 
kal Tò mety orparóreðov rÕv “Edńvwv ¿dedite Tàs 
TÂv moàcpiww Suváuers, Y Te TÕv nepi Qepporúdas 
amdàcea trõv dérooywrarwv dvõðoðv mapeiyero 
KaTATÀNÉLW, kal TA mepi TV ° ATTIV ovuTTÓLATA 
npò ô$haàpðv övra moy dÂvuiav éverolei roîs 

3 "Edànow. oi Sè oúveðpor Tv ‘EMúývov pðvres 
tiv TrÕv öy Tapayův Kat rùv ôànv ékmànéw, 
ê&fpnpioavro Siareiyigeiw ròv 'Iobuóv. ral rayò 
Tôv ëpyav ovvreňeolévrav ià triv mpolvpiav ka 
Tò nÀĝlos rv èpyatopévæv, oi èv Iedorovwvýoro 
òxópovv TÒ TeÎyos, Siaretvov èni araðiovs TeTTapá- 
kovra dnò Neyaiov uéypt Keyxpeðv, oit © èv ri 
Eadauîv Srarpipovres LeETà TavTòs To oTõÀov 
kateràdynoav émi Toooĝrov, Wore pyréri meibap- 
xeîv Toîs hyepóow. 

17. ʻO õè Oepiororàñs ópðv röv uèv vavapyov 
Eùpufidðnv uù Svvduevov mepryevéoðar ris ToÔ 
màhlovs óppis, tràs È Tepl Zadapîva Svoxwpias 
Súvacðar TOAD ouppañéabat mpos TÀ vixny, éun- 
XAVÝOATŐ Tt ToroĝTov' Enecé twa npòs tòv EépEny 
aùrouoàfjoa kal ciaßefarwoaohar, Sidre péňovow 
ai karà Zaìapîva vies dmoððpaorew èk TÕv T6- 

2 mwv kai npòs tTòv `Iobpòv dbpoibeohar. Siórmep ó 
Bacideùs Sià Thv mibavórra tv mpocayyeàbévrwv 
morevoas, éonevðe kwàDoar TAs vavrikàs ðvvápes 
rõv ‘EħMrivæv tois meġois orparoréðois mÀnod- 


166 


BOOK XI. 16. 1—17. 2 


heed them, but since they were one and all dismayed 
at the magnitude of the Persian forces, not a man of 
them paid any attention to his commander, every 
one being intent upon sailing from Salamis to the 
Peloponnesus. And the army of the Greeks on land 
was no whit less terrified by the armament of the 
enemy, and not only the loss at Thermopylae of their 
most illustrious warriors caused them dismay, but 
also the disasters which were taking place in Attica 
before their very eyes were filling the Greeks with 
utter despair. Meanwhile the members of the con- 
gress of the Greeks, observing the unrest of the 
masses and the dismay prevailing everywhere, voted 
to build a wall across the Isthmus. The works were 
completed speedily because of the enthusiasm and 
the multitude of those engaged in the task; but 
while the Peloponnesians were strengthening the 
wall, which extended a distance of forty stades, from 
Lechaeum to Cenchreae, the forces which were in- 
active at Salamis, together with the entire fleet, were 
so terror-stricken that they no longer obeyed the 
orders of their commanders. 

17. Themistocles, perceiving that the admiral, 
Eurybiades, was unable to overcome the mood of 
his forces, and yet recognizing that the narrow 
quarters at Salamis could be a great aid in achiev- 
ing the victory, contrived the following ruse: He 
induced a certain man to desert to Xerxes and to 
assure him that the ships at Salamis were going to 
slip away from that region and assemble at the 
Isthmus. Accordingly the king, believing the man 
because what he reported was in itself plav sible, made 
haste to prevent the naval forces of the Greeks from 
making contact with their armies on land, Therefore 


167 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


lew. eùbùs oŭv rò rv Aiyurmrtiwv vavrikòv ež- 
émempe, npooráčas èuġpárrew tòv peračů mópov 
tis te Lañapivos kat rs Meyapiðos yæpas. Tò 
Dè dMo nAñbos rÔv veðv efénempev ènmi thv Za- 
àauîva, mpoordčas éŻdnreoðai Tv moàeuiwv ral 
vavuayig kpivew tTòv ayva. oav Õè ai Tprýpeis 
crareraypévai karà čvos éÉñs, iva Sià Tv òuo- 
pwviav rat yvðow nmpobúpws dA\ńàois Bonbâow. 

3 oŭrw è rayÂévros roô vavrıko oróàov, TÒ pèv 
Òećiòv képas érneîyov Doivixes, rò Ò’ eùóvupov ot 
perà rôrv Iepoðv vres "Enves. 

Oi òè rôv 'Iuvov hyepóves dnéorerav ävòpa 
Edpuov npòs roùs “EM nvas ròv ĉiasaphoovra mepi 
TÂv ðeðoyuévuv T Paoıiňe? kat mepi ris SANs 
errdéews, kal ÕÓTL KaT TV pAXNV ånoorýoovrar 

4rôv Papfápwv. ro ðè Eauiov Àdðpg Õravnéa- 
Lévov kai mept rovrov diaoapýoavros roîs mepi 
ròv Eùpvfidðnv, ó èv Oepororàñĝs, karà voôv 
AÙT TMpPOKEXWPNKÖTOS TOÔ OTPATNYÁHATOS, TEpt- 
xapůs v kai rà mAy maperdàecev eis Tòv kivðv- 
vov, ot © "Enves mi ri rôv 'Ióvwv èrayyeàig 
Qappýoavres, kat Tis mepiordoews Biatouévns ač- 
Toùs mapa Tùv iliav mpoaipeoiw vavpayeîv, dmò 
tis Zadauõvos mpobúpws ovykaréßawov eis tùv 

$ 

vavpayiav. 

18. Téàos è rv mepi rov Eùpvfidònv ral 
Oecuiorokàéa draraéávrwv tràs ðvvduets, TÒ èv eù- 
wvvpov pépos éneîyov Alnvatoi kat Aakeðaruóviot, 
mpòs Tò Tv Powikwv vavrikòv dvriraybnoóuevor: 


1 This closed the route by which the Greeks could move 
west and south to the Peloponnesus; the Persian fleet 
already blocked the straits to the east. 


168 


BOOK XI. 17. 2—18. 1 


he at once dispatched the Egyptian fleet with orders 
to block the strait which separates Salamis from the 
territory of Megaris.+ The main body of his ships he 
dispatched to Salamis, ordering it to establish con- 
tact with the enemy and by fighting there decide the 
issue. The triremes were drawn up by peoples one 
after another, in order that, speaking the same lan- 
guage and knowing one another, the several con- 
tingents might assist each other with alacrity. 
When the fleet had been drawn up in this manner, 
the right wing was held by the Phoenicians and 
the left by the Greeks who were associated with the 
Persians. 

The commanders of the Ionian contingents of the 
Persian fleet sent a man of Samos to the Greeks to 
inform them of what the king had decided to do and 
of the disposition of his forces for battle, and to say 
that in the course of the battle they were going to 
desert from the barbarians. And when the Samian 
had swum across without being observed and had 
informed Eurybiades about this plan, Themistocles, 
realizing that his stratagem had worked out as he 
had planned, was beside himself with joy and ex- 
horted the crews to the fight ; and as for the Greeks, 
they were emboldened by the promise of the Ionians, 
and although the circumstances were compelling 
them to fight against their own preference, they 
came down eagerly in a body from Salamis to the 
shore in preparation for the sea-battle. 

18. When at last Eurybiades and Themistocles had 
completed the disposition of their forces, the left 
wing was held by the Athenians and Lacedaemonians, 
who in this way would be opposed to the ships of the 
Phoenicians ; for the Phoenicians possessed a dis- 


169 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


peydàny yàp ot Poivixes Úmepoxhv elyov Õid Te rÒ 
nÀñlos kat Sa TÅv ér mpoyðvwv év Toîs vavrikoîs 
2 épyois êumepiav: Aiyiwirat è kal Meyapeîs rò 
Serov Kképas dveràypovv' orot yàp ðókovv elvat 
VAUTLKØTATOL HETA ToÙs ’Abqvaiovs kal páňora 
poriuýoeola òid TÒ póvovs tv “EMAývov unse- 
pav éxyew katavyiv et me ovubain mratapa, karà 
Tův vavpayiav: tův òè péonv Ttdétw éreîye rò 
Aorrov rõv ‘Edvov nAñlos. 
Oroi èv ov Torov ròv tpórov ovvrayÂévres 
e£énàevoav, kal ròv mópov peraġò Dañauîvos kal 
3 “Hparàelov kareîyov: ó òè Paoideùs T uèv vav- 
dpoyw mpooéraev émràeîv rois modeuiois, aùTòs 
’ eis TOV evavriov TóTov TÌS Zadapivos maphAbev, 
4 eÉ o bewpeiv À Kig Thv vavpayiav yivopévņv. ot sè 
lépe TÒ èv TpÕToOV mÀéovTes Srerýpovv TÀv 
Táéw, čyovres modÀàùv eùpvywpiav: ws © els TÒ 
arevòv HÀbov, hvaykátovro TÕv veðv Twas drò Tis 
5 tráčews droonrâv, kal moàùv éroiouvv Îópvßov. ð 
Sè vavapyos Tponyoúpevos Ts Táfews kal TpÕTOS 
cvvápas páxnv rephdpn Àaurpõs åyovoáuevos, 
Tis sè vews Bubialeions, Tapay) karéoye Tò 
vavriıkòv rv fapßfdápwv: modol èv yap Ñoav oi 
TpooTATTOVTES, OÙ TAÙTA Ò ékaoTos maphyyeàe. 
Stò Ka Toî màeîv eis Toŭunmpoolev eréoyov, dva- 
6 kwyevovres © dveywpouv eis Tù eùpvxwpiav. ot 
Sè ’Alnvaîor ewpoðvres Tù Tapayùv Tõv pappá- 
paw émémÀcov Tois TOÀEpiOIS, kal Tàs pèr Toîs 
eupóàois ërumtov, ôv ðè roùs Tapooùs mapéovpov' 


1 The Heracleium was a shrine of Heracles on the main- 
land where only a narrow passage separated the island from 
Attica (Plutarch, Themistocles, 13. 1). 


170 


BOOK XI. 18. 1—6 


tinct superiority by reason both of their great number 
and of the experience in seamanship which they 
inherited from their ancestors. The Aeginetans and 
Megarians formed the right wing, since they were 
generally considered to be the best seamen after the 
Athenians and it was believed that they would show 
the best spirit, seeing that they alone of the Greeks 
would have no place of refuge in case any reverse 
should occur in the course of the battle. The centre 
was held by the rest of the Greek forces. 

This, then, was the battle-order in which the Greeks 
sailed out, and they occupied the strait between 
Salamis and the Heracleium 1; and the king gave 
order to his admiral to advance against the enemy, 
while he himself moved down the coast to a spot 
directly opposite Salamis from which he could watch 
the course of the battle. The Persians, as they ad- 
vanced, could at the outset maintain their line, since 
they had plenty of space ; but when they came to 
the narrow passage, they were compelled to withdraw 
some ships from the line, creating in this way much 
disorder. The admiral, who was leading the way 
before the line and was the first to begin the fighting, 
was slain after having acquitted himself valiantly. 
When his ship went down, disorder seized the bar- 
barian fleet, for there were many now to give orders, 
but each man did not issue the same commands. 
Consequently they halted the advance, and holding 
back their ships, they began to withdraw to where 
there was plenty of room. The Athenians, observing 
the disorder among the barbarians, now advanced 
upon the enemy, and some of their ships they struck 
with their rams, while from others they sheared off 
the rows of oars; and when the men at the oars 


171 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ris © eipeoias oùy úrnperoúons, morai TÕv 
Ilepoðv Tprýpers mÀdyiat ywvõpevar Tas éupodaîts 
TUKVÂS KATETITPÓTKOVTO. ĉrò kal mpúpvav pèv 
àvakpoðecłat raréravoav, eis Toùmiow Dè TÀé- 
ovoat nporporaðnv épevyov. f EAEN 
19. Tôv è Pomosâv kat Kurpiwv veðv ún 
rôÔv `Alnvaiwv yepouvpévwv, at röv Kidikow kal 
Haupúwv, črt è Avukriwv vies, Èxóuevoar ToÚTwV 
oÔoat, TÒ ÈV TPÕTOV EÙPØTTWS ÅvTEÍXovTo, Ùs ò 
elbov ràs kparioras vas mpòs uyv ðpunpévas, 
2 kal aùral ròv rivõuvov $éàmov. ém. Òè Parépov 
képaros yevopérņs kaprepôs vavpayías péxpt pév 
Twos igópporos v ð kvôðuvvos' os òè oi Alnvañor 
Tpòs TÅV yiv karaðıOavTes ToÙS Doivikas kal 
Kurpiovs ènréorpepav, èxpraohévres Únò TovTwv 
èrpámnoav oi Bápßapor xai moddàs vaðs anéßaàov. 
30i èv ov “Enves roôrov Tòv Tpónov mpore- 
phoavres ènipaveoráTy vavuayig ToÙùs Bapßápovs 
eviknoav: karà Sè Tòv kívõvvov Srepbápnoav vjes 
rôv èv ‘Evrov Terrapdrovrta, TÕv Sè Hepoðv 
Únèp ràs Õıakocias ywpis rv oùv aŭroîs dv- 
Spdor Anghercâv. , , n 
4 ‘O è Baoideùs map éàriðas ýrrnpévos Tv pèv 
Powixwv rv åpfávrwv ris pvyis Toùs aitiwrá- 
rovs ånérrewe, roîs © dAdois hreinoev êmbýoew 
rùv mpooýrovoav Tuwpiav. ot è Poivxes popy- 
Qévres tràs dmeiàds TÒ pev npôTov eis TYV ° ATTNV 
Kkarénàcevoav, ris Õè vukTòs émvyevopévns àmîpav 
5 els thv `Aoiav. Oeporokàñs òè ðótas aiios 
yevéoðart ris vikns, čTepov oùK čÀarrov ToúTov 
arparýyņnpa ènmevónoe. hoBovpévwv yàp T&v Eà- 
Ańvav nefi caywvilesðar mpòs Tosavras pvpid- 
172 


BOOK XI. 18. 6—19. 5 


could no longer do their work, many Persian triremes, 
getting sidewise to the enemy, were time and again 
severely damaged by the beaks of the ships. Con- 
sequently they ceased merely backing water, but 
turned about and fled precipitately. 

19. While the Phoenician and Cyprian ships were 
being mastered by the Athenians, the vessels of the 
Cilicians and Pamphylians, and also of the Lycians, 
which followed them in line, at first were holding 
out stoutly, but when they saw the strongest ships 
taking to flight they likewise abandoned the fight. 
On the other wing the battle was stubbornly fought 
and for some time the struggle was evenly balanced ; 
but when the Athenians had pursued the Phoenicians 
and Cyprians to the shore and then turned back, the 
barbarians, being forced out of line by the returning 
Athenians, turned about and lost many of their ships. 
In this manner, then, the Greeks gained the upper 
hand and won a most renowned naval victory over 
the barbarians ; and in the struggle forty ships were 
lost by the Greeks, but more than two hundred by 
the Persians, not including those which were captured 
together with their crews. 

The king, for whom the defeat was unexpected, 
put to death those Phoenicians who were chiefly 
responsible for beginning the flight, and threatened 
to visit upon the rest the punishment they deserved. 
And the Phoenicians, frightened by his threats, first 
put into port on the coast of Attica, and then, when 
night fell, set sail for Asia. But Themistocles, who 
was credited for having brought about the victory, 
devised another stratagem no less clever than the 
one we have described. For, since the Greeks were 
afraid to battle on land against so many myriads of 


173 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ĝas, eraneivwoe nmoàù ras Ôuvápeis TÕv nmeõv 

oTpaTonéðwv TOLÕÉ TWL TPÕTW. TÖV MÖAYWYÒV 

TÕv iðiwv viðv dnéoreirhe mpòs tòv Hépénv nà- 

covra, Sidre péAovow ot “EAànves màeúcavres èm 
6 rò Geðyua Avew rv yéġupav. Šıónep ð Bacideùs 

moreúoas roîs Àóyois ĉia Tův mÂavórnrta, mepi- 
hopos èyévero u) ts eis Thv °Aclav ênmavóðov 
orepnbh, rÔv '‘EMývwv Badarrokparovvrwv, éyvw 

Sè rv rayiornv iaßaiveiw èk rûs Eòponns eis 

Tiv ` Aclav, rararnav Mapõóviov êmi ris ‘EMdõos 

LeTrà Tv àpiorwv innéwv Te kal neGôrv, æv ô 
cúumas àpiðuòs únpxev oùk eàdrrwv TÔV TET- 
Tapákovra uvupidðwv. Qepiororàis pèv ov õvol 
OTPATNYÝLACL YPNOEČLEVOS PEYÉAWV MPOTEPNLATWV 
aitios eyévero Tois “Eàqor. 

Kai rà pèv karà rùv ‘EMáða mpayhévra èv 
Toros Ñv. 

20. ‘Hues Sè dproúvrws Sreànàvhóres mepi TÕv 
karà rhv Eùpóryy npaybévrav, peraßipdoopev Thv 
Siýyyow èn ràs érepoyeveîs mpáčeis. Kapynðóvio 
yàp ouvvreberpévot npòs Iépoas roîs aùroîs 
kapoîs kararoeuioat roùs karà Thv Xikeàiav 
“Eààyvas, peydàas mapackevàs énorvýoavro TÕV 
mpòs TÒv TmÓÀcuov ypnoipwv. Ós È’ eùrTperi ndvra 
aùroîs Úmñpye, orparqyòv ciovro *ApiÀrwva, Tòv 
uáňora nmap aùroîs Îavpatópevov mporpivavres. 
oĝros è mapaňaßàv metás Te kal vavrikàs vvd- 
ueis peydàas é£énmàevoev ék ris Kapxnõóvos, éxwv 
mebiv pèv Súvapıv oùk EàdTTw TÖV Tpiákovra 


(X 


1 So Dindorf: ovvribéuevor. 
174 


BOOK XI. 19. 5—20. 2 


Persians, he greatly reduced the number of the 
Persian troops in the following manner : he sent to 
Xerxes the attendant of his own sons to inform him 
that the Greeks were about to sail to the bridge ot 
boats! and to destroy it. Accordingly the king, 
believing the report because it was plausible, became 
fearful lest he should be cut off from the route 
whereby he could get back to Asia, now that the 
Greeks controlled the sea, and decided to cross over 
in all possible haste from Europe into Asia, leaving 
Mardonius behind in Greece with picked cavalry and 
infantry, the total number of whom was not less than 
four hundred thousand.? Thus Themistocles by the 
use of two stratagems brought about signal advan- 
tages for the Greeks. 

These were the events that took place in Greece 
at this time. 

20. Now that we have described at sufficient length 
the events in Europe, we shall shift our narrative to 
the affairs of another people. The Carthaginians, we 
recall, had agreed with the Persians to subdue the 
Greeks of Sicily at the same time and had made pre- 
parations on a large scale of such materials as would 
be useful in carrying on a war. And when they had 
made everything ready, they chose for general 
Hamilcar, having selected him as the man who was 
held by them in the highest esteem. He assumed 
command of huge forces, both land and naval, and 
sailed forth from Carthage with an army of not less 
than three hundred thousand men and a fleet of 


1 Over the Hellespont (chap. 3. 6). 

a We are told in chap. 28. 4 that the size of the army was 
“inore than two hundred thousand,” and in chap. 30. 1 
that it was *“ about five hundred thousand,” 

3 Cp. chap. 1. 


175 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


pupidòðwv, vañs Sè pakpas mÀeclovs rÕv iaroslwv,' 
kai ywpis mods vas dopriðas ràås kopuoúoas 
Tùv ayopåv, Úrèp tàs Tpioyiàlas. obros pèv oûv 
Sravýóoas rò Aßvkòv néàayos kal yeruachels år- 
éBade rÂv akapÂv rà kopibovra Toùs inmels kal TÀ 
åppara. karanàeúoas òè rs Luredias eis ròv èv 
T Havópuw Auéva ĝiareroieunkévar ròv móepov 
épnoe: nepopiobai yàp pýnore ý) Odàarra roùs 
3 EuxeMworas èééànrai rÕv kivðúvww. émi Sè rpeîs 
ýuépas dvañňaßov roùðs orparubras kal iophw- 
oápevos Tův &v TÔ yepðv yevopévyv vavayíav, 
npoñye perà tis Šuvduews émi tv ‘Ipépav, ovp- 
TapaTÀéovToS Toĝ vavrikoð. ©s Ò ABeE mAnoiov 
Tis mpoepnpévns TÓNEWS, Svo mapeußoñàs ébero, 
ki LEV TÔ melo aTpareúuatt, TÀ òè ri vavricĝ) 
Suvámet. Kal ràs pèv pakpàs vaĝðs drdoas vewÀ- 
koe kal rádpo Baleig kal reiyet Eudivo mept- 
éàaße, thv è rôv nekõv mapeufoiiy ©xúpwoev 
dvnunpóowmov morýoas Ti móde kal mapektewvas 
dnò rtoÔ vavrıkoô mapareiyiouarTos uéxpi TÖV 
únepreiuévwv Àddwv. kaĝóàov è mâv Tò mpos 
vouas pépos rarañaßópevos, Tův pèv dyopàv 
dmagav èk rv gopriðwv veðv éteidero, TA Öè 
nÀoîta dnavra tayéws étanéorete, nmpoordéas ëk 
Te ris Aßúns rat Lapõoñs oîrov kat Tùv AANV 
5 åyopav rouigew. aùròs Sè roùs dpiorovs rv 
ortparwtrõv dvañaßav kev émi trÅv mów, kal rÕv 
“Juepaiwv rovs èneéióvras tTpepápevos kat ToA\oùs 
dveàùwv karerÀàńéaro roùs év tÅ móe. ðo kal 
Ońpav ò °`Arpayavrivav uváorns, xwv Šúvapw 
ikavv kal mapaduàdrruv rv ‘Ipépav, poßnbeis 
1 So Dindorf: ĝioxidiwv. 


S 


176 


BOOK XI. 20. 2-5 


over two hundred ships of war, not to mention many 
cargo ships for carrying supplies, numbering more 
than three thousand. Now as he was crossing the 
Libyan sea he encountered a storm and lost the 
vessels which were carrying the horses and chariots, 
And when he came to port in Sicily in the harbour of 
Panormus? he remarked that he had finished the war; 
for he had been afraid that the sea would rescue the 
Siceliotes from the perils of the conflict. He took 
three days to rest his soldiers and to repair the dam- 
age which the storm had inflicted on his ships, and 
then advanced together with his host against Himera, 
the fleet skirting the coast with him. And when he 
had arrived near the city we have just mentioned, 
he pitched two camps, tle one for the army and the 
other for the naval force. All the warships he hauled 
up on land and threw about them a deep ditch and a 
wooden palisade, and he strengthened the camp of 
the army, which he placed so that it fronted the city, 
and prolonged so that it took in the area from the 
wall extending along the naval camp as far as the 
hills which overhung the city. Speaking generally, 
he took control of the entire west side, after which 
he unloaded all the supplies from the cargo vessels 
and at once sent off all these boats, ordering them to 
bring grain and the other supplies from Libya and 
Sardinia. Then, taking his best troops, he advanced 
to the city, and routing the Himerans who came out 
against him and slaying many of them, he struck the 
inhabitants of the city with terror. Consequently 
Theron, the ruler of the Acragantini, who with a 
considerable force was standing by to guard Himera, 


1 Palermo. 


177 


a 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


eùlùs dnéoreriev els tràs Buparovoas, dÉrðv Tòv 
Téwva Bonbeiv rv rayiornv. 

21. "O è Téwv kal aùròs roruakas AV TÙV 
Súvauıv, muhópevos è rùv rÕv ‘Iuepaiwv dbvpiav 
ávéďevćev èk Trôv Zvuparovoðv karà omovõýv, éxwv 
meoùs uèv oÙùk EÀÁTTOUS TÕV TMEVTAKLOuUpIWV, iT- 
meis Sè únrèp Toùs mevrakıoyıÀlouvs. Öıavúsas Õè 
TAXÉWS TÅV óðòv kal nÀnodoas TÅ móde TÕV 
“Iuepaiwv, èroiņnoe Îappeîv roùs mpõrepov kaTa- 
menànyuévovs tràs rv Kapynòoviwwv vvápes. 
aùròs uèv yàp orparoneðelav oikeiav PBañóuevos 
TÔv mepi Thv mów Tóna, TaÚTýv pv ®yýpwoe 
Táġpw Balci kal yapakróparı mepiňaßwv, Toùs & 
inneîs dnavras èkanéoreràev ml Toùs karà Tùv 
xópav màavwpévovs rÕv noàepiwv kat mepi Tàs 
wpedeias ciarpißovras. oôrot Sè mapaðófws mı- 
havévres ŠteoTapuévotS ÅTÁKTWS KATÀ TÙV XØPAV, 
tocoúrovs dviyov alypaàðrovs Öoovs éKaoTos 
yew hõúvaro. eicayhévrwv òè aiypañdTwv eis 
Thv móÀw mÀceóvov Ñ pupiwv, ô èv léiw peyádàns 
àrmoðoyfs èrúyyxavev, oi ðè karà Tùýv “Iuépav kar- 
eħpóvnoav rõðv moàepiwv. dkóňovłða è rovrois 
mpárrwv ó èv Téàwv dnáoas rås múas, ås ða 
góßov mpórepov vwkoðóunoav oi mept Qńpwva, 
raúras roùvavriov ĵià Tùv karahpóvņow èkwkoðó- 
noe, kaè dààas mpooskareskevace, Ò v Ñv 
eùypnoreîoĝat mpòs rås karenevyoðoas ypelas. 

Kabódov õè T'éàwv orparnyiq kai ovvéoei cia- 
pépwv eùhùs étýre &? o Tpórov Karaortpa- 
tnyýoas roùs Papßápovs årwðúvws aŭðrðv pnv 
dveàe? rùv Šúvajuv. guveßdàero è aùr® Kal Tò 
aùróuarov mpòs Tv èrivorav peyáňa, TOLaŬÚTS 
178 


BOOK XI. 20. 5—21. 3 


in fear hastily sent word to Syracuse, asking Gelon 
to come to his aid as rapidly as possible. 

21. Gelon, who had likewise held his army in readi- 
ness, on learning that the Himerans were in despair 
set out from Syracuse with all speed, accompanied 
by not less than fifty thousand foot-soldiers and over 
five thousand cavalry. He covered the distance 
swiftly, and as he drew near the city of the Himerans 
he inspired boldness in the hearts of those who before 
had been dismayed at the forces of the Carthaginians. 
For after pitching a camp which was appropriate to 
the terrain about the city, he not only fortified it 
with a deep ditch and a palisade but also dispatched 
his entire body of cavalry against such forces of the 
enemy as were ranging over the countryside in search 
of booty. And the cavalry, unexpectedly appearing 
to men who were scattered without military order 
over the countryside, took prisoner as many as each 
man could drive before him. And when prisoners 
to the number of more than ten thousand had been 
brought into the city, not only was Gelon accorded 
great approbation but the Himerans also came to 
hold the enemy in contempt. Following up what he 
had already accomplished, all the gates which Theron 
through fear had formerly blocked up were now, on 
the contrary, opened up by Gelon through his con- 
tempt of the enemy, and he even constructed addi- 
tional ones which might prove serviceable to him in 
case of urgent need. 

In a word Gelon, excelling as he did in skill as a 
general and in shrewdness, set about at once to dis- 
cover how he might without any risk to his army 
outgeneral the barbarians and utterly destroy their 
power. And his own ingenuity was greatly aided by 


179 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


4 yevopévns nmepiotTdoews. kpivavros aùroĵ tràs TÔV 
moàeuiwv vas éunpioat, kat roô ’`Apiàka Siarpi- 
Bovros pèv rarà Tùv vavrnikiv ortparoneðeiav, 
mapaokevatouévov è Îúew rô Iloseððv. peya- 
Àorperðs, kov drò ris yæpas imnes dyovres 
zpos ròv T'éàwva PiBNapópov émioToààs kopigovra 
Tapà Zewovvriwy, ev ais v yeypaupévov, ÖT: 
mpòs Ñv čypaev ý ýpépav Anikas amooTeiÀa TOÙS 
imneîs, mpòs aùThv ErTéppovow. ovans Dè ris 
ýuépas TaúrTys kab’ Ñv EpeàÀe ouvreàeîv Thv Îuoiav 
Apiàkas, kaTà TAÚTNV Téo ånéoTeev iðiovs 
inneis, ois Ñv mpooreraypévov mepredbeiy Toùs TÀN- 
giov TóTovs Kat npooeňaúvew d áw HUÉpP Tpòs TNV 
vaVTUKÌY artpatoreðeiav, os övras Zedvovvriov 
OVHHÍXOVS, yevopévovs è’ êvròs Toô Évàivov Teixovs 
Tòv èv ° Apiàkav anorretvas, TS òè vaðs eunpi- 
oo. eééneppe sè kal okorovs eis ToÙS Úneprer~ 
pévovs àóġovs, ots mposéračev, õTav bwo Toùs 
inmeîs yevopévovs évròs ToÔ TEÍXOVS, Âpat TÒ súo- 
onpov. abròs ò äp’ pépa TÙ Súvapuv barera- 
N h] 

yos dvémeve Trův annò tv okonrôv éoopévnv 
ÖAW. 

22. Tôv © innéwv dpa rf rarà ròv Ņàov åva~ 
ToAÑ) npooinnevodvruv TÅ vavik trv Kapxnõo- 
viwv artparoneðeig, Kal mpooðeybévrwv úno rTõv 
pvàdrwv os ovuda, obrot èv eùbùs npooðpa-~ 
póvres TÊ A piika mepi Tàv Îvciav ywouévw, 
ToîTov pèv åveñdov, TAS Òè yaðs évén poar: Emera 
TÕV OKOTÕV ApåvTwV Tò aóoonuov, ô Préo nmáon 
TÅ Svvdper avvTeTayérn mpoiyev émi Tv mapep- 
2 Boàùv rv Kapynåoviwv. oi è ev rf orparoneðeiq 


(= 


180 


BOOK XI. 21. 4—22, 2 


accident, because of the following circumstance. He 
had decided to set fire to the ships of the enemy ; 
and while Hamilcar was occupied in the naval camp 
with the preparation of a magnificent sacrifice to 
Poseidon,! cavalrymen came from the countryside 
bringing to Gelon a letter-carrier who was conveying 
dispatches from the people of Selinus, in which was 
written that they would send the cavalry for that 
day for which Hamilcar had written to dispatch them. 
The day was that on which Hamilcar planned to cele- 
brate the sacrifice. And on that day Gelon dis- 
patched cavalry of his own, who were under orders to 
skirt the immediate neighbourhood and to ride up at 
daybreak to the naval camp, as if they were the allies 
from Selinus, and when they had once got inside the 
wooden palisade, to slay Hamilcar and set fire to the 
ships. He also sent scouts to the hills which overlook 
the city, ordering them to raise the signal as soon as 
they saw that the horsemen were inside the wall. 
For his part, at daybreak he drew up his army and 
awaited the sign which was to come from the scouts. 

22. At sunrise the cavalrymen rode up to the naval 
camp of the Carthaginians, and when the guards ad- 
mitted them, thinking them to be allies, they at once 
galloped to where Hamilcar was busied with the 
sacrifice, slew him, and then set fire to the ships ; 
thereupon the scouts raised the signal and Gelon 
advanced with his entire army in battle order against 
the Carthaginian camp. The commanders of the 


1 Although Diodorus states below that Hamilcar was slain 
in battle, Herodotus (7. 179) says that he threw himself into 
the fire on which he was pouring libations and offering whole 
victims in order to bring victory. If this self-immolation is 
authentic, the god to whom he was sacrificing was in all 
probability the Phoenician Melcarth, the Biblical Moloch. 


181 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Tv Powikwv hyeudves Tò pev mpôrtov ekayayóvres 
thv Šúvauv anývræv roîs PikeMóTas kal ovv- 
áßavres páxņv eùpúorws Iywvibovro’ óuoð Õè 
raîs odàmyéw év àuporépois roîs orparoréðors 
eońuawov Tò moeukóv, kal kpavy) rv Õvvá- 
uewv èvadààé èyivero, piotipovpévwv &uporépwv 
T peyébe ris Poñs úrepâpatr roùs dvriTeray- 

3 pévovs. moÀÀo0 è yevouévov póvov, kal TÎS LAXNS 
Òcppo kåkeloe TAÀAAVTEVOLEVNS, PVW TÅS kaTà TAS 
vas pàoyòs apheions eis pos, kal Twwv åmay- 
yeávrwv rTòv roô orparnyoð póvov, ot pèv "EAAN- 
ves ébdppnoav, kal raîs pwvaîs kal raîs ério Ths 
vikys êraplévres Toîs ppovýpaow èrérewro Opa- 
oúrepov roîs Bapßápois, ot ðè Kapxnõðóviot kara- 
nàayévres Kal rùv viknv anoyvóvres mpòs puyùv 
êrpánnoav. 

4 Toc sè Téàwvos mapayyeiàavros pnõéva twypeîv, 
moùs eyévero $õvoşs rÕv devyóvræwv, kal mépas 
karekómņoav aŭt®v oùk eÀáTTOoVS TÕV mevrekal- 
Seka uvpidðwv. ot è orrot huyõvres èri twa 
Tórov pvupvòv Tò uèv mpõrTov Ņuúvovro roùs Pia- 
touévovs, dvuðpov è rareinpóres TóTov kat T® 
Skhet meķópevoi vaykdolnoayv éavroùs mapaðoð- 

5 var roîs kparoĝot. Déiwwv Sè emipaveordry páxn 
vikhoas, kal raúrny katrwphlwrkws yára òà TÄS 
Sias orparnyias, meppónrov oye Trv óav où 
uórvov mapà Toîs ZikeMwTats, AÀA Kal mapà 

6 roîs &Àdois drmacw: oùðels yàp Tv rpò aùroÎ 
uvnuoveðerat TOLoÚT® OTPATNYÁLATL keypnuévos, 
oùe mÀelovas èv mÊ maparáéet karakójas TÕv 
Bappápwv ovè nàñlos aiypaðTwv TosoTov yer 
pwoduevos. 

182 


BOOK XI. 22, 2-8 


Phoenicians in the camp at the outset led out their 
troops to meet the Siceliotes and as the lines closed 
they put up a vigorous fight; at the same time in 
both camps they sounded with the trumpets the signal 
for battle and a shout arose from the two armies one 
after the other, each eagerly striving to outdo their 
adversaries in the volume of their cheering. The 
slaughter was great, and the battle was swaying back 
and forth, when suddenly the flames from the ships 
began to rise on high and sundry persons reported 
that the general had been slain; then the Greeks 
were emboldened and with spirits elated at the 
rumours and by the hope of victory they pressed 
with greater boldness upon the barbarians, while the 
Carthaginians, dismayed and despairing of victory, 
turned in flight. 

Since Gelon had given orders to take no prisoners, 
there followed a great slaughter of the enemy in their 
flight, and in the end no less than one hundred and 
fifty thousand of them were slain. All who escaped 
the battle and fled to a strong position at first warded 
off the attackers, but the position they had seized had 
no water, and thirst compelled them to surrender 
to the victors. Gelon, who had won a victory in a 
most remarkable battle and had gained his success 
primarily by reason of his own skill as a general, 
acquired a fame that was noised abroad, not only 
among the Siceliotes, but among all other men as 
well; for memory recalls no man before him who 
had used a stratagem like this, nor one who had slain 
more barbarians in one engagement or had taken so 
great a multitude of prisoners. 


2 Various emendations have been suggested in the passage 
Taîs pwvaîs . . . ppovýpaciv, 


183 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


m~ Eg 
23. Að Kal modol rôv ovyypaġéwv mapaßdà- 
~ 4 ki 
àovoi rary Tùv uáyņnv TÅ mepi Iartaids yevo- 
t a Y ~ 2 y r AN a 
Lévy Ttoîs “Eno kat orparýynpa Tò léàwvos Tos 
A 4 4 ~ 
enwońuaoı Toîs Qeiorokàéovs, kal TÒ mpwreîov 
A ~ kd A e 
òà ras åuporépwv Úneppoàas rs apers ot pèv 
2 roúrois, ot è rToîs érépois dmovépovoi. Kal yàp 
rô karà tùy ‘EMdõa kai rv kara trùv Xukeàlav 
~ A A ~ 
mpò Tis paxs karanenrànyuévwv Tò mÀflos rv 
m~ + 
Bapßapıxðv Suváuewv, ot karà Xixeàiav mpórtepov 
2 3 lA k3 ` %: e LA 
vikýoavres énroiņoav rovs karà Thv ‘Eddòõa bap- 
~ A + ~ 
pioa, muhouévovs tv roô Téàwvos virnv' kat rõv 
3 d + 
Tùv õÀņv yeuoviav map àuporépoirs èsynkórwv 
a 2 
mapà èv roîs Ilépoais ovvéßn: Siamepevyévar Tòv 
td A p LA ? ? A 4 A 
Bacıàéa kal modas uvpidðas uer aùroð, mapà ðè 
a Ed 1 
toîs Kapyņõoviois uù) uóvov åmoàéobaı ròv orpa- 
Tyyóv, QÀÀà Kal roùs peraoyóvras TOÔ Toàépov 
a 2 
karakonivar, kat TÒ Ò) Àeyóuevov unòè äyyeàov 
3 A + A A bS ka 
3 eis Thv Kapynõóva Sıacwbivar. mpòs è roúrois 
M e Lg A A A 
Toùs ênipaveordrovs TÕV hyepóvwv Tapà èv ToîS 
2 
"EMyo, Iavoaviav kal Oeorokàéa, Tòv èv úrò 
A 207 ~ A `A $ ` 
TÔv biwv moùrÂv lavarwhivat Šia TÀcoveéiav kat 
A e 
npoðociav, ròv & eE árdons ris ‘Eààdõos èf- 
A ? Lg pan 
càalévra karaġuyeîv mpòs ròv exlpórarov Zép- 
Env kal map èkeivw Picat uéypi TiS TeÀeurTis, 
L4 A Li A 2 Ty A A 2 
Téàwrva è perà Tùv pdáynv del kat uov dro- 
A” KJ A ” 3 a 
Soxs Truyydvovra mapa toîs Xupakociois eyynpâ- 
~ 1 pi A td 4 
cat TÑ Bacıàeig kal reàevrÃoar Bavpağópevov, kai 
“~ A k 3 
Tocoĝrtov loysa Tv mpòs aùròv eüvorav mapà 
184 


BOOK XI. 23. 1-3 


23. Because of this achievement many historians 
compare this battle with the one which the Greeks 
fought at Plataea and the stratagem of Gelon with 
the ingenious schemes of Themistocles, and the first 
place they assign, since such exceptional merit was 
shown by both men, some to the one and some to 
the other. And the reason is that, when the people 
of Greece on the one hand and those of Sicily on the 
other were struck with dismay before the conflict at 
the multitude of the barbarian armies, it was the 
prior victory of the Sicilian Greeks which gave courage 
to the people of Greece when they learned of Gelon’s 
victory ; and as for the men in both affairs who held 
the supreme command, we know that in the case of 
the Persians the king escaped with his life and many 
myriads together with him, whereas in the case of 
the Carthaginians not only did the general perish but 
also everyone who participated in the war was slain, 
and, as the saying is, not even a man to bear the 
news got back alive to Carthage. Furthermore, of 
the most distinguished of the leaders of the Greeks, 
Pausanias and Themistocles, the former was put to 
death by his fellow citizens because of his overween- 
ing greed of power and treason, and the latter was 
driven from every corner of Greece and fled for refuge 
to Xerxes, his bitterest enemy, on whose hospitality 
he lived to the end of his life ; whereas Gelon after 
the battle received greater approbation every year 
at the hands of the Syracusans, grew old in the king- 
ship, and died in the esteem of his people, and so 
strong was the goodwill which the citizens felt for 


1 Added by Reiske and Madvig. 


185 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Toîs moitas, üore kal tpow èk tis olkias tis 
exeivov Tùy åpxùv Srapvdaxb vos. 

’AAÀà yàp TOVTOW oi bixaiav óav KekTnuévot 
Toùs npooýkovras ènaivovs kal map’ u ëxovotv, 
enl Sè Tò ouveyès Toîs mpoerpnpévois peraßnoðpeba. 

24.1 Zuvéßn yàp Ti aùr hép rov Téwva 
vikoa kal ToÙS mepi Oepporódas perà Aewriðov 
Sraywvioaohar mpòs Hépgny, ğonep ènirnòes Toĝ 
Sapoviov mept TÒV abròv Kapòv morjoavrTos yevé- 
obar THV TE radiorny vikqv kal Tùy évdoordryy 
rrav. perà òè riv yevopévny páx nps Ti 
móet TÕV “Ipepaiaw etKoci ves akpa Sréhuyov 
rov rivõvvov, âs °` Aulàkas où? EvewAknoe Tpòs Tàs 
åvayraías xpeias. do kal trÕv ávðpðv axeðov 
ánávrav tV pèv åvnpnuévaw, TÕv ðè etwypn- 
pévwv, plasay aĝraı TÒv dmómàovv monodpevar. 
moods ðè TV pevyóvrav åvaħñaßoðoar, Kal õıà 
Toro karáyopot yevópevat, mepiénmeoov yeuðv 
Kal nâoai Seephápnoav: ðàlyot Sé mives êv mkpô 
ordge: Seaowhévres eis Kapxnåóva eoádhnoav roîs 
moitas, oúvTouov moodpevot TV dTmópacwv, Tt 
ndvres ot Šiaßdvres els Thv Dixeàiav drodaow. 
3 Oi è Kapxynòðóvioi map ériðas peydàn ovu- 

hop mepirecóvres ml rocoto karenràdynoav, 

Čore tàs výkras dmavras ĝiaypurveîv pvàdrrovras 

Tiv móàw, œs roð Téwvos maon TÌ ðuvápe: mapa- 
4 xpa Šeyvwróros màcîv eml rhv Kapxnòóva. ıd 


(5 


1 The conventional beginning of the chapter has been at 
èni sè, rò guveyès in the preceding paragraph. 

2? ox added by Rhodoman, Dindorf, Bekker, omitted by 
Vogel. 


186 


BOOK XI. 23. 3—24. 4 


him that the kingship was maintained for three 
members of this house.1 

However, now that these men, who enjoy a well 
deserved fame, have received from us also the eulogies 
they merit, we shall pass on to the continuation of the 
preceding narrative. 

24. Now it so happened that Gelon won his victory 
on the same day that Leonidas and his soldiers were 
contesting against Xerxes at Thermopylae,? as if the 
deity intentionally so arranged that both the fairest 
victory and the most honourable defeat should take 
place at the same time. After the battle at the city 
of the Himerans twenty warships made their escape 
from the fight, being those which Hamilcar, to serve 
his routine requirements, had not hauled up on shore, 
Consequently, although practically all the rest of the 
combatants were either slain or taken prisoner, these 
vessels managed to set sail before they were noticed. 
But they picked np many fugitives, and while heavily 
laden on this account, they encountered a storm and 
were all lost. A handful only of survivors got safely 
to Carthage in a small boat to give their fellow 
citizens a statement which was brief: “ All who 
crossed over to Sicily have perished.” 

The Carthaginians, who had suffered a great dis- 
aster so contrary to their hopes, were so terror- 
stricken that every night they kept vigil guarding 
the city, in the belief that Gelon with his entire force 
must have decided to sail forthwith against Carthage. 


1 Gelon and his two brothers Hieron and Thrasybulus ; 
cp. chap. 67. Diodorus, as a native Sicilian, has not let the 
opportunity escape him of magnifying the exploits of his 
fellow countrymen. 

2 Herodotus (7. 166) says that the battle of Himera took 
place on the same day as the battle of Salamis, 


187 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Sè rò nmÀflos rÕv atoàwàótwv ý Te nós enévônoe 
kowh kal kar’ iav at rôv iðiwrÂv olciat kàavb- 
poû kai nmévlovs ènàņpoðvro. ot pèv yàp vioùs, 
oi è dôeàpoùs enetýrovv, màeîorot è maies òp- 
pavol marépwwv yeyovóres Ëpnuot wWÕÚpovTOo TÖV TE 
TÕv yeyevvykórwv Îdvarov kat tùův iðiav èpnpiav 
rõv Bonhoúvrwv. oi è Kapynðóvioı poßoúpevor 
uù) phdon iaßàs eis ABúny Téàwv, eùbùs èt- 
énmeupav npòs aùròv mpeofevràs aùrokpárTopas 
Tods ðvvarwTaTovs eineîv re kal Povàeúoacĝa. 
25. “O è Téàwv perà Tùv virnv Toús Te imneîs 
Toùs aveàðvras Tòv `Apiàkav õwpeaîs èriunoe kai 
TrÕv dàwv roùs võpayaðnkóras dpiorelois kó- 
aunoe. TÕv Õè ahúpwv Tà kaňoreúovrta mapehú- 
Aače, Bovàóuevos troùs êv traîs Eupakoúoais veðs 
koopĵoar roîs okúdois: rv Ò dAÀwv ToAÀdà èv 
ev ‘Iuépg mpoojàwoe tToîs êmipaveordrois rÕv te- 
põv, Tà è Àorrà perà TÕv aiyuaàdrTwv Õreuépioe 
Toîs ovpudyots, karà TÒv dpihuòv TÕv ovorparev- 
2 odvrwv Tùv dvadoyiav momoápevos. al ğè móde 
cis méðas karéornoav Toùs Õiaipehévras aiypaàw- 
Tous, kal Tà Ônuóoa rÕv ëpywv tà ToVTwV eT- 
cokevaćov. màeiorouvs è Àaßóvres ` Arpayavrivoi 
Týv tre mów aùr®ðv kal Tv yæpav ékóouncav’ 
TogoĝTov yàp map aùrois rv hÀwkórwv Åv Tò 
nàñlos, are nodoùs Trv iÖwrv nap aùrToîs 
éyeww ÕeouwbrTas mevrakociovs. guveßdàero yàp 
aùroîs npòs Tò nÀñlos rÕv aiypaàwtTwv où póvov 
Te moods oTparuoTas dnmeoraàkótes Noav émi 
Tùv páynv, dňàà Kat ŠióTe yevouévns TiS Tporñs 


188 


BOOK XI. 24. 4—25. á 


And because of the multitude of the lost the city 
went into public mourning, while privately the homes 
of citizens were filled with wailing and lamentation. 
For some kept inquiring after sons, others after 
brothers, while a very large number of children 
who had lost their fathers, alone, now in the world, 
grieved at the death of those who had begotten 
them and at their own desolation through the loss 
of those who could succour them. And the Cartha- 
ginians, fearing lest Gelon should forestall them in 
crossing over to Libya, at once dispatched to him as 
ambassadors plenipotentiary their ablest orators and 
counsellors. 

25. As for Gelon, after his victory he not only 
honoured with gifts the horsemen who had slain 
Hamilcar but also decorated with rewards for prowess 
all others who had played the part of men. The 
fairest part of the booty he put to one side, since he 
wished to embellish the temples of Syracuse with 
the spoils ; as for the rest of the booty, much of it 
he nailed to the most notable of the temples in 
Himera, and the rest of it, together with the captives, 
he divided among the allies, apportioning it in accord- 
ance with the number who had served with him. The 
cities put the captives allotted to them in chains and 
used them for building their public works. A very 
great number was received by the Acragantini, who 
embellished their city and countryside ; for so great 
was the multitude of prisoners at their disposal that 
many private citizens had five hundred captives in 
their homes. A contributing reason for the vast 
number of the captives among them was not only 
that they had sent many soldiers into the battle, but 
also that, when the flight took place, many of the 


189 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


modol rv pevyóvrwv eis tùv peoyeiov &veyopy- 
cav, pdùora Ôè eis rùv `Akpayavrivwv, v åndáv- 
Twv nò rÕv `Akpayavrivav Gwypnhévrav ëyepev 
3ý mós rÕv éadwkóræv. màeiorwv è eis rò 
õnuóciov dveveyhévræwv, orot uèv roùòs Abovs 
érepvov, eÉ ðv où uóvov oi péyioroi TÕv heÂv vaot 
kareokevdolnoav, dÀÀà Kal mpòs tràs rÂv ÝðdrTwv 
êk Tis módews kpods Únóvopot kareoreváolnoav 
TNÀoĝrot TÒ péyelos, ore aĉiobéarov elvat rò 
katackeðaopa, Kaimep ià Tv eùréderav kara- 
ppovoúuevov. émordrns Šè yevóuevos TOÚTWV TÕV 
épyav ó npocayopevópevos Ďaíać ià rv Šóćav 
TOÔ karaokevdopartos énoioev dg éavtoð kàn- 
vat Toùs Úrmovõpovs alakas. kareokevacav Õè ot 
’Akpayavrivoi kat koàvuphðpav mourei, Thv mepi- 
perpov čxovoav oraĝiwv éntá, rò Sè Balos my- 
xô eixkoci. eis è raúryy ènayopévwv motapiwr 
kal kpnvaiwv úðdrwv iyhvorpopeîov èyévero, mo- 
Àoùs mapexópevov iybûs eis rpophv kail aróňavow: 
kýkvæv te mÀeloTrwv eis aùrùv karantTapévov ovv- 
éßn tv mpócojw aùris èmrepri yevéchħai. GAN 
aŬry èv êv rois vorTepov ypóvois åpeànbeioa ovv- 
exooly kai ĉia rò nÀÑlos To xpóvov karephápn, 
5 Tv è xwpav ådnaosav åyabùv oĝoav aureàóhvrov 
enoiņoav kal Õévõpeci mavToiois memUkvwpévNy, 
Öore \aupdvew èE aùris peydàas mpoodõovs. 
Téwv Sè Toùs ovuudyovs droàðoas roùs moàíras 
amýyayev eis tàs Lupakovoas, kal Štà rò péyebos 
TÕs eùnuepias åmodoyis rúyxavev où uóvov mapå 
Toîs moàirais, &Ààda kal kaf àv rùv Xireàlav' 
enyero yàp aixuaàórwv rocoto nÀñbos, ore 


1 So Coraes : norapôv, 


EN 


190 


BOOK XI. 25. 2—5 


fugitives turned into the interior, especially into the 
territory of the Acragantini, and since every man of 
them was taken captive by the Acragantini, the city 
was crammed full of the captured. Most of these 
were handed over to the state, and it was these men 
who quarried the stones of which not only the largest 
temples of the gods were constructed but also the 
underground conduits were built to lead off the 
waters from the city ; these are so large that their 
construction is well worth seeing, although it is little 
thought of since they were built at slight expense. 
The builder in charge of these works, who bore the 
name of Phaeax, brought it about that, because of 
the fame of the construction, the underground con- 
duits got the name “ Phaeaces ” from him. The 
Acragantini also built an expensive kolumbethra,* 
seven stades in circumference and twenty cubits deep. 
Into it the waters from rivers and springs were con- 
ducted and it became a fish-pond, which supplied fish 
in great abundance to be used for food and to please 
the palate; and since swans also in the greatest 
numbers settled down upon it, the pool came to be 
a delight to look upon. In later years, however, the 
pool became choked up through neglect and was 
destroyed by the long passage of time; but the 
entire site, which was fertile, the inhabitants planted 
in vines and in trees of every description placed close 
together, so that they derived from it great revenues. 

Gelon, after dismissing the allies, led the citizens 
of Syracuse back home, and because of the magnitude 
of his success he was enthusiastically received not 
only among his fellow citizens but also throughout 
the whole of Sicily ; for he brought with him such 


1 “ Swimming-bath.” 
191 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Õoxeîv ónò tis výoov yeyovévar rův Aißúnv õÀànņv 
aiypdàwrov. 26. eùbos Sè kat rv mpõrepov vav- 
tiovuévwv TóÀcwv te kal Õuvaorðv mapeyévovro 
mpòs aùròv npéoBeis, ml èv Toîs hyvonuévois at- 
Toúpevot CVyyvóuNV, cis È TÒ Àormòv ènayyeààd- 
evot mâv mohoew TÒ mpooratTóuevov. 0 è nmâcw 
emes ypodpevos ovupayiav ovveribero, kal 
Tv eùruyiav avôpwmivws ëpepev oùk èm. Toúrwv 
uóvov, dà kal ènt TÕV TodeprwTáTwv Kapxn- 

2 õoviwv. napayevopévwv yàp mpòs aùròv èk Tis 
Kapynõðvos rv ameoraàpévwv npéoßewv kat perà 
Sarpúwv õeopévwv àvôpwrivws aùrToîs xpýoacðas, 
avveyÓpnoe TAV EpivNv, èrpáfato sè nmap aùrâv 
tàs eis ròv TõÀEuov yeyerypévas arávas, åpyv- 
piov ĉioyiàa Táñavra, Kal Svo vaoùs mpocéračev 
oikoĝouñoat, Kab’ oùs čet ràs ovvðýras àvare- 

3 Ovar. ot òè Kapynõóvior napaðóčws TS cwrt- 
pias TETEUXÓTES TAÛŬTÁ TE Sdoew mpoceðékavTo Kal 
aréĥavov ypvooðv rí) yuvairi toô Téiwvos Aapa- 
pét npocwpoàdynoav. arų yàp rT aùrôv 
ačıwbeîoa ouvýpynoe màeiorov cis Thv oúvbeow ris 
eiphvns, kal orepavwbeîoa úr aùrôv ékartov ta- 
àdvrois ypvoiov, vópopa egékope TÒ Kànbèv am 
EKENS Aapapérerov: ToîTto © eÎxe èv ` ArTTikas 
paypàs éka, kàn Sè mapà ros XikedwTas 
arò ToÔ oTalpoô mevTyrovráàrpov. 

4 ʻO Sè Trw è êxpiro nâow èmekôs, páňora pèv 
eis? Tòv tòtov TpóTov, où% Nkiora è kal onevðwv 
dnmavras čyew taîs eùvoiais iÒiovs* mapeskeválero 
yàp Todi vváper mÀcîv ènmi rhv ‘EdMdòa kal ovp- 

5 payeîv rois “Eàànot karà rõôv IHepoðv. ġo Ò 

1 eis P, Vogel; &à vulg., other editors. 
192 


BOOK XI. 25. 5—26. 5 


a multitude of captives that it looked as if the island 
had made the whole of Libya captive. 26. And at 
once there came to him ambassadors from both the 
cities and rulers which had formerly opposed him, 
asking forgiveness for their past mistakes and promis- 
ing for the future to carry out his every command. 
With all of them he dealt equitably and concluded 
alliances, bearing his good fortune as men should, 
not toward them alone but even toward the Cartha- 
ginians, his bitterest foes. For when the ambassadors 
who had been dispatched from Carthage came to him 
and begged him with tears to treat them humanely, 
he granted them peace, exacting of them the expense 
he had incurred for the war, two thousand talents 
of silver, and requiring them further to build two 
temples in which they should place copies of the 
treaty. The Carthaginians, having unexpectedly 
gained their deliverance, not only agreed to all this 
but also promised to give in addition a gold crown to 
Damaretê, the wife of Gelon. For Damaretê at their 
request had contributed the greatest aid toward the 
conclusion of the peace, and when she had received 
the crown of one hundred gold talents from them, 
she struck a coin which was called from her a Dama- 
reteion. This was worth ten Attic drachmas and was 
called by the Sicilian Greeks, according to its weight, 
a pentekontalitron.! 

Gelon treated all men fairly, primarily because that. 
was his disposition, but not the least motive was that 
he was eager to make all men his own by acts of 
goodwill. For instance, he was making ready to sail 
to Greece with a large force and to join the Greeks 
in their war against the Persians. And he was already 


1 i.e. a “ fifty-litra,” the litra being a silver coin of Sicily. 
193 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


aùroð pédovros moicîohar Tùy dvaywyýv, kart- 
énàevodv twes èk Kopivhov iacadoĝvres vevien- 
[A A la ` y ~ ” 
Kévai T vavpayíiąg Toùs “Eàànvas mepi Ladapiva, 
4 frd “~ "~ 
kal rv Eépénv perà pépovs Tis uváuews ék Tis 
Eùponns annàdaybar. Do kat TÜs ðpufjs êmoywv, 
Tùv npobvpiav TtÕv oTtparıwrõv dnoðefápevos, 
ouvýyayev ekkàņciav, npoordfas dmavras amavtåv 
Lera trõv ônAwv: aùròs ðè où uóvov TÕV TWV 
ki 2 pi ? i T > A b S. ? 
yupvos eis Tùy ekkàņoiav AGev, AAAA Kal dyirwav 
év ipariw nposeÀbwv dmedoyiocaro pèv mepi mav- 
A 4 ~ ~ 
ròs roô iov ral rv nmenrpaypévwav aŬT® mpos 
AN + L t ? hS ~ [A 
6 roùs Dupakociovs’ êp ékdorw òè trÕv Àeyouévwv 
emonpawopévwv rv öyàwv, kal Îavpatóvrwv 
Láňora ôrı yuuvòv éavrtòv mapeðeðwket Tots Bov- 
àouévois aùrov dvedeîv, trocobrov dreîye roô pi 
a a LA A m~ 
Tuyeîv rıpwpias ©s TÚpavvos, wore m pwrĝ 
nmdávras drokadetv edepyérnv kal cwripa Kal Ba- 
t ? kJ ` 2 ld e [A 3 
7ta. dnò è rovræwv yevópevos ó Téwv èk 
A ` 
Lèv rõv \adúpwv kateokeðace vaoùs dčroàðyovs 
m + 
Ańunrpos kat Kópns, xpvooðv è Tpiroða moroas 
kd e kd hi 
dno tTaàdvrwv ékkalðeka dvébnkev ecis rò Tépevos 
m 3 
Tò ev Aeàpoîs 'Anródwvi yapiorýpiov. Ènmeßdàero 
1 uù) deleted by Dindorf, Vogel, following Hertlein ; re- 
uÀ 
tained by Eichstädt, Bekker. 


1 This acclaim recognized his rule as constitutional, not 
“ tyrannical,” 

2 The two chief deities of Sicily ; cp. Book 5. 2. 

2 The Scholia to Pindar, Pythian 1,1. 152 give the inscrip- 
tion, which has been attributed to Simonides (frag. 106 
Diehl, 170 Edmonds); the text and translation are from 
Edmonds : 


paul Téwr’, ‘Iépwva, IToàóțaàov, Opaoúpovàov, 
naĝas Aewouéveos, Toùs tpinoĝas Bépevu 


194 


BOOK XI. 26. 5-7 


on the point of setting out to sea, when certain men 
from Corinth put in at Syracuse and brought the 
news that the Greeks had won the sea-battle at 
Salamis and that Xerxes and a part of his armament 
had retreated from Europe. Consequently he stopped 
his preparations for departure, while welcoming the 
enthusiasm of the soldiers ; and then he called them 
to an assembly, issuing orders for each man to 
appear fully armed. As for himself, he came to the 
assembly not only with no arms but not even wearing 
a tunic and clad only in a cloak, and stepping forward 
he rendered an account of his whole life and of all 
he had done for the Syracusans ; and when the throng 
shouted its approval at each action he mentioned and 
showed especially its amazement that he had given 
himself unarmed into the hands of any who might 
wish to slay him, so far was he from being a victim 
of vengeance as a tyrant that they united in acclaim- 
ing him with one voice Benefactor and Saviour and 
King.! After this incident Gelon built noteworthy 
temples to Demeter and Corê ? out of the spoils, and 
making a golden tripod? of sixteen talents value he 
set it up in the sacred precinct at Delphi as a thank- 
offering to Apollo. At a later time he purposed to 


éé éxaròv Àrpôâv kal mevrýkovra TAÀdVTV 
Aapaperiov ypvooð, râs ekáras ŠekdTav, 

Báppapa vixdoavras ébvn: moààv è mapaoyeîv 
aúupayxov “EM aow yep és édevhepiav. 


“ I say that Gelo, Hiero, Polyzalus, and Thrasybulus, sons 
of Deinomenes, dedicated these tripods out of fifty talents 
and a hundred litres of the gold of Damaretê, being a tithe 
of the tithe of the booty they had of their victory over the 
Barbarian nations when they gave a great army to fight 
beside the Greeks for freedom,’ 


195 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Sè Öorepov kal karà tv Altrvnyv karaorkevdgew 
vewv AńunTpos vews evðeoúons rorov uèv où 
auveréàcoe, peooaßnbeis ròv iov nò TiS me- 
TPwWuENS. 

8 Tôr ðè uedororðv Ilivõðapos v akudtwv rarà 
ToúTovs Toùs ypóvovs. Tà èv ov drodoywrara 
TÕv mpaxhévrwv kara tToðrTov Tòv éviavròv oyeðov 
taôr eoriv. 

27. Er’ dpxovros © ’Abúývnoi Bavbinrov Pw- 
paoi èv karéornoav úndrovs Kówrov aßiov 
Eedovavòv kal Lepoviov Koprýàiov Tpikoorov. èm 
òè roúrwv ó pèv rôv IHepaðv oróos nàùv Doi- 
vikwv perà Thv èv Zadauivı yevopévņny vavpayíav 
ýrTyuévos Srérpipe mepi Tiv Kúunv. evratla ðè 
mapayepdoas, ws TÒ bépos è vioTaTo, mapénievoev 
cis Edpov mapaduàdéwv tiv ‘Iwviav: oav © at 
nâcat vies èv Eduw mÀelovs TÖV TeTpakosiwv. 
arai pèr obv ws dààótpia ppovoúvvrrwv Tõv Ióvwv 
mapepúňatrtov TAS TmóÀELS. 

2 Kara ðè růýv ‘EMdõa perà týv èv Badapîvı 
vavpayiav, Tv `Abnvaiwv okoúvvrwv aitiwv 
yeyovévar Ts vikņs, kal ĉia Toto aùrõv ọpo- 
vnuaTıčopévwv, nâõocw èyivovro katrapaveîs ws 
Tots Aakeõaroviors aupioßnrtýoovtes TS kartà 
darrav hyepovias: Õiómep ot Aakedauóvior mpo- 
opopevot TÒ péov édiÀotiuoûvro traneiwoôv rò 
ppóvņnua tv `Abnvaiwv. Siò ral kpisews TpoTe- 
Beions mepi TÕV ápiateiwv, yapıtı katioyóoavres 
énoinoar Kpbĝvar TÖÀAW uèv dpioreĝoat kii Ayı- 
vyrôv, dvôpa ðè `Apewiav ’Alnvaiov, rôv dðeàdòv 


1 pews evõeoŬTnsS Vogel : vvas ĝè ovoqs. This suggested 
emendation of Vogel’s is the most satisfactory one yet offered. 


196 


BOOK XI. 26. 7—27. 2 


build a temple to Demeter at Aetna, since she had 
none in that place; but he did not complete it, his 
life having been cut short by fate. 

Of the lyric poets Pindar was in his prime in this 
period, Now these are in general the most notable 
events which took place in this year. 

27. While Xanthippus was archon in Athens, the 
Romans elected as consuls Quintus Fabius Silvanus 
and Servius Cornelius Tricostus.* At this time the 
Persian fleet, with the exception of the Phoenician 
contingent, after its defeat in the sea-battle of 
Salamis lay at Cymê. Here it passed the winter, and 
at the coming of summer it sailed down the coast to 
Samos to keep watch on Ionia; and the total number 
of the ships in Samos exceeded four hundred. Now 
they were keeping watch upon the cities of the 
Ionians who were suspected of hostile sentiments. 

Throughout Greece, after the battle of Salamis, 
since the Athenians were generally believed to have 
been responsible for the victory, and on this account 
were themselves exultant, it became manifest to 
all that they were intending to dispute with the 
Lacedaemonians for the leadership on the sea; 
consequently the Lacedaemonians, foreseeing what 
was going to happen, did all they could to humble 
the pride of the Athenians. When, therefore, a 
judgement was proposed to determine the prizes to 
be awarded for valour, through the superior favour 
they enjoyed they caused the decision to be that 
of states Aegina had won the prize, and of men 
Ameinias of Athens, the brother of Aeschylus the 


1 Silvanus is an error for Vibulanus and Tricostus for 
Cossus. 


197 


479 B.Q 


(2 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


3 $ ~ A m 
Aioyúňov roô nomo oros yàp tpnpapyôv 
TmpõTos ufor” édwke r vavapyðı rôv Ilepoôv, 

4 + 
kal raúryv karéðvoe kal ròv vaðapyov Šiéßlepe. 

m & >A Q + + la bi kA 
TÖV yvaiwv Bapéws pepóvrwv rv dðikov 
Kag e À ò 7 + 2 
rrav, ot Aakearuóvior poßnhévres pýnore Qepe- 
oTtokàñs dyavakrýoas mìl T® cvupeßnkóri kakv 

[S À 2 kd 3 ~ 4 Ca e ld 
péya Bovàcúoņrtai kar aùrôv kal rv “EMývwv, 
3 4 Ea m A 
eriuyoav aùròv ÔirÀacioci Õwpeaîs rÂv Tà àpioreîa 

À ig ò lA ĝe ~ (0) Àd ` 
eiiņnpórwv. Šekauévov è roð Qepiorokàéovs ràs 
Swpeds, 0 uos rÕv `Alnvaiww ånéornoev aùròv 

A Ead 
darò ris orparqyias, kal mapéðwre rùv àpyðv 
Earvĝinnw r® *`Apippovos. 

la ~ ~ 

28. Araßonleions Sè ris rv `Abnvaiwv mpòs 
roùs “EdAnvas ådorpióryros, Hrov eis ràs °Abývas 
npéoßeis mapà Iepoðv kal mapà rõv ‘EMývwv. 
oi pèv oŭv úno rôv Ilepoðv dnocradévres čéġacav 
tòr ortparnyòv Mapõóviov ènayyéňcoĝðar rois 
’Abnvaiois, av ra Iepoðv mpoéiwvrar, Swcew 

7 ^ A SÀ ~ ‘EAA 8 bi hi + 

3 
xúpav ĵv äv Pov wvrat TÌS dos, kal Tà reix 
Kal roùs vaoùs máùv dvoikoðopýoew, kal Tùv 
nóv doe aùróvopov' ot è napà trv Aareða- 
poviwv meuphévres ŅElovv p) merobijvar roîs Bap- 
B id 3AA ` Ea A A Ai “EAA A 
dpois, dÀÀ\à rypeîv rův mpòs Toùs nvas kal 
A voe TA N e è > m 
gvyyeveîs kal óuopavovs eùvorav. ot Sè °Abnvaîor 
Toîs Bapßápois åmekpiðnoav, s oğTe ypa rois 
époais grl roraúry ore ypvoðs rocoðros ôv 
’ Abnvañor Seédpevor rovs “EdAnvas êyrarañeihovor 
roîs è Aakeðaruovlois etrov, ws aùrol pèv fv 

t ? A fé ~ Ld z 4 

mpõrepov érnoiroðvro hpovriĝa ris ‘EMdõos ral 


1 So Wesseling : čußoñov. 
198 


BOOK XI. 27. 2—28. 2 


poet; for Ameinias, while commanding a trireme, 
had been the first to ram the flagship of the Persians, 
sinking it and killing the admiral. And when the 
Athenians showed their anger at this undeserved 
humiliation, the Lacedaemonians, fearful lest Themi- 
stocles should be displeased at the outcome and 
should devise some great evil against them and 
the Greeks, honoured him with double the number 
of gifts awarded to those who had received the 
prize of valour. And when Themistocles accepted 
the gifts, the Athenians in assembly removed him 
from the generalship and bestowed the office upon 
Xanthippus the son of Ariphron, 

28. When the estrangement which had arisen 
between the Athenians and the other Greeks became 
noised abroad, there came to Athens ambassadors 
from the Persians and from the Greeks. Now those 
who had been dispatched by the Persians bore word 
that Mardonius the general assured the Athenians 
that, if they should choose the cause of the Persians, 
he would give them their choice of any land in Greece, 
rebuild their walls and temples, and allow the city to 
live under its own laws ; but those who had been 
sent from the Lacedaemonians begged the Athenians 
not to yield to the persuasions of the barbarians but 
to maintain their loyalty toward the Greeks, who 
were men of their own blood and of the same speech. 
And the Athenians replied to the barbarians that the 
Persians possessed no land rich enough nor gold in 
sufficient abundance which the Athenians would 
accept in return for abandoning the Greeks ; while 
to- the Lacedaemonians they said that as for them- 
selves the concern which they had formerly held 
for the welfare of Greece they would endeavour to 


199 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


LeETà Tañra nmepáoovrar Tv aùrhv iahuàdrrew, 
ekeivous È Ņélouv tùv rayiorny édbeiv els riw 
ATTI perà návrow rÕv ovuudywv mpóðnņàov 
yàp elva ióre Mapòðóvios, vavrıwpévaov rÂv 
’Abyvaiww aùr, merà Šuvduews Üéet ml ràs 
3 ’Alývas. ô kal ovvéßn yevéobar: ó yàp Mapõóvios 
ev tr) Borwrig õiarpißwv perà rõv Švuvádpewv rò 
Lèv npôrov rõv év Ileorovwvýow módewv érepâró 
twas apordvew, ypýpara ĝianmeunmóuevos Toîs 
npoeornkóot TÖV mew, perà è tradra nuvhavó- 
Levos Tv TÕv ° Abnvaiwv ånórpiow kal mapoćvvðeis, 
dnaoav yev èm riv '‘Arrixhv rhv Šúvapuv' 
4 xwpis yàp Tis Šeðopévns Únrò Eépéov orpariâs 
moiàoùs dàdovs aùròs Mapõóvios ér trs Opårns 
kal Mareõovias kat rÔv Auw Tv ovppayiðwv 
nóàcww )Opoikei, mÀeiovs rÕv elkoot pupidðwv. 
5 ryÀàkaúrys è ðvvdpews mpoayovons eis Thv ° ATT- 
Kýv, ot pèv ° AÎnvaior Pepàrapópovs åréoreiiav mpòs 
roùs Aakeðaruoviovs Öeóuevoi Bonhew Bpaðvv- 
óvrwv òè aùrôv kal rôv Papßpapwv éppaàóvræv 
eis Thv  ATTikýv, kaTenàdyņnoav, kal maÀw dva- 
Àaßóvres Tékva ral yvvaîras kal rv dààwv oa 
ôvvaròv v rtayéws mokopitew, eéMWnmov Tùv 
6 marpiða kal ouvépvyov mdàw eis tw Xadapiva. 
ò è Mapôóvios yañerðs xwv mpòs aùroús, rv 
xópav åmaosav karéĥleipe kat rùv mów kart- 
cokape kal TÀ iepà Trà karaàeàciuuéva mavreàĝðs 
éàvuivarto. 

29. `Emaveàðóvros ðè eis ràs Oýßas* ro Map- 
ovíov perà rûs Õuváuews, ote roîs ovvéðpos 
rôv ‘EMývwv nmapadaßeiv roùs °’Abnvaiovs, ral 
mavõnuel mpooeàlóvras* eis ràs Tlaraiàs Staywvie 
200 


BOOK XI. 28. 2—29. 1 


maintain hereafter also, and of the Lacedaemon- 
ians they only asked that they should come with all 
speed to Attica together with all their allies. For it 
was evident, they added, that Mardonius, now that 
the Athenians had declared against him, would ad- 
vance with his army against Athens. And this is 
what actually took place. For Mardonius, who was 
stationed in Boeotia with ałl his forces, at first at- 
tempted to cause certain cities in the Peloponnesus 
to come over to him, distributing money among their 
leading men, but afterwards, when he learned of the 
reply the Athenians had given, in his rage he led his 
entire force into Attica. Apart from the army Xerxes 
had given him he had himself gathered many other 
soldiers from Thrace and Macedonia and the other 
allied states, more than two hundred thousand men. 
With the advance into Attica of so large a force 
as this, the Athenians dispatched couriers bearing 
letters to the Lacedaemonians, asking their aid ; 
and since the Lacedaemonians still loitered and the 
barbarians had already crossed the border of Attica, 
they were dismayed, and again, taking their children 
and wives and whatever else they were able to carry 
off in their haste, they left their native land and a 
second time fled for refuge to Salamis. And Mar- 
donius was so angry with them that he ravaged the 
entire countryside, razed the city to the ground, and 
utterly destroyed the temples that were still standing. 

29. When Mardonius and his army had returned 
to Thebes, the Greeks gathered in congress decreed 
to make common cause with the Athenians and ad- 
vancing to Plataea in a body, to fight to a finish for 


2? So Dindorf: °Aĝývas. 
3 mpooeàbóvras MSS., mpoeàbóvras Dindorf, Vogel. 
201 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


oaglaı mepi Tis èdevbepias, eŭtachaı Sè kal roîs 
Deoîs, àv vicjowow, dyew katà Taúryy Tv Ýpépav 
Toùs “EMnyvas eìevhépia kow, kal ròv edevhépiov 

2 dyðva ouvredeîv év rais IÀartaraîs. ovvaybévrov 
ôe rôv “EMývwv eis ròv 'Iobpóv, ddóre Tois nmâow 
öpkov ðpðoo mepi ToÔ Toàépov, Tòv oréćovra? uèv 
TNV ouóvoirav aùrôv, dvaykdoovra È yevvalws 

3 Toùs kwõúvovs Úropévew. ó è pros v Toroôros' 
où morýoopat Tepl mÀelovos Tò biv ris edevbepias, 
oð kaTaàckjw Tods Ņyeuóvas oðre ÕvrTas oðre 
àmobavóvras, &AAù Toùs èv T páyxn TeÀcurýoavras 
TÕv cvupáyav ndávras bdpw, kal kparoas TÔ 
moàépw rôv Pappápwv oùôeuiav rôv åywnoaué- 
væv Tóewv davdoratov Toýow, kal TÔv lepôv TÔV 
eunpnolévrwv kaè karapànbévrwv oùðèv dvorkoðo- 
Hýow, dÀX rópvypa roîs èmywopévois dow ral 

4 katañeúbw Tis rôv Papfápwv doeßeías. ròv &è 
õpkov òuðoavTes énopevðnoav mi riv Borwwriav 
sià roô Khaipõvos, kal mpòs tràs Úrwpeias kar- 
avrýoavres nmàņolov rôv 'Epvbpôv, aùroô rar- 
corparonéðevoav. yyeTro Sè rv pèv ’Abnvaiwv 
’Apiorelðns, rõv Sè ovprdvræv Ilavoavias, erl- 
Tporos œv roð Aewviov mabós. 

30. Mapõóvios è mvhóuevos rv TÕv modepiwv 
Svvauw mpodyew émi Borwwrias, mpoñÀbev èk rôv 
Onfõv: kal Tapayevópevos émi ròv °` Acwròv nora- 

1 So Reiske: ¿éħevbepiav rowhv. 
2 So Rhodoman : orép£ovra. 


1 This Day of Freedom was commemorated every four 
years at Plataea, probably on the 27th of August. On the 
date see Munro in the Camb. Ane. Hist. 4, pp. 339 f. 


202 


BOOK XI. 29. 1—30. 1 


liberty, and also to make a vow to the gods that, if 
they were victorious, the Greeks would unite in cele- 
brating the Festival of Liberty on that day * and would 
hold the games of the Festival in Plataea. And when 
the Greek forces were assembled at the Isthmus, all 
of them agreed that they should swear an oath about 
the war, one that would make staunch the concord 
among them and would compel them nobly to endure 
the perils of the battle. The oath ran as follows : 
“ I will not hold life dearer than liberty, nor will I 
desert the leaders, whether they be living or dead, 
but I will bury all the allies who have perished in 
the battle ; and if I overcome the barbarians in the 
war, I will not destroy any one of the cities which 
have participated in the struggle ? ; nor will I rebuild 
any one of the sanctuaries which have been burnt or 
demolished, but I will let them be and leave them 
as a reminder to coming generations of the impiety 
of the barbarians.” After they had sworn the oath, 
they marched to Boeotia through the pass of Cithae- 
ron, and when they had descended as far as the foot- 
hills near Erythrae, they pitched camp there. The 
command over the Athenians was held by Aristeides, 
and the supreme command by Pausanias, who was 
the guardian ? of the son of Leonidas. 

30. When Mardonius learned that the enemy’s 
army was advancing in the direction of Boeotia, he 
marched forth from Thebes, and when he arrived 
at the Asopus River he pitched a camp, which he 


2? Lycurgus, Against Leocrates, 81, gives the same oath 
with some slight variations, adding at this point: “and I 
will exact a tithe of all who have chosen the part of the 
barbarian.” In the light of Diodorus’ own statement in 
chap. 3. 3, the clause may well have been in the oath. 

3 And therefore regent. 

203 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


pòv Elero mapeuboàńv, Ñv xúpwoe Táp Pabeiq 
kal Teiyet vwy mepiéàaßevt Åv õè ò góumas àpi- 
uos TÕv èv EAMAvov eis Òéka uupidðas, rÕv Õè 

2 Bapßápwv eis mevrýrovra. npôrToi Šè kaTýpčavro 
uáyņs oi Bdpßapoi vukròs èryvlévres rt aùroùs 
Kai nâo. Tois inneôot mpòs ryv ortparoneðeiav 
éncàdoavres. TÔv Òe ’ A Onvaiwv mpouolopévwv 
Kal ovvrerayuévy TÑ oTtparıĝ TebappnróTws d dmav- 

3 TøvTOV, ouvéßn kaprepàv yevéolar uáxnv. Téàos 
òè Tõv “EàMfvæv oi uev dAàot mávres Toùs kaf 
aúTtoùs Taxyhévras Tõv Papßápwv èrpéjavrto, póvor òè 
Meyapeîs mpõs Te TÒv Immapyov kal Toòs dpioTovs 
Trôv Ilepoðôv imnes davheorðTes, kal miekõpevot 
TÑ páXN, TÅv èv Táčiv où ratéùrov, mpos è Toùs 
Aĝyvaiovs rai Aakreðaiuoviovs méppavrés Twas 

4 èé aúrôv Ùrovv rarà táyos Boņnbñoa. ’Apiorei- 
Sov Sè Toùs mept aùròv rv `Abyraiwv Tayéws 
ATOOTELAAVTOS TOÙS ÈTLÀÉKTOVS, CvoTpahévTes oÔToL 
Kal mpoonecóvres Toîs Papßápois roùs uv Meya- 
peis eeiÀovro rÕv kvõúvwv TÕv mkKeuévwv, TV 
òè Ilepoðrv aùróv re ròv tmmapyov kal moààoùs 
dÀdovs drokTteivavrtes Toùs Àormoùs érpépavrto. 

Oi uèv ov “Edànves, wonepe Tive mpoayðvı 
Aaunpôs mporepoavtes, eùéÀmiðes eyévovTo mepi 
Tis dÀooyepoðs vins’ perà Sè rara èk Tis nw- 
peas pereorparonéðevoayv eis čTepov TÖTOV eù- 

5 BerwrTepov mpòs Thv ðÀooyeph vieny. Ñv yàp èk 
uev rõv defy yewopos úpnàds, ek Sè TÖV edw- 
vóuwv © `Acwròs morauós’ rov Ò dvà puécov 
Tórov éneîyev ù orTparoreðeia, neppayuéry TÅ 

1 So Wesseling : mepiéfañev. 
2 So Dindorf: orep elnov or ğorep. 


204 


BOOK XI. 30. 1-5 


strengthened by means of a deep ditch and sur- 
rounded with a wooden palisade. The total number of 
the Greeks approached one hundred thousand men, 
that of the barbarians some five hundred thousand.1 
The first to open the battle were the barbarians, who 
poured out upon the Greeks by night and charged 
with all their cavalry upon the camp. The Athenians 
observed them in time and with their army in battle 
formation boldly advanced to meet them, and a 
mighty battle ensued. In the end all the rest of the 
Greeks put to flight the barbarians who were arrayed 
against them ; but the Megarians alone, who faced 
the commander of the cavalry and the best horsemen 
the Persians had, being hard pressed in the fighting, 
though they did not leave their position, sent some 
of their men as messengers to the Athenians and 
Lacedaemonians asking them to come to their aid 
with all speed. Aristeides quickly dispatched the 
picked Athenians who constituted his body-guard, 
and these, forming themselves into a compact body 
and falling on the barbarians, rescued the Megarians 
from the perils which threatened them, slew of the 
Persians both the commander of the cavalry and 
many others, and put the remainder to flight. 

The Greeks, now that they had shown their superi- 
ority so brilliantly in a kind of dress rehearsal, were 
encouraged to hope for a decisive victory ; and after 
this encounter they moved their camp from the foot- 
hills to a place which was better suited to a complete 
victory. For on the right was a high hill, on the left 
the Asopus River, and the space between was held 
by the camp, which was fortified by the natural im- 


1 The size of the Greek army is probably slightly exagger- 
ated, that of the Persian greatly. 


205 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


6 púoe kal raîs rv rómwv doadeiais,. roîs pmèv 
oĝv "E AANow éuppóvws Povħevoapévois TOAÀQ avv- 
epáñero Tpòs Tiv vieny Ù TÕV TóTWV oTevoywpia' 
où yàp ñv êml mov pîrkos maperreivew. Tv $d- 
ayya râv lepoâv, DTE åxpýoTovs elvat cvv- 
EBowwe, tàs ToAÀAS pvpidðas rôv Bapßpápwv. Šrórep 
oi Tep, ròv Tavoaviav kal ’Apioreiðnv bappýoavres 
Toîs Tómois npoñyov Tv Õúvapıv eiS TV ÁXŅV, 
kal cvvTáčavres ÉQUTOÙS OLKELWS TIS NEPIOTÁTEWS 
Ñyov eml Toùs nodeulovs. 

31. Mapôóvios òè avvavaykačópevos Pabeav 
moroa TÙY páñayya, Îiérače TÀ Súvapv mws 
ToT édogev aùrT® avupépew, Kal petà Bofs ån- 
ývryoe Toîs "EMyow. exov è mepi aùròv Toùs 
apiotrovs nmpôTtos evépañev eis Toùs åvrirerayué- 
vovs Aareðaroviovs, kal yevvaiws åywnoáuevos 
modoùs dveîe rõv ‘EMývov" dvriraxhévrav òè 
TÕV Aareõayoviwv EÙPOOTWS, kat ndvra kivðvvov 
Únopevóvrwv TPolúuws, mods èyivero hóvos tõv 

2 Pappápwv. čws pèv oĝv ouvéßawe tòv Mapôóviov 
perà rôv êmàérTov mpokiwõuveðew, eùbúyws vn- 
éuevov TÒ Õerwòv ot í Páppapov éret ° ó re Mapõóvios 
åyamgópevos exbóuws ë ëneoe kal TÕV émÀéKTOv oi 
èv aréhavov, ot ðè katerpõbnoav, åvatpanévres 

3 Tais yvyais mpòs puyi æpunoav. ème pévwv 
sè Tõv ‘EMývov, ot èv màelovs TÔv Pappápwv 
eis TÒ EúAwov reîyos ovvéġvyov, rTÕv &’ KAA ot 
èv perà Mapõoviov raxbévres “EMyves els tàs 
OńPas dåvexópnoav, Toùs Òe Àorroùs òvras mÀeíovs 
TÖV TeTpariopupiwv avañaßov ’ApTáßatos, åvùp 
mapà Ilépoais èmawoŭpevos, eis drepov pépos 


206 


BOOK XI. 30. 6—31. 3 


pregnability of the general terrain. Thus for the 
Greeks, who had laid their plans wisely, the limited 
space was a great aid to their victory, since the 
Persian battle-line could not be extended to a great 
length, and the result was, as the event was to show, 
that no use could be made of the many myriads of 
the barbarians. Consequently Pausanias and Aris- 
teides, placing their confidence in the position they 
held, led the army out to battle, and when they had 
taken positions in a manner suitable to the terrain 
they advanced against the enemy. 

31. Mardonius, having been forced to increase the 
depth of his line, arranged his troops in the way that 
he thought would be to his advantage, and raising 
the battle-cry, advanced to meet the Greeks. The 
best soldiers were about him and with these he led 
the way, striking at the Lacedaemonians who faced 
him; he fought gallantly and slew many of the 
Greeks. The Lacedaemonians, however, opposed 
him stoutly and endured every peril of battle will- 
ingly, and so there was a great slaughter of the 
barbarians. Now so long as Mardonius and his picked 
soldiers continued to bear the brunt of the fighting, 
the barbarians sustained the shock of battle with 
good spirit; but when Mardonius fel, fighting 
bravely, and of the picked troops some were slain 
and others wounded, their spirits were dashed and 
they began to flee. When the Greeks pressed hard 
upon them, the larger part of the barbarians fled 
for safety within the palisade, but as for the rest 
of the army, the Greeks serving with Mardonius 
withdrew to Thebes, and the remainder, over four 
hundred thousand in number, were taken in hand 
by Artabazus, a man of repute among the Persians, 


207 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ëpuye, kal oúvrovor! Tùv avaywpnow momodpevos 
npofjyev êm TÅS Poros. 

32. Torov è Tòv Tpórov èv ri, puyi râ Pap- 
Bápov oyiobévrav, ópoiws kal TÒ TÕV ‘EMývwv 
mÀÑos Srepepioðn: ’Abqvaãor pv yàp, kal Ha- 
Taeîs kal OQeormeis Tods emi Onfôv óppýoavras 
eõiwfav, Kopivhior Sè kal Wekvævior kal Pàrdoror 
Kai Twes éTepot Toîs perà 'Apraßátov hevyovow 
èrnnkoàoúðnoav, Aakeðaruóvior è perà TÕv Àornðv 
roùs eis TÒ ÉúAwov Teîyos rarahvyóvras wéavres 

2 érópõðnoav npobipws., oi òè Onfator eédpevor 
TOÙS peúyovras kal npocavañapóvres êrébevro 
Toîs ðwkovow ’Abnvaiors: yevopévns òè mpò tõv 
qeyâv KApTEpÂS HÁXNS, Ki Kal rÕv Onfarwv Àaunpôs 
åywnoapévwv, čnmeoov èv oÙùk óàiyor Tap åupo- 
Tépots, TÒ Òè TeÀevrTatov Rraolévres ú únrò rôv Aby- 
vaiwv gvvéhvyov mów eis tràs Ońßfas. 

3 Merà è rara oi pèv 'Abnvañot mpòs rToùs 
Aareðapoviovs ÅTOXWPÁOAVTES, LETÀ ToÚTwV ère- 
xouáyovv Tpòs Toùs katrapvyóvras eis Tiv map- 
eupoàñy Ttõv Hepoâv: peyáñov è dayõvos e£ 
åppþorépwv yevopévov, kal qõv pèv Rappápæwv èk 
TóTwv öyxvpwpévwv Kaĝðs åyavigapévwv, TÕv è’ 
“EMývæov Píiov npocayóvræwv toîs Evàlvois TeÍxeot, 
ToÀÀoL pèv mapaßóws dywvi%óuevot kaTETITpO- 
OKOVTO, OÙK óÀiyor òè kal TÔ mÀýbe Tõv Bedðv 

4 Sragherpóuevot Tòv Îávarov eùpúxws Ó ónépevov. où 
pýv ye TIV ópuňův kal piov TÕV ‘EMývov č čoTeyev 
oÙTE TÒ KOTECKEVAOpÉVOV Teîyos oÙTE TÒ , TAÑOos 
rôv Bapßpdpwav, QAX dmav Tò dvrireraypévov ún- 
eikew hvayrkdbero’ hÀðvro yàp mpòs dAńàovs 
ot rs ‘'EMMdôos yyovpevoe Aakeðaruóvior Kal 
208 


BOOK XI. 31. 3—32. 4 


who fled in the opposite direction, and withdrew by 
forced marches toward Phocis. 

32. Since the barbarians were thus separated in 
their flight, so the body of the Greeks was similarly 
divided ; for the Athenians and Plataeans and 
Thespiaeans pursued after those who had set out for 
Thebes, and the Corinthians and Sicyonians and the 
Phliasians and certain others followed after the forces 
which were retreating with Artabazus; and the 
Lacedaemonians together with the rest pursued the 
soldiers who had taken refuge within the palisade 
and trounced them spiritedly. The Thebans received 
the fugitives, added them to their forces, and then 
set upon the pursuing Athenians; a sharp battle 
took place before the walls, the Thebans fighting 
brilliantly, and not a few fell on both sides, but at 
last this body was overcome by the Athenians and 
took refuge again within Thebes. 

After this the Athenians withdrew to the aid 
of the Lacedaemonians and joined with them in 
assaulting the walls against those Persians who had 
taken refuge within the camp ; both sides put up a 
vigorous contest, the barbarians fighting bravely from 
the fortified positions they held and the Greeks 
storming the wooden walls, and many were wounded 
as they fought desperately, while not a few were also 
slain by the multitude of missiles and met death with 
stout hearts. Nevertheless the powerful onset of the 
Greeks could be withstood neither by the wall the 
barbarians had erected nor by their great numbers, 
but resistance of every kind was forced to give way ; 
for it was a case of rivalry between the foremost 
peoples of Greece, the Lacedaemonians and the 


1 So Wesseling : cúvropov. 
209 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


’Abnvaîot, peueTewpiouévoi èv Taîs mpoyeyevnué- 
vais vikas, menotbóres è raîs éavrðv aperaîs. 

5 réàos Ôè kara kpdros àÀóvres ol Papßapor, Šeópevor 
twypeîv oùðevòs èrúyyavov éou. ó yàp oTparnyòðs 
rôv ‘EMivov Mavoavias ópðv rToîs mÀàýleow 
únepéyovraşs Toùs ßPapßápovs, eùdaßeîro uý rı 
mapdàoyov yérnTar, moààaràaciwv vrav TrÕv Bap- 
Bapæwv' iò kat mapayyelàavros aùrot pnõéva w- 
ypeîv, rTaxù TÀAÑlos dmorov vekpðv èyévero. TéÉÀoS 
òè oi “Enves úrèp ràs ðéka pupidðas rv Bap- 
Bápæv kararóļavres póyis ênaŭúoavrto roĝ kreive 
roùs Toàeuiovs. 

33. Torotrov Sè mépas ris páyns Aaßovons, ot 
èv “EMyves Toùs mecóvras Elapav, õvras mÀelovs 
TÕv pupiwv. Sreàdpevor Sè Tà Àdgvpa karà Tòv TÕv 
OTpaTWwTÂV åpðpòv TÌ mepi TÖV äpiorelwv kpiow 
énorýoavrto, Kat Apioreiðov keħeúoavros ékpwav 
àpioreðoat mów pèv Erdpryv, ävõpa òè Iavoa- 
víav ròv Aaxeðapóviov. `Aprdfačos © xav TÔv 
devyóvruv Iepoðv eis Terpakiopvpiovs, kal Šid 
Tis Dwklðos eis Maxeõoviav mopevleis, žvrárais 

Y m “~ A 
mopelais, expiro, kat eoon pera TrÕv otpatriwrÂv 
eis Tùhv ° Aciav. 

2 Oi Edyves éx rôv Madúpwv ðerdryv èčeàó- 
pevoi kareokevacav ypvooðv rpinroða, kal dvéðņkav 


1 So Post (cep. Plut. Arist. 20. 1); xápiri tob reňeúoavros 
Reiske; ydpıiri ovàevsavres Rhodoman, Vogel: xapıríðov 
keàeúsavTos. 


1 The gold tripod proper was carried off by the Phocians 
in the Sacred War. But the bronze pillar, eighteen feet high, 
which supported it and was composed of three intertwined 
serpents, was removed by the emperor Constantine and is 
still to be seen in the Atmeidan (formerly Hippodrome) in 
Istanbul. It carries the names of thirty-one Greek states 


210 


BOOK XI. 32. 4—33. 2 


Athenians, who were buoyed up by reason of their 
former victories and supported by confidence in their 
valour. In the end the barbarians were overpowered, 
and they found no mercy even though they pled to 
be taken prisoner. For the Greek general, Pausanias, 
observing how superior the barbarians were in num- 
ber, took pains to prevent anything due to miscal- 
culation from happening, the barbarians being many 
times more numerous than the Greeks ; consequently 
he had issued orders to take no man prisoner, and 
soon there was an incredible number of dead. And 
in the end, when the Greeks had slaughtered more 
than one hundred thousand of the barbarians, they 
reluctantly ceased slaying the enemy. 

33. After the battle had ended in the way we have 
described, the Greeks buried their dead, of which 
there were more than ten thousand. And after divid- 
ing up the booty according to the number of the 
soldiers, they made their decision as to the award for 
valour, and in response to the urging of Aristeides 
they bestowed the prize for cities upon Sparta and for 
men upon Pausanias the Lacedaemonian. Meanwhile 
Artabazus with as many as four hundred thousand 
of the fleeing Persians made his way through Phocis 
into Macedonia, availiag himself of the quickest 
routes, and got back safely together with the soldiers 
into Asia. 

The Greeks, taking a tenth part of the spoils, made 
a gold tripod t and set it up in Delphi as a thank- 
which took part in the Persian Wars, and the opening words 
of the inscription as well as the statement of Thucydides 
(1. 132) show that it was a memorial for the entire war, and 
not for the battle of Plataea alone, as the context of Diodorus 


would suggest and as the geographer Pausanias (5. 23. 1; 
10. 13. 9) specifically states. 


211 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


eis Aeàġoùs yapıorýpiov r® Oe, émypdpavres 
éàeyeîov Tóðe, 
“EAdõos eùpvyópov owrñpes tóv’ dvéðnKav, 
Sovàocývns orvyepâs pvodpevoi móAaS. 


a ? 7 3 ~ 
enéypapav Sè kal toîs èv Oecpporúàais arobavoo 

~ 2 
Aakeðarpoviois kow pèv draci Tóôe, 


pupidoiw morë tHõe Öinkociais! épádyovro 
ex Ieàorovvýoov yiùidðes Téropes, 


ibia è aùroîs róðe, 
A + ~ 
Ô ée, dyyerdov! Aakeðaruoviois ötri Tõe 
keipela roîs keivwv nebópevoi vopipois 


e + b3 s e ~ kd 8 t “~ 3 ld 
3 ópolws Šè kal ó rv `Alnvaiwv ĝuos ékóounoe 
Tods rddovs rÕv év T@ Ilepoik® moéuw TeÀevTh- 
Ea ld ~ 
oávræwv, kal Tov ayva TÒv émiTdhiov TÓTE TpPÕTOV 
enoinoe, kal võpov čĝnre Àéyew eykópia rois 
r + A d "~ 
ônpocig Îanrouévois Toùs mpoaipebévras TÔv 
pnTópwv. 
` ` m i b3 e y 
4 Merà è rara Ilavoavias pv ò orparņyòs 
3 N A A ? t 2O h [d 
ávañaßàv rv Súvapuv eorparevoev émi tàs OńBas, 
7 ” ` 4 2 , 
kal roùs aitiovs ts mpòs Iépoas? ovupayias 
~ 7 
efre mpòs Tv tepwpiav: rÕv è Onpaiwv kara- 


1 rpiakocias, àyyéààew, and fhuaoi meðópevor Herod. 7. 228. 
2 So Dindorf: mporépas. 


ł This inscription is found only in Diodorus, and is 
dubiously attributed to Simonides (frag. 102 Diehl; 168 
Edmonds). 

2 Herodotus (7. 228) states that these two inseriptions were 
set up at Thermopylae, as indeed they were. They are com- 


212 


BOOK XI. 33. 2-4 


offering to the God, inscribing on it the following 
couplet : 


This is the gift the saviours of far-flung Hellas 
upraised here, 
Having delivered their states from loathsome 
slavery’s bonds. 


Inscriptions were also set up for the Lacedaemonians 
who died at Thermopylae; for the whole body of 
them as follows : 


Here on a time there strove with two hundred 
myriads of foemen 
Soldiers in number but four thousand from 
Pelops’ fair Isle ; 


and for the Spartans alone as follows : 


To Lacedaemon’s folk, O stranger, carry the 
message, 
How we lie here in this place, faithful and true 
to their laws.° 


In like manner the citizen-body of the Athenians 
embellished the tombs of those who had perished in 
the Persian War, held the Funeral Games then for the 
first time, and passed a law that laudatory addresses 
upon men who were buried at the public expense 
should be delivered by speakers selected for each 
occasion. 

After the events we have deseribed Pausanias the 
general advanced with the army against Thebes and 
demanded for punishment the men who had been 
responsible for the alliance of Thebes with the 
Persians. And the Thebans were so overawed by 


monly ascribed to Simonides (frags, 91, 92 Diehl; 118, 119 
Edmonds, both of whom prefer the text of Herodotus). 


213 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


meninyuévwv Tó Te nANbos TÕv moàeuiwv kal ràs 
aperds, ot èv airoraror Ths arò rõv ‘Edývæv 
ATOOTÁCEWS ÉKOVOLWS ÚTOEWAVTES TYV mapdõocv 
ekoàdoĝnoav únrò roô TIlavoaviov xai mdávres 
åvypéðnoav. 

34. 'Eyévero òè Kal katà TÀV 'Iwviav Toîs “EA- 
qor peyáàn páxn mpòs Ilépoas karà Tùv abri 
Ñpépav Ti mepi ràs lÀaraids avvredeobeion, mepi 
Ås péovres ypágew åvaňypóueða TIV aT åpxñs 

2 Sihynow. Aewrvyiðns yap ò Aareðoruóvios kal 
Edvhirros ò ’ Abyvaîos Ñyoúuevo Ts vavruds 
Svvápews, Kal TOV aródov êk TÎS Tepi Zodapîva 
vavpayías dðpolsavres eis Atywav, êv tavr òia- 
Tpijavres huépas Tiwas čnàevoav eis AÑÀov, Eyovres 
Tpiýpeis Õiakocias Kal mevrýkovra. évraĝla &’ 
aùr®v öppoúvvrwv Ĥkov èk ÈEduov mpéoßeis dét- 
ofvres éñevlepðoari roùs kard Tiv `Aciav “Eàq- 

3 vaş. ot Şè mept Tròv Aewrvyiðnv ovveðpevoavres 
Lerà trÕv hyepóvwv kal ciakovoavres TÖV Lauilwv 
ëkpwav eàevlÂepoðv ras Tmóes, kal kaTà ráyos é&- 
énàevoav èk Ańàov. ot &è rôv Iepoðv vaúapyor 
crarpißovres èv TÅ Dauw, nmvhóuevor rov rôv ‘EÀ- 
Ańvawv enimàovv, avýxyðņoav èk tis Ddpov máoas 
raîs vavo, kal kardpavres eis Muedàny ris ° Ilwvias 
tàs èv vaĵs evewàknoav, dpÕðvres oùk dÉroypéovs 
oŭsasş vavpayeîv, kal Evàivw reiyet kal Tdopw 
Babeig nmepiéaßov aùrds’ oùðèv Sè rrov rat vvd- 
pes nebas uerenéunmovro èk tv Dapõewv kal 
TÖV CÚvEyyVS TÖÀCWV, KAL CUVÝYAYOV TOUS ATAVTAS 
cis Õéka uvptdðas’ eroioðvro è kal rÕv Aàwv 
drávræv r@v eis móÀepov ypqoiuwv mapaokevás, 
vopiķovres ral roùs “Ilwvas åroorýoeshðat mpòs 
214 


BOOK XI. 33. 4—34. 3 


the multitude of their enemy and by their prowess 
in battle, that the men most responsible for their 
desertion from the Greeks agreed of their own 
accord to being handed over, and they all re- 
ceived at the hands of Pausanias the punishment of 
death. 

34. Also in Ionia the Greeks fought a great battle 
with the Persians on the same day as that which took 
place in Plataea, and since we propose to describe it, 
we shall take up the account of it from the beginning. 
Leotychides the Lacedaemonian and Xanthippus ! 
the Athenian, the commanders of the naval force, after 
the battle of Salamis collected the fleet in Aegina, 
and after spending some days there they sailed to 
Delos with two hundred and fifty triremes. And 
while they lay at anchor there, ambassadors came to 
them from Samos asking them to liberate the Greeks 
of Asia. Leotychides took counsel with the com- 
manders, and after they had heard all the Samians 
had to say, they decided to undertake to liberate the 
cities and speedily sailed forth from Delos. When 
the Persian admirals, who were then at Samos, learned 
that the Greeks were sailing against them, they with- 
drew from Samos with all their ships, and putting into 
port at Mycalê in Ionia they hauled up their ships, 
since they saw that the vessels were unequal to 
offering battle, and threw about them a wooden 
palisade and a deep ditch ; despite these defences 
they also summoned land forces from Sardis and the 
neighbouring cities and gathered in all about one 
hundred thousand men. Furthermore, they made 
ready all the other equipment that is useful in war, 
believing that the Ionians also would go over to the 


1 The father of Pericles. 
215 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


4 roùs moàepiovs. oi Òè mepi rov Aewrvyiðny mavri 
TÔ orTóÀw kekoounpévy npooràeúravrtes Tois èv t 
Muxdàn Bapßápois, vav mpoarnéoreiav ëyovoav 
Kýpuka tròv peyaiopwvórarov trv v T® otpa- 
ronéðw. rT Õè nmposerérarro nmpoonàeoat Toîs 
moàeuiois kai peydàn t wv knpúġati iðri ot 
"Eàànves venryróres? roùs Ilépoas nmáperwoı võv 
éàevlepooovres ràs kara thv °Aclav ‘Envias 

5 móàcis. Toûro Ò ênoinoav ot nepil ròv Aewrvyiðny 
voultovres roùs ovorpareúovras roîs PBappápois 
"Eàànvas aroorjoew Iepoôv kal rapaxyùv éoeobar 
Toààyv év rÅ rv Bappápwv orparonreðeig: črep 
kal ovvéßn yevéoðar. ToÔ yàp kýpvros mpoornàev- 
gavros Taîs vevewàknuévais vavot kal knpúčavTos 
Tà npocrerayuéva, ovvéßn roùs pèv IMépoas àmi- 

et A 3? o k4 td 
oroar roîs “EAnoe, roùs © "Edànvas dAAńÀors 
ouvribeochari mept anoordoews. 

35. Oi © "Enves karaskepdpevot tà Kar 
aùroùs åneßißaoav ràv Súvapıv. TÅ © voTepaiq 
napaorkevatopévwy aÙTÕV TÀ TpÒS ki Tmapáračw, 
nposénese pun tri vevcýkaow ot “Enves roùs 

2 Ilépoas karà ràs Idarards. Siórmep ot èv mepi 
Aewrvuyiðnv abpoisavres kkàqoiav, Tà MANON Tap- 
ekáàerav els T)V pAXNV, TÁ Te AÀAÀa mpopepópevot 
Kral rhv èv Màararaîs vieny rpaywdoûvres? Èe Nv 
ÚneàduBavov Opasurépovs morýoew Toùs péMovras 
áywvieoðai. Oavuaoròv Sè èyévero TÒ* amoré- 
Àcopa' karà yàp Tùv aùrùv huépav èġdádvņnoav at 
mapatdgeis yeyevņnuévar, ġ Te npòs tT Mvkdàn 
auvreàecbeîca kal y karà ras Iàaraids yevopévn. 

1 So Dindorf: xekoopnpévot. 
2 év Marais after vevicykóres deleted by Madvig. 
216 


BOOK XI. 34. 4—35. 2 


enemy. Leotychides advanced with all the fleet 
ready for action against the barbarians at Mycalê, 
dispatching in advance a ship carrying a herald who 
had the strongest voice of anyone in the fleet. This 
man had been ordered to sail up to the enemy and 
to announce in a loud voice, “ The Greeks, having 
conquered the Persians, are now come to liberate the 
Greek cities of Asia.” This Leotychides did in the 
belief that the Greeks in the army of the barbarians 
would revolt from the Persians and that great con- 
fusion would arise in the camp of the barbarians ; and 
that is what actually happened. For as soon as the 
herald approached the ships which had been hauled 
up on the shore, and made the announcement as he 
had been ordered, it came about that the Persians 
lost confidence in the Greeks and that the Greeks 
began to agree among themselves about revolting. 
35. After the Greeks under Leotychides had found 
out how the Greeks in the Persians’ camp felt, they 
disembarked their forces. And on the following day, 
while they were making preparation for battle, the 
rumour came to them of the victory which the Greeks 
had won over the Persians at Plataea. At this news 
Leotychides, after calling an assembly, exhorted 
his troops to the battle, and among the other 
considerations which he presented to them he an- 
nounced in histrionic manner the victory of Plataea, 
in the belief that he would make more confident those 
who were about to fight. And marvellous indeed was 
the outcome. For it has become known that it was 
on the same day that the two battles took place, the 
one which was fought at Mycalê and the other which 


3 So Reiske: mapwðovres, 
t 7ò added by Eichstädt. 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


3 drep Eofav oi mepi ròv Aewrvuyiðnv oŭrw uêv 
menvouévot nepli Tis vikns, a$ éavrôv Sè màdr- 
TOVTES TÙV eùNpepiav, orparnyýuaTos verev TOTO 
nenromréva TÒ yàp péyeðos roô Siaorýparos 

4 jàeyyev dðúvarov oĝoar! rùv nmpooayyeàlav. oi è 
rôv Iepoðv hyeuóves, áriorws čyovres rots “EÀ- 
ànci, Toúrovs èv åġonràoav, rà òè mda roîs 
éavrâõv piñois mapéðwrav: mapakañésavres è rà 
nÀjÂn, kal ròv Bépénv aùròv merà moňiĵs Svvá- 
pews einóvres Ñéeiw Ponbdv, ènoiņoav dmravras 
eùlapoeîs mpòs ròv rivõvvov. 

36.  Augorépwv òè aùrâv ékrafávræv riv otpa- 
Tiàv kal mpooayóvrwr? èr’ åMhàovs, oi èv Iépoar 
ToÙùs moàepiovs ópðvres dàíyovs vras kareppóvn- 
cav aùrvy Kal perà Tods kpavyñs èrepépovro* 

2 rôv ðè Zapiwv ral Miànoiwv mavõnpel mpoeào- 
pévwv Bonbioar roîs "Enoi ral per AAńAwv 
Kow TpoayóvTwv KATA onovõńv, Os mpoïóvres 
eis pw Abov rois "EMnyow, oi pèv "Iwves évé- 
pıġov eùbapoeorépovs čoceobħar roùs “EdMnvas, 

3 amén Sè rovvavriov. Ööfavres yàp oi mept ròv 
Aecwrvyiðny rov Hépénv èk rÔv Lapõewv émévar 
perà tÎs Övvápews, epoßýðnoav, kal rapayñs 
yevopévns ev TÔ orparonéðw Srepépovro mpòs dÀ- 
Ańàovs* oi pèv yàp ëpacav rv rayiorņv ŝeîv eis 
tàs vas dmévat, ot è pévew kal reĥappnkórws 
naparáfaobai. ërı &’ aùroîs rebopvßnpuévois ènrepdv- 
noav. oi Iépoat Õieokevacuévoi rkararìinrrikâs 

4 xal perà Poñs èmipepópevor. oi & TEAMnves oùõe- 


12 åðúvarov oğgav Cobet: dðvvaroðoav. 


218 


BOOK XI. 35. 3—38. 4 


occurred at Plataea. It would seem, therefore, that 
Leotychides had not yet learned of the victory, but 
that he was deliberately inventing the military suc- 
cess and did so as a stratagem ; for the great distance 
separating the places proved that the transmission of 
the message was impossible. But the leaders of the 
Persians, placing no confidence in the Greeks of their 
own forces, took away their arms and gave them to 
men who were friendly to them; and then they 
called all the soldiers together and told them that 
Xerxes was coming in person to their aid with a great 
armament, inspiring them thereby with courage to 
face the peril of the battle. 

36. When both sides had drawn out their troops in 
battle-order and were advancing against each other, 
the Persians, observing how few the enemy were, 
disdained them and bore down on them with great 
shouting. Now the Samians and Milesians had de- 
cided unanimously beforehand to support the Greek 
cause and were pushing forward all together at the 
double ; and as their advance brought them in sight 
of the Greek army, although the Ionians thought that 
the Greeks would be encouraged, the result was the 
veryopposite. For the troops of Leotychides, thinking 
that Xerxes was come from Sardis with his army and 
advancing upon them, were filled with fear, and con- 
fusion and division among themselves arose in the 
army, some saying that they should take to their 
ships with all speed and depart and others that they 
should remain and boldly hold their lines. While they 
were still in disorder, the Persians came in sight, 
equipped in a manner to inspire terror and bearing 
down on them with shouting. The Greeks, having 


2 Vogel preferred mpoayóvrwv. 


219 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


piav àvoyùv čxovres Toĝ Bovàeúoacbar, ouvvnvayrd 
aĝņoav úropeñva Thv čßoðov rv Bapßpápwv. 
Kai TÒ pè npõrTov duhorépwv aywvčouévwv 
eùpúorws ioópporos Ñv ġ páxn kal ovyvol nmap’ 
dugorépois mnro trôv òè Bauiwv kal tôv 
Miànoiwv émipavévrwv oi èv "Enves èneppóobn- 
cav, ot Pápfapor è karandayévres mpòst duyhv 
5 puyoav. TOANoG è yevouévou $ővov, of pèv nepi 
Tov Aewrvyiðn kal Eávlinmov èmkeipevot Toîs 
NTryuévoirs kaTeĝiwţav rods Papßápovs péypi Tis 
mapeppoñs, ouvemeàdpovro Sè rs udxns Än 
Kerpiuévns Aioàeîs kal TÕv AÀAAwV ToAdol TÖV kart 
TÀV _‘Acíav Sew) yáp Tis èvénecev êmivpia raîs 
6 kata Tùy 'Aciav móest Tis èNevlepias. Siórep 
ayeðòv änavres oŭ? duýpav oðre čprwv èrorý- 
avro ppovriða, add perà trõv wv ‘EMývwv 
åmérTewav év Ti pvyĵ rods Bappápovs. roôrov &è 
Tov tpónov ýrrylévrav rõv Ilepoðv, avypéðnoav 
aùrâv màelous Tv Terpakıopupiwv: Tv è Sa- 
owbévrwv ot èv eis Thv orparoneõeiav Stéhvyov, ot 
7 è eis Ldpõeis dreywpnoav. Hépns Sè mvôópevos 
Týv Te mepi tàs Iataiàs rrav kal rùv èv rå 
Murdàn trporiv r©v iwr, uépos èv Tis Svváduews 
améNumev ev Ldápõeow rws cianoieuñ mpòs tToùs 
EMnyvas, aùròs è reĝopupnpévos perà ris oiris 
arpatiâs npoĝyev, èr’ ° Erbardvwv moroúuevos tiv 
mopeiav. 
87. Oi òè mepi Aewruyiðny ral Eavlinnov åno- 
mÀcúoavres eis Dapov Toùòs èv “lwvas kal rtoùs 
Aloàeîs ovupáyovs norýoavro, perà è rara 


1 rẹ after pòs deleted by Vogel. 
220 


BOOK XI. 36. 4—37. 1 


no respite for deliberation, were compelled to with- 
stand the attack of the barbarians. 

At the outset both sides fought stoutly and the 
battle was indecisive, great numbers falling in both 
armies ; but when the Samians and Milesians put in 
their appearance,! the Greeks plucked up courage, 
whereas the barbarians were filled with terror and 
broke in flight. A great slaughter followed, as the 
troops of Leotychides and Xanthippus pressed upon 
the beaten barbarians and pursued them as far as 
the camp ; and Aeolians participated in the battle, 
after the issue had already been decided, as well as 
many other peoples of Asia, since an overwhelm- 
ing desire for their liberty entered the hearts of the 
inhabitants of the cities of Asia. Therefore practi- 
cally all of them gave no thought either to hostages? 
or to oaths, but they joined with the other Greeks 
in slaying the barbarians in their flight. This was 
the manner in which the Persians suffered defeat, 
and there were slain of them more than forty thou- 
sand, while of the survivors some found refuge in the 
camp and others withdrew to Sardis. And when 
Xerxes learned of both the defeat in Plataea and the 
rout of his own troops in Mycalê, he left a portion of 
his armament in Sardis to carry on the war against 
the Greeks, while he himself, in bewilderment, set 
out with the rest of his army on the way to Ecbatana. 

37. Leotychides and Xanthippus now sailed back 
to Samos and made allies of the Ionians and Aeolians, 


1 Ephorus, whom Diodorus was following here, was an 
Ionian and so exaggerates the part played by the Samians 
and Milesians in the victory. 

2 Held by the Persians as sureties of the faithfulness of 
the Greek contingents to their oaths of loyalty to the 
Persians. 

221 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Emebov aùroùs èkùnóvras rùv 'Aclav eis tù 
Eùpóryy perowiobivar. ènnyyéňovro è tà uy- 
õisavra rv elvõv åvaorýsavres Šóoew èkeivois 

2 Tùv xópav' kaðóňov yàp pévovras aùroùs èri ris 
Asias roùs èv moàeuiovs óuópovs čćew, noù rais 
Övváuceow Úmepéyovras, Troùs è ovupáyovs čvras 
Srarovriovs uù) Šuvýoeoða:i tàs Bonleias eùrkaipovs 
aùroîs morjoacĝai. ot è Aloes ral oi “Iwves 
dkoúsavres trv nayyeNðv čyvwoav neibeoba 
Toîs "Edno, kal mapeokevdtovro mÀeîv per aùrôv 

3 eis riv Eùpúmyy. oi 8’ `Abnvaîot peravońoavres 
eis roùvavriov máÀv uéveiw ovveßoŬevov, Àéyovres 
ór kv unôecis aùroîs rõôv Awv “EMúvwv Bonbi, 
uóvor `Abyvaioi ovyyeveîs ðvres Bonlýsovow: ór- 
eàdupavov è rı kowi karoikiobévres nò tv 
‘“EMývæv oi “Iwves opkérte unTpónoàw ýyńýoovrat 
tàs `Abývas. Sıdmep ovvéßn ueravoĵoar roùs Iw- 
vas kal kpiva pévew èni Ts `Aocias. 

4 Toúrwv è nmpaylévræwv ouvéßn tùv ŝúvajuv tTÂv 
‘EdMivov oyiobiva, xat roùs pev Aareðaruoviovs 
eis ryv Aaxwvikyv ànonàeûcat, roùs Sè ’ Abnvaiovs 
perà rõv Ióvwv kal rv mowwrâv èri Xnoròv 

5 dnâpai. Eávôirros Sè ó orparnyòs eùbùs èk kard- 
mÀov npocfpoààs TÅ móde moiodpevos eîÀe Xnoróv, 
kal ġpovpàv èykaraorýoas roùs pèv ovuuáyovs 
anéàvoev, aùròs è perà rÕv moùrÂv åvékapujev 
eis ras `Abúvas. 

6 “O pėv ov Mnôðikòs ovopagheis módepos yevó- 
pevos ÕieTùs ToÔTo čaye TÒ mépas. rÔv è ovy- 


1 The Greeks dwelling on the islands of the Aegean Sea. 
322 


BOOK XI. 37. 1-6 


and then they endeavoured to induce them to aban- 
don Asia and to move their homes to Europe. They 
promised to expel the peoples who had espoused the 
cause of the Medes and to give their lands to them ; 
for as a general thing, they explained, if they re- 
mained in Asia, they would always have the enemy 
on their borders, an enemy far superior in military 
strength, while their allies, who lived across the sea, 
would be unable to render them any timely assist- 
ance. When the Aeolians and Ionians had heard 
these promises, they resolved to take the advice of 
the Greeks and set about preparing to sail with them 
to Europe. But the Athenians changed to the oppo- 
site opinion and advised them to stay where they 
were, saying that even if no other Greeks should 
come to their aid, the Athenians, as their kinsmen, 
would do so independently. They reasoned that, if 
the Ionians were given new homes by the Greeks 
acting in common they would no longer look upon 
Athens as their mother-city. It was for this reason 
that the Ionians changed their minds and decided 
to remain in Asia. 

After these events it came to pass that the arma- 
ment of the Greeks was divided, the Lacedaemonians 
sailing back to Laconia and the Athenians together 
with the Ionians and the islanders * weighing anchor 
for Sestus. And Xanthippus the general, as soon as 
he reached that port, launched assaults upon Sestus 
and took the city, and after establishing a garrison 
in it he dismissed the allies and himself with his 
fellow citizens returned to Athens. 

Now the Median War, as it has been called, after 
lasting two years, came to the end which we have 
described. And of the historians, Herodotus, begin- 


223 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ypapéwv ‘Hpdõoros dpdpevos mpò rv Tpokôv 

xpóvav yéypaße kowàs oyeðőv rt rås TÎs olkov- 

pÉvNS Tpåeis èv Piphois évvéa, karaorpépei Šè 

Tv oúvračw els tùv mepi Mvkáà í T 

k w eis Tùv mep kdàņnv páxynv Toîs 

Enor Tpòs Tos Iépoas kal Zyoroô roMopriav. 
7 Karà dè rv Iradiav ‘Pwpaîor mpòs rods Ovo- 
S moàephoavTes kal uáyņ vikýcavres mo\- 
oùs dveīdov. , Xrópios è Káooios, ó karà ròv 
mponyovpevov éviavròv úmareúoas, ðóćas èmbéobar 
Tupavviðı ka kaTayvwobeis, avnpébn. 

Taôra pèv ov ènpáyðn karà Toĵrov ròv éviavróv. 
P Er’ pxovros ò Abvo Tiuoohévovs èv 
oa TY vmaTu)v åpxův Seðétavro Kalowv 

dfios kal Aeúros Aipiños Mdpepkos. èm. 8è 
TOUT KATA TYV Burediav Toh Tis elphvy kareîye 
Thv vioov, tv pèv Kapxnõoviwv eis réňos tera- 
mewwpévwv, roð Sè Téiwvos mekÂs mpoeorn- 
kóros rv ıxeNwrÂv kal moiy ečvoulav te kal 
mávraw rÔv émiTyõeiwv eùropiav mapeyouévov raîs 
móňeor. Tô è Zupakosiwv tràs uèv moduredeis 
ékpopàs võuw karadcÀvkórwv kal ràs eiwbvias 
ardvas eis Toùs redevrõvras yiveohar TEPEN- 
kóTwv, yyeypappévwv È èv T® vópw kal TÂv 
mavreàðs Arv évrahiwv! ó ‘Baoideds Téwv 
Bovàóuevos Tùv To õýpov orovðv ev draoi 
rapvàdrrew, TOV mepi Ts Trapñs vópov e$’ éavroô 
3 PéBarov êrhpnoev: úrò yap appworias ovuveyóuevos 

kal Tò biv areàrisas, Thv èv Baoidelav mapéðwrev 
lépuvi T® npeoßurárw rv dõeà$âv, mepi Sè Tis 


r 


to 


xa tv P, al trôv AL, ečpyeoĝar other MSS.: D 
PA, ravreiðs rås Ka other MSS. ; ġueànkórwv P E 
other MSS. after é&wraġiow. MTôv added by Capps. The text 
224 f i 


BOOK XI. 37. 4—38. 3 


ning with the period prior to the Trojan War, has 
written in nine books a general history of practically 
all the events which occurred in the inhabited world, 
and brings his narrative to an end with the battle of 
the Greeks against the Persians at Mycalê and the 
siege of Sestus. 

In Italy the Romans waged a war against the 
Volscians, and conquering them in battle slew many 
of them. And Spurius Cassius, who had been consul 
the preceding year,: because he was believed to be 
aiming at a tyranny and was found guilty, was put 
to death. 

These, then, were the events of this year. 

88. When Timosthenes was archon at Athens, in 
Rome Caeso Fabius and Lucius Aemilius Mamercus 
succeeded to the consulship. During this year 
throughout Sicily an almost complete peace pervaded 
the island, the Carthaginians having finally been 
humbled, and Gelon had established a beneficent rule 
over the Sicilian Greeks and was providing their cities 
with a high degree of orderly government and an 
abundance of every necessity of life. And since the 
Syracusans had by law put an end to costly funerals 
and done away with the expense which customarily 
had been incurred for the dead, and there had been 
specified in the law even the altogether inexpensive 
obsequies, King Gelon, desiring to foster and maintain 
the people’s interest in all matters, kept the law re- 

arding burials intact in his own case ; for when he 
fellill and had given up hope of life,he handed over the 
kingship to Hieron, his eldest brother, and respecting 


1 480 B.C 


is zay corrupt and marginal glosses have slipped into the 
MSS. 


225 


478 B.C 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


éavroð rapis évereiñaro SiaoredÀduevos drpipôs 
Tnpĝoat Tò vópiuov. Št kal TeÀeurýoavros aùroô 
TÅv èêkpopàv rata thv enrayyeàlav aùroô ovveréde- 
4oev ô Õiaðekduevos rv Paoidelav. èrdgy &’ 
aùroĵô TÒ Ôa karà rov dypòv ris yvvaikòs èv 
Traîs kaàovuévaris `Evvéa rúpoccw, oŭras TÔ Bápe: 
TÕv čpywv Îavpaoraîs. ó &è öydos èk rûs móews 
dras ovvņnkoàovbnoev, anéyovros roð tTónov ora- 
5 Slovs ðiakociovs. èvrabha © aùroô Tapévros ó pè 
SÑuos Tápov åéióàoyov émorýoas ýpwaîs truais 
êriunoe ròv Téwva, Ùorepov 8È rò pèv uvîua 
dveîàov Kapynõóvior orparteðoavres èm Xvpakoðv- 
oas, Tràs Sè Túpoers `Ayabokàis raréßae Sià ròv 
pôóvov. GAN pws oùŭre Kapynôóviot Sià rÀv 
éybpav oŭre `Ayaboràñs Sa rv iðiav kariav oŭre 
dAos oùðeis™ Ņòõvvýðy roô Téwvos dheàéobar Thv 
6 Sófar: ý yàp Tis ioTopias Õıkaia uaprupia Terńpn- 
ke TÀV mepi aùTo pún, kypýrTovoa Šiarpv- 
ciws eis dravra Tòv aiðva. õikarov yàp dua Kal 
avppépov éoti TÖ kowĝ Piw ða ryv ioropiav Toùs 
èv movnpoùs rõv év raîs éfovoiais yeyevnpévwv 
Pàaopnpeîohar, roùs è ebepyerikoùðs rvyyávew 
dÎavárov pvýuņs: ořrw yàp páora ovupýoera 
ToAÀoÙS éri Tv kowùv eùepyeciav mporpéreoba. 
TÕv perayeveoTépwv. 
7 Téiwv èv ofv énraerñi xpóvov ßacídevoev, ‘Id- 
paw è? ò aðeàpòs aùroĝ Sraðefdyuevos TÙv dpxùv 
Teo AAi TÕv Dvpakociwv éry évõeka xal pîvas 


39. Karà è rv ‘EdMdõa 'Abyvaîoi pèv uerà 


1 oùôeis Const. Exc. 4, p. 308 : obòè els. 
226 


BOOK XI. 38. 3—39. 1 


his own burial he gave orders that the prescriptions 
of the law should be strictly observed. Consequently 
at his death his funeral was held by his successor to 
the throne just as he had ordered it. His body was 
buried on the estate of his wife in the Nine Towers, 
as it is called, which is a marvel to men by reason of 
its strong construction. And the entire populace 
accompanied his body from the city, although the 
place was two hundred stades distant. Here he was 
buried, and the people erected a noteworthy tomb 
and accorded Gelon the honours which belong to 
heroes ; but at a later time the monument was de- 
stroyed by the Carthaginians in the course of a cam- 
paign against Syracuse, while the towers were thrown 
down by Agathocles! out of envy. Nevertheless, 
neither the Carthaginians out of enmity nor Aga- 
thocles out of his native baseness, nor any other man 
has ever been able to deprive Gelon of his glory; for 
the just witness of history has guarded his fair fame, 
heralding it abroad with piercing voice for evermore. 
It is indeed both just and beneficial to society that 
history should heap imprecations upon base men 
who have held positions of authority, but should 
accord immortal remembrance to those who have 
been beneficent rulers ; for in this way especially, it 
will be found, many men of later generations will 
be impelled to work for the general good of mankind. 

Now Gelon reigned for seven years, and Hieron his 
brother succeeded him in the rule and reigned over 
the Syracusans eleven years and eight months.? 

39. In Greece the Athenians after the victory at 


1 Tyrant of Syracuse, 317-289 s.c. Diodorus (Books 19, 
21, 22) is the chief source on his career. 
2 485-478 and 478—467 r.c. respectively. 


227 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Tiv ev Màaraiaîs virny pererópioav èr Tporthvos 
kal Dadauivos rékva xal yvvaîras eis Tàs ° Abúvas, 
eùbùs è kal rhv móùv emeyeipnoav Teiyiew kal 
Trv dààwv rv mpòs doáerav åvykővrwv mi- 
2 péàcav roroðvro. Aarearuóviori È ópðvrTes Toùs 
’Abnvaiovs év raîs vavrikaîs Suvápeot meprrenorn- 
Lévovs™ ófav peydàņv, Únøonrevoav aùrÔv Tù” 
aŭnow, kal Siéyvwoav kwàŭew rovs ’Abnvalovs 
3 dvorkoðopeîv rà rteiyn. eùbùs oðv mpéoßeis èt- 
énewpav eis ràs `Abúývas roùs Àóyw uev ovp- 
Bovdevoovras KaTà TÒ mapòv uù) Teryibeiw Tv móÀw 
A ~ a 
Stà TÒ u) gvppépew Kow Toîs “Edno ròv yàp 
Hépénv, eè mdv mapayevnhein perà pertóvwv 
Õuváuewv, ééew éroluovs móňeis rTereiyiouévas 
erròs Iedorowvýoov, éé @v óppúuevov pgðiws 
karanmoàeuńoew Toùs “Edànvas. où mebopévwv & 
aùrÕv, oi mpéoßeis mpocióvres roîs olkoðopoĝo: 
npocérarrov åhioraohari rv čpywv tùy Tayiornv. 
4 “Anropovuévwv è rôv °Abnvaiwv 6 ti xp) mpdr- 
Tew, Qepiorokàis, dmoðoyis Tróre map’ aùroîs tvy- 
xávæv ris peyiorns, ouveßoúdevev yew ńovyíiav: 
eav yàp Pidbwvrai, pgðiws roùs Aareðarpoviovs 
pera rôv [edorovvyoiaw otpareúoavras kwàúoew 
5 aùToùs Teiyikew rùův mów. év åmoppýrois è tĝ 
Bovàĝ npoeînmev, ws aùròs èv perd trwav wv 
mopeúoerar npeoßevrýs eis Aakeðaipova Sbdéwv 
roùs Aareðaruoviovs mepl TOÔ Teyta pot, Tois Sè 
dpxovot mapýyyerdev, rav èk Aareðaipovos EÀ- 
wot mpéoßeis eis ràs *Abúvas, mapakaréyew 


1 So Wesseling : meromudvovs. 
228 


BOOK XI. 39. 1-5 


Plataea brought their children and wives back to 
Athens from Troezen and Salamis, and at once set 
to work fortifying the city and were giving their 
attention to every other means which made for its 
safety. But the Lacedaemonians, observing that the 
Athenians had gained for themselves great glory by 
the actions in which their navy had been engaged, 
looked with suspicion upon their growing power and 
decided to prevent the Athenians from rebuilding 
their walls. They at once, therefore, dispatched 
ambassadors to Athens who would ostensibly advise 
them not at present to fortify the city, as not being 
of advantage to the general interests of the Greeks ; 
for, they pointed out, if Xerxes should return with 
larger armaments than before he would have walled 
cities ready to hand outside the Peloponnesus which 
he would use as bases and thus easily subjugate the 
Greeks. And when no attention was paid to their 
advice, the ambassadors approached the men who 
were building the wall and ordered them to stop 
work immediately. 

While the Athenians were at a loss what they 
should do, Themistocles, who enjoyed at that time 
the highest favour among them, advised them to take 
no action; for he warned them that if they had 
recourse to force, the Lacedaemonians could easily 
march up against them together with the Pelopon- 
nesians and prevent them from fortifying the city. 
But he told the Council in confidence that he and 
certain others would go as ambassadors to Lace- 
daemon to explain the matter of the wall to the 
Lacedaemonians ; and he instructed the magistrates, 
when ambassadors should come from Lacedaemon 
to Athens, to detain them until he himself should 


22 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


aùroús, čws àv aùròs èk rìs Aarxeõaipovos dva- 
kápp, êv Tocoúrw è mavõņuet reyibew rhv 
móÀw, Ka TOÚTW T Tpörw kparoew aùroùs 
amehaivero Tis mpoblésews. 

40. “Yrakovodvrav è rõv 'Alnvaiwv, of pèv 
mepi ròv Oeorokàéa npéoßeis mpoñyov els Thv 
Erdpryv, oi è 'Abyvaîor perà peydàns orovõis 
ØkoÖÖOVV TÀ TELYN, OŬT” oikias oŭre Trápov heðd- 
pavor, cuveàaußdvovro è rôv čpywv ol re maes 
kal at yvvaîkes kal kabódov râs éévos kal oðdos, 

2 oùðevòs drodeimouévov ris npobvpias. mapaðófws 
òè rÕv ëpywv dvvopévwv Sid Te Tàs moàvyeipias 
kat Tàs TÕv åmávrwv npobvpías, ó pèv Oepuororiñs 
dvaxàņbeis úrò rv dpxyővræwv ral èmiriyunhels mepi 

Ts Teryororas Ñprýoato Tv oikoðopiav, kal map- 
ekádece Toùs äpyovras u) moTeúew revaîs pýuas, 
aàÀ i ámooréew mpéopers GÉroniotovs els Tàs 
Abývas: òid yàp ToÚTwv cioceohar raànbés* ral 
TovTwv èyyunriv éavròv mapeðiðov kai roùs pef’ 

3 éavroð ovunpeoßevovras. merobévres è oi Aare- 

aruóviot Toùs pèv mepi ròv OQepororàéa rap- 
epúdarrov, eis òè ras °`Abývas dnéorerav Toùs 
empaveorárovs karacrepopévovs nepi ðv Åv peia 
novrpayuovioat. roô Õè xpõvov ðrećeðóvros, ot 
Lèv °Abnvaîot Tò Teîyos éphacav è$’ ikavòv kar- 
eorevakóres, ToÙs è TÕv Aakeðaruoviwv mpéofes 
éàbóvras eis tràs 'Abývas ral per dvarádoewr 
kal drev êmTiuâvTas mapéðwrav eis pvàarńv, 
phoavres róre dħýsew, rav rårečvot roùs mepi 


1 So Dindorf: perà oráoewv. 


1 i.e. in their search for building material. 
230 


BOOK XI. 39. 5—40. 3 


return from Lacedaemon, and in the meantime to 
put the whole population to work fortifying the city. 
In this manner, he declared to them, they would 
achieve their purpose. 

40. After the Athenians had accepted the plan of 
Themistocles, he and the ambassadors set out for 
Sparta, and the Athenians began with great enthusi- 
asm to build the walls, sparing neither houses nor 
tombs.! And everyone joined in the task, both chil- 
dren and women and, in a word, every alien and 
slave, no one of them showing any lack of zeal. And 
when the work was being accomplished with amazing 
speed both because of the many workmen and the 
enthusiasm of them all, Themistocles was summoned 
by the chief magistrates * and upbraided for the 
building of the walls ; but he denied that there was 
any construction, and urged the magistrates not to 
believe empty rumours but to dispatch to Athens 
trustworthy ambassadors, from whom, he assured 
them, they would learn the truth; and as surety 
for them he offered himself and the ambassadors who 
had accompanied him. The Lacedaemonians, follow- 
ing the advice of Themistocles, put him and his 
companions under guard and dispatched to Athens 
their most important men who were to spy out what- 
ever matter should arouse their curiosity. But time 
had passed, and the Athenians had already got so 
far along with the construction that, when the Lace- 
daemonian ambassadors arrived in Athens and with 
denunciations and threats of violence upbraided them, 
the Athenians took them into custody, saying that 
they would release them only when the Lacedae- 
monians in turn should release the ambassadors who 


3 In Sparta ; presumably the ephors. 
231 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


4 Ocuiorokàéa nmpéoßeis dnoàóowot. roúrw Sè rô 
Tpórw karaorparnynbévres oi Adrkwves Ivayrd- 
cofnoav dmoðoar roùs `Abnvaiwv mpéoßeis iva 
Toùs ilous drodßwow. ó è Qepororàñs Tor- 
vry orparnyýparı Texioas Tùv marpiða ovvróuws 
kai dkwðúvws, peydàņns åmoðoyis ërvye mapà 
TOS TOTALS. 

5 “Apa è roúrois mparrouévois ‘Pwpalors! mpos 
Aikoàavoùs kal roùs rò Toôokàov karoicoôvras 
ouvéoTn móàeuos, kal mpòs èv Alkoàavoùs páynv 
cvuváavres évikņoav kal mooùs rv modeuiwv 
dveîàov, perà òè rara rò Toôskàov eteroMópky- 
cav kal Thv TÕv Aikodavôðv mów èyepooavro. 

41. To È éviavoiou ypõvov Šrenàvðóros Abh- 
vno pèv Ñv åpxwv ’Abeipavros, év ‘Poun Sè kar- 
eordðnoav Önaror Mápros dfios Oùßdavòs? kal 
Aecúkios Oùadépios Ilóràos. èri 8è roúrwv Qe- 
piorokàis ŝià Tùv orparnyiav kal ayyivorav àno- 
Soyis čTvxev où uóvov mapà roîs moitas, &ÀÀà 

2 kal mapà nâo roîs “Edno. Sò kal perewpitd- 
pevos eml tÀ Són moù peibooiw Aas empo- 
Àaîs exphoaro mpòs aŭðņow ġyepovias åvnkoúoais 
TÅ matpiðe. TOÔ yàp kadovpévov Ilepaðs oùk 
övros Ùpévos kart’ èkeivous roùs ypóvovs, åAX 
êmweiy xpæpévwv rÂv `Abnvaiwv TÔ mposayopev- 
opévo Danprĝ, ikp mavreðs ôv, èn- 
evóņoe ròv Ilepa karackevátew Muéva, pikpâs 
pèv npooðeópevov karagkreuijs, Šuváuevov Šè yevé- 
ohai \péva káàorov kal péyiorov trÂv karà TAV 

3 EdMdõa. Ambev odv rovrov nmpooyevouévov rtoîs 
1 So Vogel: ‘Pwpalovs. 
2? So the fasti: orħavòs or adßavés. 


232 


BOOK XI. 40. 4—41. 3 


accompanied Themistocles. In this manner the 
Laconians were outgeneralled and compelled to re- 
lease the Athenian ambassadors in order to get back 
their own. And Themistocles, having by means of 
so clever a stratagem fortified his native land 
speedily and without danger, enjoyed high favour 
among his fellow citizens. 

While the events we have described were taking 
place, a war broke out between the Romans and the 
Aequi and the inhabitants of Tusculum, and meeting 
the Aequi in battle the Romans overcame them and 
slew many of the enemy, and then they took Tuscu- 
lum after a siege and occupied the city of the Aequi. 


41. At the close of the year the archon in Athens sy ne 


was Adeimantus, and in Rome the consuls elected 
were Marcus Fabius Vibulanus and Lucius Valerius 
Publius. At this time Themistocles, because of his 
skill as a general and his sagacity, was held in esteem 
not only by his fellow citizens but by all Greeks. He 
was, therefore, elated over his fame and had recourse 
to many other far more ambitious undertakings which 
would serve to increase the dominant position of his 
native state. Thus the Peiraeus, as it is called, was 
not at that time a harbour, but the Athenians were 
using as their ship-yard the bay called Phaleric, which 
was quite small; and so Themistocles conceived the 
plan of making the Peiraeus into a harbour, since it 
would require only a small amount of construction 
and could be made into a harbour, the best and 
largest in Greece. He also hoped that when this 
improvement had been added to what the Athenians 


233 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


'AOnvaiors Suvjoeoðai tùy mów dvriroroacba 
ris karà Îdàarrav hyepovias’ Tprýpers yàp TóTE 
nÀcioras ekékryvro, kaè Ôd rùv ovvéyeav rÔv 
vavpayıðv épreipiav kal óav peydàņv rÕv vav- 
4 TkÕv ayÓvwv TmeptenTemoinvTo. mpòsS ÕÈ TOÙÚTOLS 
Toùs uèv “Iwvas óreàdupave õià riv ovyyéverav 
lious čfew, roùs Sè dAdovs Tods karà Tùv ° Aclav 
“EM gyvas 8? èkeivovs èdevbepooew, ànokÀweiv re 
Taîs eùvoiais mpòs ToÙs `Alnvalovs ià TÅv eùepye- 
oiav, TOÙS ÒÈ VNOLÓTAS ÅTAVTAS KATATETÀNYpÉVOVS 
TÒ péyelos Tis vavrikĵs Švváuews éroípws trayðý- 
ceolar perà Tv Ŝvvaupévwv rat PÀdmrtew kal 

5 òpheàeîv rà péyiora. Toùs yàp Aakeðaiuoviovs 
éwpa mepi pèv Tàs metas uvdpueis eÊ kareorkeva- 
auévovs, mpòs è roùs èv raîs vavoiww dyôvas 
dhveordrovs. 

42. Tar ov Sıadoyioduevos ëkpwe pavepôs 
èv rùv èmpoàùv uù) àéyew, akppôs ywóokwv 
Toùs Aakxeõaruoviovs kwàvoovras, év èkkàņoig õè 
SreAéyÂnt Toîs modirais öti peydàwv mpaypaTwv kat 
ovpphepóvræv Ti) móde Povera yevéoðar oúußov- 
Àds re kal eionynTýs, rara ðè pavepôs pèv Àéyew 
LÌ ouupépew, Se oàiywv è dvõpôv émireàcù 
mpoońkew: Ôıómep Ņéiov ròv òñuov úo ävåpas 
mpoyeipiodpevov ols v ANOTA TOTEÓON, TOUTOLS 

2 êmiTpénew mept TOÔ mpáypaTos. nmeiobévros Sè roô 
màýlovs, ó pos elero úo ävõpas, *`Apıoreisnv 
kal Edávlirrov, où póvov kar? dperùv mpokpivas 

1 So Vogel: Stadeyhels. 
234 


BOOK XI. 41. 3—42. 2 


possessed, the city would be able to compete for the 
hegemony at sea; for the Athenians possessed at 
that time the largest number of triremes and through 
an unbroken succession of battles at sea which the 
city had waged had gained experience and renown in 
naval conflicts. Furthermore, he reasoned that they 
would have the Ionians on their side because they 
were kiusmen, and that with their aid the Athenians 
would liberate the other Greeks of Asia, who would 
then turn in goodwill to the Athenians because of this 
benefaction, and that all the Greeks of the islands, 
being immensely impressed by the magnitude of 
their naval strength, would readily align themselves 
with the people which had the power both to inflict 
the greatest injury and to bestow the greatest advan- 
tages. For he saw that the Lacedaemonians, though 
excellently equipped so far as their land forces were 
concerned, had no natural talent for fighting on ships. 

42. Now as Themistocles pondered these matters, 
he decided that he should not make public announce- 
ment of his plan, knowing with certainty that the 
Lacedaemonians would epdeavour to stop it; and 
so he announced to the citizens in Assembly that 
he wished both to advise upon and to introduce 
important matters which were also to the advantage 
of the city. But what these matters were, he added, 
it was not in the public interest to state openly, but 
it was fitting that a few men should be charged with 
putting them into effect ; and he therefore asked the 
people to select two men in whom they had the 
greatest confidence and to entrust to them to pass 
upon the matter in question. The people. acceded 
to his advice, and the Assembly chose two men, 
Aristeides and Xanthippus, selecting them not only 


235 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


aùroús, dà kal npòs ròv Qepiorokàéa Tovrovs 
opðv dpuÀwuévovs mept ééns kal mpwTeilwv, kat 

3 ĉia ToÔTo ddoTpiws éxovras mpòs aùróv. oĵror 
Sè kar iðiav dkoúcavres ro Oepororàéovs TÌV 
empodýv, eõújAwoav TÕ Shuv ÕióTe Kal peyáña 
kal ovuhépovra tÑ móde kal Šuvarà kabéoryke rà 
Àeyópeva úrò roô Oeorokàéovs. 

4 To è ðýuov lavudoavros ua ròv ävõpa 
kal ónronrevcavros pýmore Tupavviða Tiwvà kaTa- 
okevacópevos! éavTr® TNAkaúrais kal ToraŬTats 
empodaîs yyeph, pavepðs aùrov érédevov dro- 
paiveochðar rà Òeðoyuéva. Ò è mdv ëdnoe uÀ 
ovuhépew TÔ ðńuw pavepðs nàoðobar mepi TÕv 

5 ènwoqbévrav. ToAAG è udov lavuádoavros roô 
òýuov Tiv Sewóryra Kal peyañohposýóvnv Tåvõpós, 
ekéàevov év aropphrois eireîv ri Povàf rà ðeðoy- 
éva: kàv aŭt? kpr tà Õuvarà Àéyew Kal 
avugépovra, tróre œs àv ovufovàeúon mpos rò 

6 réàos àčev aùroô rův èempoàńv. Siónmep TÂs 
Bovàñs nulouévrns rà? karà uépos, kal kpwdons 
Aéyew aŬTov Tà ovppépovra TÌ móàcL kal Õvvará, 
TÒ Àorròv 4ÒN ovyywphoavros ToÎ Sýuov LETA TIS 
Bovàñs čape TYV Eovoiav npårrew ó ti Poúderar. 
čkaoros ò èr Tîs èxkànolas exwpitero foavpd- 
twv èv rv dperùv ravðpős, peréwpos ð ©v xal 
kapaðokðv rò téàos ris empoàñs. 

43. “O 8è Oeorokàñs Aaßav trv ečovoíav toô 
npárrew, kal tâcav Ýrovpyiav xwv éroiuņv Toîs 
êyyeipovuévois, náÀw enevóņoe karaorparnyioar 


1 So Eichstädt : xaraorevacápevos. 
2 So Eichstädt : avrà. 
3 zà added by Dindorf. 
286 


BOOK XI. 42. 2—-43. 1 


because of their upright character, but also because 
they saw that these men were in active rivalry with 
Themistocles for glory and leadership and were there- 
fore opposed to him. These men heard privately 
from Themistocles about his plan and then declared 
to the Assembly that what Themistocles had dis- 
closed to them was of great importance, was to the 
advantage of the state, and was feasible. 

The people admired the man and at the same time 
harboured suspicions of him, lest it should be with 
the purpose of preparing some sort of tyranny for 
himself that he was embarking upon plans of such 
magnitude and importance, and they urged him to 
declare openly what he had decided upon. But he 
made the same reply, that it was not to the interests 
of the state that there should be a public disclosure 
of his intentions. Thereupon the people were far the 
more amazed at the man’s shrewdness and greatness 
of mind, and they urged him to disclose his ideas 
secretly to the Council, assuring him that, if that 
body decided that what he said was feasible and 
advantageous, then they would advise it to carry his 
plan to completion. Consequently, when the Council 
learned all the details and decided that what he said 
was for the advantage of the state and was feasible, 
the people, without more ado, agreed with the 
Council, and Themistocles received authority to do 
whatever he wished. And every man departed from 
the Assembly in admiration of the high character of 
the man, being also elated in spirit and expectant 
of the outcome of the plan. 

43. Themistocles, having received authority to pro- 
ceed and enjoying every assistance ready at hand for 
his undertakings, again conceived a way to deceive 


237 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


roùs Aareðaruoviovs: õe yap åkpißôs ri kaba- 
mep ènmi To Tis móÀews Texiopol Õiekbàvoav ot 
Aakeðaruóvior, ròv aùròv Tpórov èri ris kara- 
okevis toô Aùpévos èyyephoovoi diakónrtew tTÔv 

2°Abrvaiwv tràs èmpoàás. čðoéev oðv aðr mpòs 
èv Toùs Aareðaruoviovs npéopers åmooreîàa roùs 
Sddéovras ovupépew Toîs kKowois ths ‘EAMdôos 
npáyuacıv yew àéióypewv Àpéva mpòs Tv årò 
rôv Ilepoðôv sopévyv orpareiav. Sià Šè Toúrov 
TOoÎ Tpórov Toùs Erapridras dupàvrépovs nmorvýoas 
mpòs TÒ kwÀúew, aùròs etyero TÕV ëpywv, kal TÔv 
návrav ovupiàotiovuévwv trayéws ovvéßn yevé- 
olar kal napaðóws karaokevaobijvat ròv À\uéva. 

3 čmeroe Ôè ròv Sfpov kab’ ékaorov èvavròv mpòs 
taîs únmapyoúoais vavotv etkost Tprýpeis mpookara- 
okKeváķew, kal Toùs peroikovs kal ToÙs Teyviras 
areàeîs moroa, Ömws öyàos mods nmavraxóbev els 
TÅv nóv karéàby kal màelovs tréyvas karaokevá- 
gwow eùyepÂs' åupóTepa yàp TaÔTa ypouwbTaTa 
mpòs tàs TÔv vavrıkÕv ÕUVÁEWV KATACKEVS 
Úrndápyev črpivev. ot èv oûv `Abnvaîoi mepi raîra 
HoxodoðvrTo. 

44. Aakeðuuóvior Sè Iavoaviav ròv èv IÀara- 
aîs orparņyoavra karaorhoavres vaðapyov mpoo- 
éraġav éàevbepoôv ràs ‘Envias móde, Soa 
Bappapıxaîs pviakaîs Siépevov črt ppovpoúpeva:. 

2 oĝros è mevrýrovra pèv tprýpeis èk Ileàorovvýoov 
Aav, Tpiákovra òè map 'Abnvaiwv peraneppd- 
pevos, ©v `Apiorelðns hyeîro, npõrTov èv els Thv 
Kúnrpov čnàcvoe ral rôv móàewv tràs ri ġpovpàs 


238 


BOOK XI. 43. 1—44. 2 


the Lacedacmonians by a stratagem; for he was 
fully assured that just as the Lacedaemonians had 
interfered with the building of the wall about the 
city, they would in the same manner endeavour to 
obstruct the plans of the Athenians in the case of 
the making of the harbour. Accordingly he decided 
to dispatch ambassadors to the Lacedaemonians to 
show them how it was to the advantage of the com- 
mon interests of Greece that it should possess a first- 
rate harbour in view of the expedition which was to 
be expected on the part of the Persians. When he 
had in this way somewhat dulled the impulse of the 
Spartans to interfere, he devoted himself to that 
work, and since everybody enthusiastically co-oper- 
ated it was speedily done and the harbour was finished 
before anyone expected. And Themistocles per- 
suaded the people each year to construct and add 
twenty triremes to the fleet they already possessed, 
and also to remove the tax upon metics and artisans, 
in order that great crowds of people might stream 
into the city from every quarter and that the Atheni- 
ans might easily procure labour for a greater number 
of crafts. Both these policies he considered to be 
most useful in building up the city’s naval forces. 
The Athenians, therefore, were busy over the matters 
we have described. 

44. The Lacedaemonians, having appointed Pau- 
sanias, who had held the command at Plataea, 
admiral of their fleet, instructed him to liberate the 
Greek cities which were still held by barbarian gar- 
risons. And taking fifty triremes from the Pelo- 
ponnesus and summoning from the Athenians thirty 
commanded by Aristeides, he first of all sailed to 
Cyprus and liberated those cities which still had 


239 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


3 éyoúosas Ilepoixàs ÑAevlépwoe, perà è raôra 
nÀcúcas éni ròv ‘Edàonovrov Bvbdvriov pèv órò 
Iepoðv kparoúuevov èyepóoarto, kal rÔv Aw 
Bapßápwv oðs pèv dveàæv, os & èkfaàdv hÀev- 
Qépwoe Tùv móàw, moňoùs © èv ari IMepoôv 
dgroàóyovs [wypýoas čvpas mapéðwrev eis $v- 
ariv Toyyódgp TÔ Eperpieî, TÔ pèv Àdyw mpòs 
Tipwpiav TNPÄOOVTi, T Ò épyw ÖlasÓsovTı mpòs 
Hépénv: ovverébeirro yàp Še dnopphrwv giàlav 
mpòs ròv Paociàéa, kal rùv Ovyarépa toô Eépéov 

4 yapeîv épeddev, iva mpoĝ® roùs "Edyvas. fv &’ ó 
raîra mparrópevos `Apráßačos orparņyós, kal 
xPypáTwv nÀÑÂos exophyet Àdðpg r® Iavoavig 
mpos TÒ à Toúrwv ġbeipeiw Toùs eùbbérovs rÔv 
‘EMývwv. 

 Eyévero è karaġavis Kal rıuwpias črvye 

5 ro®eé rive Tpónw. Enyàðboavros yàp” aùroô rùv 
Hepoiwhv tpupiv rai tupavvixôs Tmpoopepouévov 
Toîs Úrorerayuévos, yaňerðs pepov ämavres, 
uáora &è oi Teraypévor rv ‘Edývæwv eri twos 

6 ġyepovias. Õórep TÖV karà Tv orTpatiàv ral 
karà éĝvy kai karà móàeis dÀÀńàois ópdovvræv 
kal roô Ilavoaviov tis Bapúrnros karañadoúvrwv, 
Ileàorovwvýgioi twes pev karaànóvres aùròv eis 
Ileàoróvvnoov åménàcvoav, kal mpéoßeis droorel- 
Àavres karnyópovv roô Iavoaviov, *Apioreiðns 
ôè ó 'Abyvaîos TÔ kup xpõpevos èuppóvws èv 
Taîs kowoàoyiais dveàdupave tràs móde ral ĵià 
ts ópmàías mposayópevos iias èroinoe roîs 

1 So Reiske: dveîàev. 
2? yàp added Const. Fær. 2 (1), p. 299. 
€ rwves added by Capps. 
240 


BOOK XI. 44. 3-6 


Persian garrisons ; and after this he sailed to the 
Hellespont and took Byzantium, which was held by 
the Persians, and of the other barbarians some 
he slew and others he expelled, and thus liberated 
the city, but many important Persians whom he 
captured in the city he turned over to Gongylus 
of Eretria to guard. Ostensibly Gongylus was to 
keep these men for punishment, but actually he 
was to get them off safe to Xerxes ; for Pausanias 
had secretly made a pact of friendship with the king 
and was about to marry the daughter of Xerxes, his 
purpose being to betray the Greeks. The man who 
was acting as negotiator in this affair was the general 
Artabazus, and he was quietly supplying Pausanias 
with large sums of money to be used in corrupting 
such Greeks as could serve their ends. 

The plan of Pausanias, however, was brought to 
light and he got his punishment in the following 
manner. For Pausanias emulated the luxurious life 
of the Persians and dealt with his subordinates in the 
manner of a tyrant, so that they were all angry with 
him, and especially those Greeks who had been as- 
signed to some command. Consequently, while many, 
as they mingled together in the army both by peoples 
and by cities, were railing at the harshness of Pau- 
sanias, some Peloponnesians ! deserted him and sailed 
back to the Peloponnesus, and dispatching ambas- 
sadors to Sparta they lodged an accusation against 
Pausanias ; and Aristeides the Athenian, making 
wise use of the opportunity, in the course of his public 
conferences with the states won them over and by 
his personal intimacy with them made them adherents 


1l i.e. the allies of Sparta, who of course supplied all the 
warships. 
241 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


*Abyvaiois. črt Šè uâdov ouvvýpynoe kal Tò aùró- 
arov roîs `Abnvaiois Sià raúras tàs airias. 

45. Iavoavias v ovvrebeiruévos ČorTe ToÙS TÀS 
eêmoroààs map’ aùroð kouitovras mpòs ròv Raoıdéa 
LÀ) àvakdurrew pyè yiveolar pvuràs TÕv mop- 
pýrwv: &ť ĝv alriav davaipovpévæwv aùt®v Ýnò rv 
ånoàapßavóvraw ràs êmoroààs ovvéßaiwe unõéva 

2 Seacwbeohar. & Sù ovdoyiodpevós Tis TÕv BeBàia- 
pópwv dvéwće ràs moroàds, kat yvoùs dànlès 
öv TÒ mepi Thv davaipeow Tv kopubóvrwv Tà ypáp- 

3 pata, avéðwke Tois èpópois TAS ÊTmLOTOÀÍS. TOÝTWV 
òè amorovvrwv ià TÒ dvewypévaşs avroîs ras 
èmoroàas avaðeðóolar, kat miot érépav ßBeßaro- 
Tépav nroúvræwv, émņnyyeliaro mapaðwoew aùròv 

4 ópoňoyoðvra. mopevleis ov émi Taívapov rat 
kabetópevos nl T ro Ioceððvos iep Siràñv 
oknvÀy mepießdàero, kal Toùs èv èpópovs kal rÕv 
Mwv Erapriarôv rwas karékpuhe, roô òè Iav- 
caviov mapayevopévov mps aùròv kal muvłavo- 
uévov Tùy airiav Tĝs ikerelas, êpéwharto aùr kaf’ 
ôgov eis Tv emoTtoàùv evéypaye ròv kar aùroû 

6 Îdvarov. roô òè Havoaviov phoavros perapeñeî- 
abai kal ovyyvæpnv airovupévov Toîs dyvonbeîot, 
ére òè Senlévros nws ovykpúßn, kai ðwpeas 
ueydàas Ómoyvovpévov, avto pèv Sreúbyoav, oi Ò 
édopoi kal oi per aùrôv arpipðs pahóvres raànðès 
róTe èv hovyiav čcyov, vorTepov ðè TÕv Aakeðar- 
uoviíww rToîs epópois ovàaußavóvrwv, mpoairoĝó- 


1 It was undoubtedly the contacts which Aristeides estab- 
lished at this time and the confidence he aroused which led 
the Athenians to entrust him with the delicate task of fixing 


242 


BOOK XI. 44. 6—45. 5 


of the Athenians.t But even more did matters play 
by mere chance into the hands of the Athenians by 
reason of the following facts. 

45. Pausanias had stipulated that thè men who 
carried the messages from him to the king should not 
return and thus become betrayers of their secret 
communications ; consequently, since they were 
being put to death by the receivers of the letters, no 
one of them was ever returning alive. So one of the 
couriers, reasoning from this fact, opened his letters, 
and discovering that his inference was correct as to 
the killing of all who carried the messages, he turned 
the letters over to the ephors. But when the ephors 
were loath to believe this, because the letters had 
been turned over to them already opened, and de- 
manded further and more substantial proof, the man 
offered to produce Pausanias acknowledging the facts 
in person. Consequently he went to Taenarum, and 
seating himself as a suppliant at the shrine of Posei- 
don he set up a tent with two rooms and concealed 
the ephors and certain other Spartans ; and when 
Pausanias came to him and asked why he was a 
suppliant, the man upbraided him for directing in the 
letter that he should be put to death. Pausanias said 
that he was sorry and went on to ask the man to 
forgive the mistake ; he even implored him to help 
keep the matter secret, promising him great gifts, 
and the two then parted. As for the ephors and the 
others with them, although they had learned the pre- 
cise trutlı, at that time they held their peace, but on a 
later occasion, when the Lacedaemonians were taking 
up the matter together with the ephors, Pausanias 


the contribution eaeh city should make to the Confederacy 
(cp. chap. 47). 
243 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


y y z kg e A ` ~ 
pevos čġlaoce kal raréhvyev eis iepòv Tò TÌS 
6 'Abnvâs ris Xaàkıoikov. dnmopovpévwav è rõv 
Aareðarpoviwv el TLLWPHOOVTAL TOV ikéryv, Aéyeror 
Tv NTéÉpa ToÔ Tavoaviov karavrýoagav els Tò 
iepòv dào pèv pnõèv ýT eimetv pýre pão, 
màivhov &è Baordoacav dvabeîvar karà Tùv eis Tò 
iepòv elooðov, kat roro nmpdaacav émaveàbeîyv es 
Trùv iav olkiav. rToùs è Aakeðarpoviouvs TH TS 
pNTpòs kpioet ovvakodovbýsavtas êvorxoĝopsjoo 
Tv eioodov, kal Tor% TÖ TpóTw ovvavaykáoat 
rov Iavoaviav Au® karacrpéjar ròv Biov. rò 
Lèv oĝv oôpa Toĵ TeAceurýoavros ouveywphðn rots 
nporýkovot katrayðcat, TÒ è Õaóviov ris TV 
8 ikerÔv owTypias karaàvbeions eneoýunve: rÂv yàp 
Aakeðarpoviwv mepi mwwv AÀàÀwv èv Aeàġoîs 
xpnoTypiabopévwv, ò Îeòs Edwke xpnopòv kedebwv 
9 årokaraorioa T beð ròv ikérnv. iórep ot 
Erapriâtai ryv pavreiav aðúvarov vouibovres elvat, 
Ņrópovv ep’ ikavòv ypóvov, où ðuváduevot mojoat 
Tò nmpoorarróuevov úno roô leot uws Ò èk trÕv 
evõeyouévwv Povàevoduevot kareokevacav elkóvas 
úo roô Ilavoaviov yaàkâs, kal dvéðnrav eis rò 
iepòv TS 'AOnvâs. R a 
Hpueîs è map àyv Tův ioropiav eiwhóres 
TrÔv ayalðv arõpðv ĝià Trv êmAcyopévav èraiwwv 
aŭte TÙV Sófar, Toîs ĝe pavois émi ris Tedeuris 
emgphéyyeoða TAS áppotovoas Pàaopnpias, oùÙK 
edoopev rhv Ilavoaviov kakiav Kral mpoĝociav 


1 q, after mpâôfa deleted by Hertlein, Vogel, retained by 
Dindorf, Bekker. 


244 


BOOK XI. 45. 5—46, 1 


learned of it in advance, acted first, and fled for safety 
into the temple of Athena of the Brazen House. 
And while the Lacedaemonians were hesitating 
whether to punish him now that he was a suppliant, 
we are told that the mother of Pausanias, coming to 
the temple, neither said nor did anything else than 
to piek up a brick and lay it against the entrance of 
the temple, and after she had done this she returned 
to her home. And the Lacedaemonians, falling in with 
the mother’s decision, walled up the entrance and in 
this manner forced Pausanias to meet his end through 
starvation.? Now the body of the dead man was 
turned over to his relatives for burial; but the 
divinity showed its displeasure at the violation of the 
sanctity of suppliants, for once when the Lacedae- 
monians were consulting the oracle at Delphi about 
some other matters, the god replied by commanding 
them to restore her suppliant to the goddess. Conse- 
quently the Spartans, thinking the oracle’s command 
to be impracticable, were at a loss for a considerable 
time, being unable to carry out the injunction of the 
god. Concluding, however, to do as much as was 
within their power, they made two bronze statues of 
Pausanias and set them up in the temple of Athena. 
46. As for us, since throughout our entire history 
we have made it our practice in the case of good 
men to enhance their glory by means of the words 
of praise we pronounce over them, and in the case 
of bad men, when they die, to utter the appropriate 
obloquies, we shall not leave the turpitude and 
treachery of Pausanias to go uncondemned. For 


1 The famous shrine in Sparta. 
? Thucydides (1. 134) says that he was removed from the 
temple just before death to avoid the pollution of the shrine. 


245 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


2 dkarņnyópņrov. ris yàp oùk äv Îavudoat roŬrTov 
~ y A 3 t + A e La 
Tv dvorav, ôs eùepyérns yevőuevos Tis “EMMdôõos 
kal ukýoas rhv èv Ilàararaîs uáyyy kal modààs 
dààas émawovpévas mpdčeis émireàcodpevos, oùy 
t A A 3 r ld 3 3 3 ld 
mws TÒ mapòv déiwpa Srepúiatev, AX dyarýoas 
rôv Ilepeðv Tòv màorov kat Tyv Tpupiv amacav 
3 Tv mpoŭmápyovoav eùðočiav katýoyvvev; map- 
beis yàp Tais eùrvyiais rův pèv Aakwviiy dywyhy 
eoróyņoe, rjv è rôv Ileprðv droàaciav rat 
Tpvọiv èppýoarto, ôv ģkiora êxpiv Cnàôca tà 
rv Bapßápwv mrnðeúparta: où yàp éTépww me- 

r 3y 3A y 2 a , ` 3 
nvopévos, dÀ\ aùròs čpyw” meîpav eiàndos èyi- 
vwoke? TTW ts rõv Ilepoðv Ttpugñs g] máTpios 
iarra mpos dperùv Sréhepev. 

3 A A E SE. i pi A 4 307 r 3 
4 ’AMà yap aùròs èv à rùv iðiav kakiav où 
uóvov rs días ërvye Tıuwpias, dÀÀà kal Toîs 
moltas aitios karéorn ToÔ Tv karà Îdìarrav 
e t 3 Cal 3 [g A e 39) 
hyepoviav aroßaàetv: èk mapabécews yàp ý Api- 
orelðov orparnyia mapà roîs ovupdyois Îewpov- 
HEN, kal dd TÅv eis Toùs ÚnotTerayuévovs ólav 
kal ràs dÀÀas dperás, €roiņoe mdvras orep arò 
ö pâs óppis arokàîvai mpòs Toùs `Abyvaiovs. Siò 
ral roîs pev ek Ts Endptys mepropévois hyepóow 
oùkérų mpoceîyov, Apiorelðny dè avuátovres kal 
nmdávra npobópws úmakoúovres éroioav ywpis 

z Pas A h 2 3 ? 

kwõúvov mapañaßetv Thv karà Îdàarrav àpxýv. 
47. Eùbùs ov ò pèv `Apioreiðns ovveßovieve Toîs 
~ a 
ovuudyois macı kowùv dyovot oúvoðov droðeîfat 


1 So Vogel: bavudon P, favudoee other MSS, 
246 


BOOK XI. 46. 2—47. 1 


who would not be amazed at the folly of this man 
who, though he had been a benefactor of Greece, 
had won the battle of Plataea, and had performed 
many other deeds which won applause, not only failed 
to safeguard the esteem he enjoyed but by his love 
of the wealth and luxury of the Persians brought dis- 
honour upon the good name he already possessed ? 
Indeed, elated by his successes he came to abhor the 
Laconian manner of life and to imitate the licentious- 
ness and luxury of the Persians, he who least of all 
had reason to emulate the customs of the barbarians ; 
for he had not learned of them from others, but in 
person by actual contact he had made trial of them 
and was aware how greatly superior with respect to 
virtue his ancestors’ way of life was to the luxury of 
the Persians. 

And in truth because of his own baseness Pausanias 
not only himself received the punishment he de- 
served, but he also brought it about that his country- 
men lost the supremacy at sea, In comparison, for 
instance, take the fine tact of Aristeides in dealing 
with the allies: when they took note of it, both 
because of his affability toward his subordinates and 
his uprightness in general, it caused them all as with 
one impulse to incline toward the Athenian cause. 
Consequently the allies no longer paid any heed to 
the commanders who were sent from Sparta, but in 
their admiration of Aristeides they eagerly submitted 
to him in every matter and thus brought it about 
that he received the supreme command by sea with- 
out having to fight for it. 

47. At once, then, Aristeides advised all the allies 
as they were holding a general assembly to designate 


2 So Stephanus : yà. 3 So Vogel: éyirwokor. 


24T 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Thv? AfÀov kowòv Tapeîov, rat Tà xpúpara návTa 
rà ovvayopeva eis raýrny kararibeolar, mpos ðè 
tòr ånò rÔv Iepoðv úronrevóuevov nóÀcuov ráčat 
ġópov rTaîs móàceot ndous Kkarà óva, oTe 
yiveohar rò nâv poroa raàdvrwv Tevrakosiwv 
2 kal ééýkovra. Taybels Öè èri rv Šidraéıv Tõv 
dópwv, oðtws åkpißðs ral Šıkaíws Tòv Srapepio pòv 
enoiņoev dore náoas tàs mées eùðokioat. ðið 
kal SokÂv év Tt rÔv dðuvdtrwv ëpywav ouvrereàeké- 
va, peyiorņnv ènmi Sıkarocóvy ðóğav ékrýoaTo Kal 

Sia Tiv úneppoàiv tis Õikarosóvns Siras énwvo- 
8 udoln. úg’ éva Sè kai ròv aùròv karpòv Ñ uèv TOÔ 
Iavoaviov Karia ris karà Odàarrav hyepovias 
eorépnoe roùs moàiras,  'Apiorelðov õè katà mây 
àper) tàs `Abnvas rv oùr osav orparnyiav 
enoiņoe krýoacbar. , S 

Tafra pèv ov enpáyðn rarà roðrov ròv évt- 
avrõőv. 

48. Er čpyovros © `Abývnor Palðwvos Ovu- 
màs èv ġxôn čkry mpòs rais éßðouýrovra, kab’ 
v vika ordðiov Xraudvõpios Mvuriànvatos, êv 
‘Poun © únjpxov raro Kaiswv dfios kal 
Erópios Poúpros Mevéňdaios. èri òè ToúTwv Aew- 
ruyiðņns ó rv Aakxeðaruoviwv Paoideùs ETeheú- 
Tyoev &přas črņ eikosi kal úo, TùV sè apx 
Siadeédpevos `Apyxiðauos? eßBacidevoev ér TET- 
rapákovra kal vo. ereàeúrnoe Šè kal ’Avağidas 
ó ‘Pyylov kai Záyràņs Tópavvos, Švuvaorevoas éT 


1 tùv omitted by P, Vogel. 
2 So Palmer: ’Apxéàaos. 


e 


1 That is, the temple of Apollo on that island. , 
2 According to Thucydides (1. 96. 2) and Plutarch (Aris- 


248 


BOOK XI. 47. 1—48. 2 


the island of Delos 1 as their common treasury and 
to deposit there all the money they collected, and 
towards the war which they suspected would come 
from the Persians to impose a levy upon all the citics 
according to their means, so that the entire sum 
collected would amount to five hundred and sixty 
talents.? And when he was appointed to allocate the 
levy, he distributed the sum so accurately and justly 
that all the cities consented to it. Consequently, 
since he was considered to have accomplished an 
impossible thing, he won for himself a very high 
reputation for justice, and because he excelled ïn that 
virtue he was given the epithet of “ the Just.” Thus 
at one and the same time the baseness of Pausanias 
deprived his countrymen of the supremacy on the 
sea, and the all-round virtue of Aristeides caused 
Athens to gain the leadership which she had not 
possessed before. 

These, then, were the events of this year. 

48. When Phaedon was archon in Athens, the 
Seventy-sixth Olympiad was celebrated, that in 
which Scamandrius of Mytilenê won the “ stadion,” 
and in Rome the consuls were Caeso Fabius and 
Spurius Furius Menellaeus.® In the course of this 
year Leotychides, the king of the Lacedaemonians, 
died after a reign of twenty-two years, and he was 
succeeded on the throne by Archidamus, who ruled 
for forty-two years. And there died also Anaxilas, 
the tyrant of Rhegium and Zanclê,* after a rule of 


teides, 24. 3) the first assessment amounted to four hundred 
and sixty talents, The latest and fullest treatment of this 
subject is B. D, Meritt, H. T. Wade-Gery, M. F. McGregor, 
The Athenian Tribute Lists, Vol. 1 (1939). 

$ This should probably be Medullinus. 

t The earlier name of Messenê in Sicily. 


249 


476 B.O 


DIODORUS OTF SICILY 


Séra orro, rhv òè tTvpavviða ŝiedðéfaro Mirvlbos, 
miorTevleis wore droðoðvaı Toîs TÉKvoS TOÔ TeÀev- 

3 rýcavros oðot véors Tův ŅAkiav. ‘Iépwv è ò 
Bacideds Tôv Zupakosiwv LETA TAV ToÔ Téwvos 
TeňeuThv Tòv pèv aseàpòv Hodútnàov ó ôpõðv edor- 
povra mapà Toîs Zuparosiois kal vopigwv aùrtòv 
eéhespov úrdpyeiw Tis Pacideias, čorevõev kroðav 
morýoachar, aùròs Sè Éevoàoyðv Kal mepi aúròv 
oúorņua éévwv mapaokeváwv úrmeàdußavev doßa- 

4 Às kahétew rv Baoiàciav. Siò kal Dufapırðv 
nmoopkovpévwv nrò Kporwviarðv kal Seopévwv 
Bonbĝoar, orparıwras moàoùs raréypapev eis 
TIV otpatidv, Gi mapediðov IHodvgýàw TASEAp 
vouiwv aùròv rò rÕv Kporaviarãv åvarpeĝńý- 

5 oeoa. ToÎ òè Hodvtýàov mpòs Tv oTparteiav 
où% Únakoúsavros Sà Tv pnbeioav ónopiav, ôe 
opyÌs eixe ròv dôcàdóv, kal puyóvros? mpòs ©ń- 
pava Tòr `Akpayavrivwv TÝpavvov, katanoàepfjoa 
ToÕToV mapeoskevdgero. 

6 Merà è rara Opaovõaiov roô Oýpwvos emi- 
araroðvros tis trõv ‘Ipepaiwv móàcews Bapúrepov 
To kabłýkovros, ovvéßņ roùs “‘Iuepaiovs amañào- 

7 rpwb ivar mavreàðs dr’ abroð. mpòs pèv obv Tòv 
natépa mopevecðai re kal karņyopeîv ameðoki- 
atov, vopíitovres oùy ew ïoov dkovorýv' mpòs 
Sè rov ‘Ilépwva mpécheis ådnéorerdav rarnyopoðvres 
To Opacvõaiov kal énayyedÀópevot TÚV TE TOA 
ekcivw napaðwocew kal ovvemibýocabar Toîs mepi 

8 rov Ońpwva. ó Sè ‘Iépwv kpivas eipyvikôs 
raàvoacĝat mpòs ròv Oýpwva, mpoúðwke Toùs 


1 So Dindorf: orparelar. 2 So Dindorf: ġvyórra. 


1 As of a third competitor waiting to fight the victor. 
250 


BOOK XI. 48. 2-8 


eighteen years, and he was succeeded in the tyranny 
by Micythus, who was entrusted with the position on 
the understanding that he would restore it to the sons 
of Anaxilas, who were not yet of age. And Hieron, 
who became king of the Syracusans after the death 
of Gelon, observing how popular his brother Polyzelus 
was among the Syracusans and believing that he was 
waiting to seize ! the kingship, was eager to put him 
out of the way, and so, enlisting foreign soldiers and 
gathering about his person an organized body of mer- 
cenaries, he thought that by these means he could 
hold the kingship securely. And so, when the Sybar- 
ites were being besieged by the Crotoniates and called 
on Hieron for help, he enrolled many soldiers in the 
army, which he then put under the command of his 
brother Polyzelus in the belief that he would be 
slain by the Crotoniates. When Polyzelus, suspecting 
what we have mentioned, refused to undertake the 
campaign, Hieron was enraged at his brother, and 
when Polyzelus took refuge with Theron, the tyrant 
of Acragas, he began making preparation for war 
upon Theron. 

Subsequently to these events, Thrasydaeus the son 
of Theron was governing the city of Himera more 
harshly than was proper, and the result was that the 
Himerans became altogether alienated from him. 
Now they rejected the idea of going to his father 
and entering an accusation with him, since they did 
not believe they would have in him a fair listener ; 
but they dispatched to Hieron ambassadors, who 
presented their complaints against Thrasydaeus and 
offered to hand Himera over to Hieron and join him 
in his attack upon Theron. Hieron, however, having 
decided to be at peace with Theron, betrayed the 


251 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


“‘Iuepaiovs kai rà Beßovàcevuéva àabpalws euvuoev. 
Siómep Ońpwv ekerdoas Tà Kkatà Tùv Bovàńv, kat 
TÀ uývvow aAnbwiy eúpíiokwv, mpòs pèv Tòv 
“Tépuwa SredvoaTo Kal Tòv Iodúgnàov eis Thv 
mpoürmdpxovoav eğvorav ATOKATÉOTNOE, TÖV ÖÈ 
“Iuepaiwv roùs évavriovs moÀoùs vras cvdàaßwv 
anéohaćev. 

49. ‘Tépwv è rovs re Naćiovs ral roùs Kara- 
valovs èk TÕv TmóÀcwv àvaorýoas, iðiovs olkýTopas 
dnéoreiràev, èk pèv Iledorovvýoov nmevrakioyiàiovs 
dbpoisas, èk è Euparovoðv ğAdovs TosoúrTovs 
npocheis: kal rhv pèv Kardvny perwrõpacev Atr- 
vyv, Tùy Õè yæpav où uóvov T)v Karavaiav, aààà 
Kal modny Ts óuópov npooleis katrekànpovynoe, 
o pvpiovs nànposas oiKÝTOpaS. ToîrTo © ënpate 
orevðwv d àa uèv xew Poberav é éroiuny ágióňoyov 
mpos Tàs emioŬúoas ypeias, dua òè kal êk Tîs yevo- 
uévns pvpidvðpov nócws Timas čxew pærkás. 
roùs è Naéiovs kai roùs Karavaiovs èk rtôv 
nartpiðwv avaorabévras perwkioev els tovs Aeovri- 
vovS, KaL LET TÕV èyxwpiwv npooérağe kaToiketv 

3 A TóÀw. Ońpwr è petà tùy “Ipepaiwv apayùv 
ópõv TÀ TÉÀW oiknrópwv Seopévny, gvvýrioev 
eis raúrny Toús Te Awpueîs Kal trõv Aw ToÙS 

4 Povàouévovs enoùroypápnoev. orot pèv oŭv 
LET aAAAwv Kaĝðs ToAiTevópevot Drerédcsav é éry 
TEVTÚKOVTA KaL ÔKTØ' TÓTE sè Tis móews Úro 
Kapynõoviwv yerpwbeions kal karaorapeions, i- 
éuewev doiknros péypi TÖV Kab’ hus kapôv. 

50. Er’ ăpxovros & ’Abúvnoi Apoporàctðov 

1 The city north of Syracuse on the coast. 
1 In 408 s.c. 
252 


BOOK XI. 48. 8—50. 1 


Himerans and disclosed to him their secret plans. 
Consequently Theron, after examining into the re- 
ported plan and finding the information to be true, 
composed his differences with Hieron and restored 
Polyzelus to the favour he had previously enjoyed, 
and then he arrested his opponents, who were many, 
among the Himerans and put them to death. 

49. Hieron removed the people of Naxos! and 
Catana from their cities and sent there settlers of his 
own choosing, having gathered five thousand from 
the Peloponnesus and added an equal number of 
others from Syracuse ; and the name of Catana he 
changed to Aetna, and not only the territory of 
Catana but also much neighbouring land which he 
added to it he portioned out in allotments, up to the 
full sum of ten thousand settlers. This he did out 
of a desire, not only that he might have a substantial 
help ready at hand for any need that might arise, 
but also that from the recently founded state of ten 
thousand men he might receive the honours accorded 
to heroes. And the Naxians and Catanians whom he 
had removed from their native states he transferred 
to Leontini and commanded them to make their 
homes in that city along with the native population. 
And Theron, seeing that after the slaughter of the 
Himerans the city was in need of settlers, made a 
mixed multitude there, enrolling as its citizens both 
Dorians and any others who so wished, These citizens 
lived together on good terms in the state for fifty- 
eight years ; but at the expiration of this period the 
city was conquered and razed to the ground by the 
Carthaginians? and has remained without inhabitants 
to this day. 


50. When Dromocleides was archaon in Athens, the 475 sa 


253 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


‘Pwuaior uèv karéornoav úndrovs Máprov Páßiov 
kal I'vaîov Mdàdiov, eni ôè roúrwv Aakeðaruóvior 
Tùy rs Îaàdrrys hyepoviav droßeßànkóres dàd- 
yws, Papéws čhepov: &iò Kal roîŭs åġeornkóow ar 
aùrõðv "Eno. yaàerðs éxovres, Yreidouvv èni- 

2 Oýoew aùrtois Tùv mpooýkovoav tipwpiav. ovv- 
axbeions è rs yepovoias éBovàeðovro mepi roð 
moàépou roô mpòs roùs `Abnvaiovs órèp Tis karà 

3 darrav ýyepovias, dpoiws Sè kal ris rowñs 
ekkàņoias ouvayheions, of pèv vewrtepoi kal tTÔv 
GAAwV oi moddol piàotiuws elxov avarrhoaobar tùv 
Ñyeuoviav, vopi$ovres, àv aÙTÙv TmepinmohowvTat, 
XPNuÁTwV TE TOAAÔv eðnophoew kat kabóñov Tùv 
2rdpryy' peibova moroeolhat kal Övvarwrtépav, 
Toús re rÕv lðiwrõv otkovs ToAÀNNv erio Ape- 

4 alar mpòs eùõðaruoviav. dvepiuvýokovrto è kai tis 
dpxaías pavreias, êv Ñ npocéraćev avroîs ó Qeòs 
akoneîy nws pù) XwWÀv éxwot TÅv hyeuoviav, kat 
Tòv ypnopòv čpacav eis oùðèv éTepov Ñ TÒ mapòv 
Aéyew: xwàdv yàp aùrtoîs úrdápéeiw rv apxýv, àv 
oùgðv ðveîv hyepovnðv TÅ érépav aroßdàwoi. 

5 Idvrwv õè oyeðòv rv moùrôv mpòs raúrnv rùv 
óróleow òppnuévwv, kal TÑs yepovoias ovveðpev- 
ovans mepl TovTwv, oùŭðeis HÀAmoev oùðéva Toph- 

6 gew? guppovàeĝoat ërepóv ti. rv Sè èk Tis 
yepovoias Tis, Övopa pèv ‘Eroruapiðas, rò è yévos 
ap ‘Hpakàéovs ðv kat Õe dperùv àroŝoxñs tvy- 
xávwv mapa Toîs moàiTais, êmeyeipnoe ovufpovàevew 
éâv roùs 'AÎnvaiovs mi rhs hyepovias: pù cup- 
pépew yàp TÅ Enrdpry ris boàdrrys àpgioßnreiv 

1 So Reiske : anmovòve 


254 


2 So Vogel: roàpioan 


BOOK XI. 50. 1-6 


Romans elected as consuls Marcus Fabius and Gnaeus 
Manlius. 1n this year the Lacedaemonians, now that 
for no good reason they had lost the command of the 
sea, were resentful ; consequently they were incensed 
at the Greeks who had fallen away from them and 
continued to threaten them with the appropriate 
punishment. And when a meeting of the Gerousia ! 
was convened, they considered making war upon the 
Athenians for the sake of regaining the command of 
the sea. Likewise, when the general Assembly was 
convened, the younger men and the majority of the 
others were eager to recover the leadership, believing 
that, if they could secure it, they would enjoy great 
wealth, Sparta in general would be made greater and 
more powerful, and the estates of its private citizens 
would receive a great increase of prosperity. They 
kept calling to mind also the ancient oracle in which 
the god commanded them to beware lest their leader- 
ship should be a “ lame ” one, and the oracle, they 
insisted, meant nothing other than the present ; for 
“ lame ” indeed their rule would be if, having two 
leaderships,? they should lose one of them. 

Since practically all the citizens had been eager for 
this course of action and the Gerousia was in session 
to consider these matters, no one entertained the hope 
that any man would have the temerity to suggest any 
other course. But a member of the Gerousia, Hetoe- 
maridas by name, who was a direct descendant of Hera- 
cles and enjoyed favour among the citizens by reason 
of his character, undertook to advise that they leave 
the Athenians with their leadership, since it was not 
to Sparta’s interest, he declared, to lay claim to the 


1 The Spartan Senate, composed of thirty members. 
3 i.e. by land and by sea. 


255 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


npòs mapdðočov è óróðeow eimeiv eùnophoas 
õyovs dppóķovras, mapà Tův npooðokiav mece 
TTÅv yepovoiíav kat ròv õfñpov. téàos è oi Aake- 
Saruõvior rpivavres ròv ‘Eroruapiðav ovupépovra 
Àéyew dnéornoav tis mepi TÒv móÀepov mps Toùs 
8 'Abnvaiovs óppñs. `AOnvañor Sè Tò pèv mpôrov 
mpoceðókwv uéyav nmóňepov ččew mpòs rovs Aake- 
Sarpoviovs mepi Tis karà darrav yepovias, kat 
ĉià TOÛTO Tprýpers kaTeokevačov mÀeiovs kal ypy- 
páTwv màñlos éropitovro kal toîs ovpudyos 
emekõs nposehépovro: ws Sè rà Öoxbévra Toîs 
Aakreðarpoviois êrúlovro, roô pèv póßov toô karà 
Tòv nóàepov dreàððyoav, mept Sè rv aŭénow tîs 
iias móews Ņoyoovro. 
. 51. Er äpxovTos 8’ ’Abúvnow ° Akeoropiðov. èv 

Pun thv narov àpyiy Sreðétavro Kaiocwv d- 
Bios ral Tiros Oùepyivios. émi è rovrwv ‘Iépwv 
Lèv ó Bacideùs rôv Xuparociwv, mapayevopévov 
mpòs ağròv npéoßewv èr Kúuns ris 'Iraàlas kal 
Seouévwv Bonbioar moeuovuévois nrò Tupprrôv 
bañarrokparovvrav, èkénepfjev aùtoîs cvupayiav 

2 Tpiýpeis ikavás. ot è rÕv veðv ToúTwv hyeuóves 
eneh) karénàevoav eis riv Kúunv, perà tÔv èy- 
xopiwv uèv evavudgnoav mpòs roùs Tuppnvoðs, 
modààs ðè vaðs aŭrðv ıaßbeipavres xal ueyáàn 
vavpayíią vixýoavres, Toùs pèv Tuppnvoòs èrarei- 
vwcav, Tods òè Kupaiovs Ņhàevhépwoav rv ġóßwv, 
kal anénàevoav èni Lupakoŭúoas. 

52. Er’ äpxovros & 'Abúvnor Mévwvos Pw- 
Lator uèv óráTovs karéorņnoav Aeúkiov AluiÀtov 
Máueprov kat Tairov Kopvýov Aévrovàov, karà 
Sè ùv 'Irañiav móàceuos évéeorn Tapavrívois mpòs 
256 


BOOK XI. 50. 6—52. 1 


sea. He was able to bring pertinent arguments in 
support of his surprising proposal, so that, against the 
expectation of all, he won over both the Gerousia and 
the people. And in the end the Lacedaemonians 
decided that the opinion of Hetoemaridas was to 
their advantage and abandoned their zest for the war 
against the Athenians. As for the Athenians, at first 
they expected to have a great war with the Lace- 
daemonians for the command of the sea, and for this 
reason were building additional triremes, raising a 
large sum of money, and dealing honourably with 
their allies ; but when they learned of the decision of 
the Lacedaemonians, they were relieved of their fear 
of war and set about increasing the power of their city. 


51. When Acestorides was archon in Athens, in 474 s.a 


Rome Caeso Fabius and Titus Verginius succeeded 
to the consulship. And in this year Hieron, the king 
of the Syracusans, when ambassadors came to him 
from Cumae in Italy and asked his aid in the war 
which the Tyrrhenians, who were at that time masters 
of the sea, were waging against them, he dispatched 
to their aid a considerable number of triremes. And 
after the commanders of this fleet had put in at 
Cumae, joining with the men of that region they 
fought a naval battle with the Tyrrhenians, and de- 
stroying many of their ships and cenquering them in 
a great sea-fight, they humbled the Tyrrhenians and 
delivered the Cumaeans from their fears, after which 
they sailed back to Syracuse. 

52. When Menon was archon in Athens, the Ro- 
mans chose as consuls Lucius Aemilius Mamercus and 
Gaius Cornelius Lentulus, and in Italy a war broke 
out between the Tarantini and the [apygians. For 


1 So Rhodoman (cp. 13. 36. 1): éróptģov. 


257 


473 B.C. 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


2 roùs 'Idnvyas’: mepi yàp ópópov yópas åp- 
Bnroúvrwv mpòs aàńàovs, mi év Twas xpóvovs 
Sreréàouv dyipayoðvres raè Àeņnàaroðvres ràs 
aMýàwv xopas, del è pâňov rÅs dadapâs ovv- 
avéouévņs kal moààdris póvwv yiwopévwv, TÒ Te- 

3 Àevratov eis dìooyeph piotripiav Dpunoav. oi pèv 
ov Iánvyes týv Te map abrôv õúvauıv map- 
eokeváovro kat Tùv mapà TÕv duópwv ovupayíiav 
gvvéiaßov, kal Toùs oúpmavras ÑjÖporoav örèp Toùs 
Siopvpiovs: oi 8è Tapavrivot mvðóuevor Tò uéyebos 
tis êm aùroùs hOporopévns Šuvduews, Tos re 
noùTiKods orparwTas ŅOporoav kal ‘Pyivov ovu- 

4 páxwv ğvrwv moàdoùs mpooeàdßBovro. yevouévns 
òè uáyxņns ioyvpâs kal Toiðv map auporépois 
meaóvrwv, TÒ Tedevraîov ot 'Iámvyes éviknoav. 
TÕv è ýrrnhévrwv eis úo uépn oyiobévrwv rarà 
Tùy pvyýv, kal rÕv èv eis Tápavra tùv åvayøópn- 
aw mowovuévwv, TOV è eis Tò ‘Púyiov pevyóvrwv, 
naparànoiws Tovrois ral ot Idrvyes pepiobyoav. 

5oi èv obv roùs Tapavrivovs Subfavres àlyov 
Laorýuaros övros moods rÕv évavriwv dveîàov, 
oi õè rods ‘Pnyivovs Suókovres én) rosoôrov èg- 
doriuýlnoav ðore ovveoneoeiy rois fpevyovotw els 
Tò ‘Púýyiov kal tis módews kupieĝoat. 

53. Merà è rara Abúvno: uèv fpe Xápns, èv 
‘Poun è raroi kaberorýrecav Tiros Miwoúvios 
kal Idos ‘Opdrios IModúebos y0q Sè rap 
'Hàeíois '’OAvumiàs EBõounroori ral éßôóun, kaf’ 
Nv vika ordðiov Advõns `Apyeîos. eml 8è roúrwv 
Kkarà pèv riv Xikeàiav Opwv ó ’Akpayavrivwv 
Suvdorns éreňeúrnoev péas črn ðéra kal čé, Tùv 

2 òè dpxùv Šiedéfaro Opaovõalos ó viós. ó èv oðv 
258 


BOOK XI. 52. 2—53. 2 


these peoples, disputing with each other over some 
land on their borders, had been engaging for some 
years in skirmishings and in raiding each other’s terri- 
tory, and since the difference between them kept 
constantly increasing and frequently resulted in 
deaths, they finally went headlong into out-and-out 
contention. Now the Iapygians not only made ready 
the army of their own men but they also joined with 
them an auxiliary force of their neighbours, collecting 
in this way a total body of more than twenty thousand 
soldiers ; and the Tarantini, on learning of the great 
size of the army gathered against them, both mus- 
tered the soldiers of their state and added to them 
many more of the Rhegians, who were their allies. 
A fierce battle took place and many fell on both sides, 
but in the end the Iapygians were victorious. When 
the defeated army split in the flight into two bodies, 
the one retreating to Tarentum and the other fleeing 
to Rhegium, the Iapygians, following their example, 
also divided. Those who pursued the Tarantini, the 
distance being short, slew many of the enemy, but 
those who were pressing after the Rhegians were so 
eager that they broke into Rhegium together with 
the fugitives and took possession of the city. 


53. The next year Chares was archon in Athens, + 


and in Rome the consuls elected were Titus Menenius 
and Gaius Horatius Pulvillus, and the Eleians cele- 
brated the Seventy-seventh Olympiad, that in which 
Dandes of Argos won the *‘ stadion.” In this year 
in Sicily Theron, the despot of Acragas, died after a 
reign of sixteen years, and his son Thrasydaeus suc- 
ceeded to the throne. Now Theron, since he had 


1 Mivotvios and Ioàveðos are corruptions of Mevývios and 
Iodovidàos. 


259 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Ojpaw riv àpxův êmeôs ĝwrykós, kal Côv 
ueydàns aroðoyfs eróyyave mapa Toîs moàirais kal 
Teàevrýoas )pwikÂv éruye TuÕv, ó Õè viòs aùroð 
kai CÕvrTos ëT. roô marpòs Piaros v ral dov- 
kòs kal reàeuvrýoavros Ĥpxe Ts marplðos mapa- 

3 vópws kal Tupavvik®s. tÒ kal Tayéws amornels 
Úno TÕv Ýnoterayuévwv ieréÀcoev èmBovevóuevos 
kal iov ëywv poovpevov: lev trayéws tis ilas 
mapavopias oixelav oye TÀv toô Blov karaorpopúv. 
LeETà yàp TYV TOÔ marpòs Oýpwvos TeňeuThv Toà- 
Àoùs mobopópovs dðpoicas kat rv ° Arxpayavrivæv 
ral ‘Ipepaiwv mpookaraiééas, roùs dravras ÑOpor- 

4 cev Úrèp Toùs Õiouvpiovs inneîs kal meķoús. perà 
è Toúrwv péÀàovTos aùroĝ moňeueiv rois Xupako- 
ciois, ‘Iépwv ò Baoideùs mapaorevasdpevos Şúvapıv 
déióàoyov égrpárevoev èni ròv °` Akpáyavra. yevo- 
pévns õè páxns ioxyvpâs màcorot maparačapévæv 

5 EMývæv mpòs “Eànvas čreoov. ri uèv oĝv páyy 
enporépnoav oi Xvparóoioi, katekónnoav è tõv 
Lèv Èuparosiwv eis Õioyiàlovs, TÕv Õè dAwv úrėp 
Toùs TeTpakioyiàiovs. perà ðè rara Opaovõaios 
pèv Tamewwbeis éÉéneoev ék Tis dpxis, kat duyàv 
eis Meyapeîs roùs Nisaiovs radovpévovs, ére? 
Davdrov karayvwoðbeis èreeórnoev: oi & ’Arpa- 
yavtrîvot komoduevor TùV Önporpartiav, ianpec- 
Bevodpevoi npòs ‘Iépuwa TÑs eiphvns črvyov. 

6 Karà òè rýv 'Iraàiav ‘Pwpaiois mpòs Obnievra- 
voùs évordvTos moàépov peyáàn uáxņ ovvéory mepi 
Tùy òvopačopévyv Kpeuépav. tôv è ‘Pwpaiwv 

1 rav after merero: deleted by Madvig. 
260 


BOOK XI. 53. 2-6 


administered his office equitably, not only enjoyed 
great favour among his countrymen during his life- 
time, but also upon his death he was accorded the 
honours which are paid to heroes ; but his son, even 
while his father was still living, was violent and 
murderous, and after his father’s death ruled over his 
native city without respect for the laws aad like a 
tyrant. Consequently he quickly lost the confidence 
of his subjects and was the constant object of plots, 
living a life of execration ; and so he soon came to 
an end befitting his own lawlessness. For Thrasy- 
daeus after the death of his father Theron gathered 
many mercenary soldiers and enrolled also citizens ot 
Acragas and Himera, and thus got together in all 
more than twenty thousand cavalry and infantry. 
And since he was preparing to make war with these 
troops upon the Syracusans, Hieron the king made 
ready a formidable army and marched upon Acragas. 
A fierce battle took place, and a very large number 
fell, since Greeks were marshalled against Greeks. 
Now the fight was won by the Syracusans, who lost 
some two thousand men against more than four 
thousand for their opponents. Thereupon Thrasy- 
daeus, having been humbled, was expelled from his 
position, and fleeing to Nisaean Megara, as it is 
called, he was there condemned to death and met his 
end; and the Acragantini, having now recovered 
their democratic form of government, sent ambas- 
sadors to Hieron and secured peace. 

In Italy war broke out between the Romans and 
the Veiians and a great battle was fought at the site 
called Cremera.? The Romans were defeated and 


1 Megara in Greece as contrasted with Hyblaean Megara 
in Sicily. 2 The traditional date is 477 B.C. 


261 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


NrryÂévrwv ovvéßn moñoùs aùr meoeîv, dv daci 
Ttwes trv ovyypapéwv kal toùs Ọaßiovs Toùs 
tpiakociovs, ovyyeveîs dÀàńÀwv vras kal ià 
TOÔTO pĝ meperànuuévovs npoonyopig. 

Taôra èv oðv ènpáxíņ Kata roðrtov ròv èv- 
avróv. 

54. Er dpyovros © ’'Abúvno: Tpaćıépyov ‘Pw- 
patot èv úndádrovs karéorņnoav AŬàov Ovepyiviov 
Tpikoorov ral I'diov Lepoviitov Erpoôkrov. èm 
dè roúrwv 'Hàeîoi uèv mÀciovs kal mrpàs nóàcs 
oikoĝvres eis iav ovvwriohyoav rùv dvopatopévyv 

2°Hàwv, Aareðaruóvior &è ópõvres rù pèv Erdpryv 
Sià rùv Iavoaviov ro arparnyoð npoðoclav ra- 
news nparrovoav, roùs òè 'Alnvaiovs eùõoki- 
poðvras dià TÒ unëéva map aùroîs moàiryy èri 
npoðocig kareyvðobai, éomevõov TàS ’Abúývas raîs 
3 ópoiais neptPadeiv Siaßodaîs. Sıómep ebdorıpoðv- 
Tos nap’ aùroîs OQeorokàéovs kal peydàyv Sóćav 
EXovTOS En’ Aperi, karnyópnoav mpoðociav aùroô, 
paokovres piàov yevéohar roô TMavoavlov péyiwrov, 
kal perà Toúrov ovvrebeîobar kowf) npodoðvat Thv 
4 'EMdõa rO Hépén. Sredéyovro Õè kal rols èyəpoîs 
To Oepiorokàéovs, napogúvovres aÙToÙS mpos TÅv 
karqyopiav, kal xpPýpaTa Edocav, Sddokovres ri 
Mavcavias uèv kpivas nmpoðiðóvar roùòs "EAnvas 
EõAwoe TÅv iliav émpov Oeprororàe? kal map- 
ekdàeoe kowwveiv ris npobéoews, ó Sè Oeiororàis 
oùre mpooeðékaro rův évrevéw oŭre Siaßddew 
5 ërkpive Õeîv dvõpa piħov. où pův dÀàà karnyopn- 
aaaeeeaa a a 

+ Tbis is one of the most famous of the legends of early 


Roman history. Diodorus gives the sensible account that 
this was a battle between the Romans and the Etruscans for 


262 


BOOK XI. 53. 6—54. 5 


many of them perished, among their number, ac- 
cording to some historians, being the three hundred 
Fabii, who were of the same gens and hence were 
included under the single name.! 

These, then, were the events of this year. 

54, When Praxiergus was archon in Athens, the 
Romans elected as consuls Aulus Verginius Tricostus 
and Gaius Servilius Structus. At this time the 
Eleians, who dwelt in many small cities, united to 
form one state which is known as Elis. And the 
Lacedaemonians, seeing that Sparta was in a humbled 
state by reason of the treason of their general Pau- 
sanias, whereas the Athenians were in good repute 
because no one of their citizens had been found guilty 
of treason, were eager to involve Athens in similar 
discreditable charges. Consequently, since Themis- 
tocles was greatly esteemed by the Athenians and 
enjoyed great fame for his high character, they ac- 
cused him of treason, maintaining that he had been a 
close friend of Pausanias and had agreed with him that 
together they would betray Greece to Xerxes. They 
also carried on conversations with the enemies of 
Themistocles, inciting them to lodge an accusation 
against him, and gave them money ; and they ex- 
plained that, when Pausanias decided to betray the 
Greeks, he disclosed the plan he had to Themistocles 
and urged him to participate in the project, and that 
Themistocles neither agreed to the request nor de- 
cided that it was his duty to accuse a man who was 
his friend. At any rate a charge was brought against 
the control of the right bank of the Tiber, and many Fabii 
fell in the struggle. But in some way the Fabian gens 
dressed up the story so that in later tradition only Fabii and 


their clients were fighting Rome’s battle for “ bridgeheads ” 
on the Tiber (cp. Dionys. Hal. 9. 19-21 ; Livy, 2. 50). 


263 


47I BG 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


beis ò Oeiorokàñs rõre uèv dnédvye tùv TÎS 
mpoðocias kpiow. tÒ ral TÒ ÈV TPÕTOV ETÀ TÀV 
áróàvow uéyas v mapà Ttoîs ° Abnvaiois: hydrwv 
yàp aùrtòv rl roîs menpaypévois Šiadepóvrws ot 
morar: erà è rañra oi èv pofrijbévres aùroô 
TÅv Únepoyýv, ot è phovýoavres TÅ ðóén, TÕv èv 
eùepyecrðv éneàdhovro, rhv Ò loyùv avroð kal Tò 
dpóvnpa ranewov čonevõov. 

55. Ipôrov uèv ov aùròv èk ris móìews per- 
éornoav, roôrov Tòv vopačópevov oTpakiouov 
enayayóvres aùr, ôs évopobðerýðn pèv èv raîs 
’ Al úývais perà Tùy kardiuvow tv Tupdvvwv TÕV 
mept Ierriorparov, ó è vópos yévero ToroÔros. 

2 ékaoTos TÔv TONTÕV eis čorpakov čypape Toùŭvopa 
To0 Õokoðvroşs udora Súvachaı kara\ðoaı Tùv 
Snporpariav: © © äv čorpara mÀeiw yévnTtar, pev- 
yew èk tis marpiðos érérakro mevraerñ xpóvov. 

3 vopolberioa è raðra dokodow ol” Abnvaior, oùy iva 
TV kakiav koàdgwow, GÀN iva Tà ppovýpara rôv 
Únepexóvrwv Tanewórepa yévņrar Šid Tùv pvyýv. 
ó pèv obv Oeporokàis Tròv mpoepnuévov Tpórov 
etoorpakxıobels čpvuyev èr ris marpôos eis ”Apyos' 


1 The institution of ostracism was incorporated in one 
of the laws of Cleisthenes, and was passed in 507 s.c. but 
first used, according to Aristotle (4th. Pol. 22), twenty years 
later, “ when the people had gained self-confidence.” Pro- 
fessor T. Leslie Shear has kindly allowed me to see an as 
yet unpublished paper of his, “* Ostracism and the Ostraka 
from the Agora,” which he prepared in 1941. Whereas 
Carcopino for the second edition of his L’Ostracisme athénien 
(1935) had 62 examples of the ballots used in Athenian 
ostracophoria (the balloting), the collection from the Agora 
now totals 503, and in 1937 a well on the North Slope 


264 


BOOK XI. 54. 5—55. 3 


Themistocles, but at the time he was not found guilty 
of treason. Hence at first after he was absolved 
he stood high in the opinion of the Athenians ; for 
his fellow citizens were exceedingly fond of him on 
account of his achievements. But afterwards those 
vho feared the eminence he enjoyed, and others who 
were envious of his glory forgot his services to the 
state, and began to exert themselves to diminish his 
power and to lower his presumption. 

55. First of all they removed Themistocles from 
Athens, employing against him what is called ostra- 
cism, an institution which was adopted in Athens after 
the overthrow of the tyranny of Peisistratus and his 
sons; and the law was as follows.. Each citizen 
wrote on a piece of pottery (ostracon) the name of 
the man who in his opinion had the greatest power 
to destroy the democracy ; and the man who got 
the largest number of ostraca was obliged by the law 
to go into exile from his native land for a period of 
five years.? The Athenians, it appears, passed such 
a law, not for the purpose of punishing wrongdoing, 
but in order to lower through exile the presumption 
of men who had risen too high. Now Themistocles, 
having been ostracized in the manner we have de- 
scribed, fled as an exile from his native city to Argos. 
yielded an additional 191 pieces. There are names of per- 
sons who were never ostracized and of many persons who 
are otherwise unknown. The accuracy of Aristotle’s state- 
ment that the institution was first used in 487 B.c. is borne 
out against Walker’s theory (Camb. Anc. Hist. 4, p. 152) 
that there may well have been instances of its use before the 
Battle of Marathon in 490 B.c. 

2 The period was ten years (Diodorus has probably con- 
fused the Athenian institution with a similar one of Syracuse 
where the term of exile was five years (cp. chap. 87. 1)), and 
a total of 6000 votes was required. 


265 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


toi òè Aakxeðaóviot mvlópevot mepi roúrwav Kat 
vouicavres napà tis Týxņs elàngévai kaipòv èni- 
Qéobau T Oeuorokàci, ndáùw eis tràs `Abývas 
efanéoreriav mpéoßeis karnyopoðvres roô Qep- 
oTokàéovs ôni TO llavoavig rekowóbvyree Tis npo- 
õocias, kal õetv épacav, rôv kowôv ris ‘EAMdõos 
dòenudTwv, elvat Thv Kpiow oùk big Tmapà Toîs 

Abnvaíors, AAN ènmi roô rowo cuveðpiov rv 

“EdMývwv, mep etdbe ovveðpevew rar’ èkeîvov 
` ld 

Tòv ypõvov. 

5 ʻO è Oeporokàñs pôv roùs Aareðaruovlovs 
oneVðovras ciaßadeîv rýv mów trôv ’Abyvaiwv kal 
Tanewôoa, Toùs ©’ ’Abnvaiovs Boviopévovs àno- 
Aoyýoacðar nepi ris ènmipepopévys arias, ónéňaßev 

6 éavròv mapaðobýoechar TÖ kow® ovveðpiw. Torto 
ò’ põe ras kpioeis où Ŝıkaias, AÀÀà mpòs yádpw 
moroúpevov roîs Aakeðaiuoviois, Tekparpóuevos 
ék re rôv ğMwv Kal eé ðv ènowjoaro mepi 
TÕv àpioreiwv": oŭðrw yàp oi kúpot ris Phhov 
phovepõðs Sreréðnoav mpòs roùs *Abnvaiovs, ore 
mÀeiovs Tprýpetis aùrôv mapeoxnuévwv Ñ cúpravtes 
oi vavpayýcavres mapéoyxovro, oùðèv kpeirrovs 

7 aùroùs éroiņnoav trÕv åMwv ‘EMývwv. à rara 

1 So Reiske: eobeoav. 


: So Rhodoman : énmorýoato Tùv kplow mepi Te tv 'Aq- 
vaiwv Ka TÕv Apyeiwv. 


1 The ostracism of Themistocles took place in the period 
472—470 B.c. (Walker in the Camb. Ane. Hist. 5, pp. 62 f.), 
and this attack on him by the Spartans a year or so later. 
Thucydides (1. 135) states that he was to be recalled to 
Athens for trial, whether before the Assembly (so E. Meyer) 
or the Areopagus (Wilamowitz) is not clear. Modern writers 
generally reject Diodorus’ account that his trial was to have 


266 


BOOK XI. 55. 4-7 


But the Lacedaemonians, learning of this and con- 
sidering that Fortune had given them a favourable 
moment to attack Themistocles, again dispatched 
ambassadors to Athens. These accused Themistocles 
of complicity in the treason of Pausanias, and asserted 
that his trial, since their crimes affected all Greece, 
should not be held privately among the Athenians 
alone but rather before the General Congress of the 
Greeks which, according to custom, was to meet at 
that time.! 

And Themistocles, seeing that the Lacedaemonians 
were bent upon defaming and humbling the Athenian 
state, and that the Athenians were anxious to clear 
themselves of the charge against them, assumed that 
he would be turned over to the General Congress. 
This body, he knew, made its decisions, not on the 
basis of justice, but out of favour to the Lacedae- 
monians, inferring this not only from its other 
actions but also from what it had done in making the 
awards for valour.? For in that instance those who 
controlled the voting showed such jealousy of the 
Athenians that, although these had contributed more 
triremes than all the others who took part in the 
battle, they made them out to be no whit better 
than the rest of the Greeks. These, then, were the 
been before the General Congress of the Hellenic League. 
It is not impossible, however, that such a suggestion was 
first made by the Spartans, but was not pressed when the 
Athenians offered to recall him to Athens for trial. Plutarch 
{Aristeides, 21) states that a Hellenic League to prosecute 
the war against the Persians, meeting annually, was estab- 
lished in 479. Itis clear that Diodorus was thinking of the 
General Congress of this league and not of that of the 
Peloponnesian League (cp. J. A. O. Larsen in Class. Phil. 
28 (1933), pp. 263-265). 

a Cp. chap. 27. 2. 

267 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


y + A + -m ld kd Cai 
ò) ouvéßn ròv Oeiorokàéa roîs ovvéðpois amori- 
car. kal yàp èk TS mpoyeyevnuévns àmrodoyias 
? a 3 2 e hi m [a > A 
ev raîs °Abývais Úrò roô OQepiorokàéovs hoppas 
eÎyov oi Aareðaruóviot mpos Tv VoTepov yevouévny 

8 karņyopiav. ó yàp Qepiorokàfs dmoàoyoúpevos 
wpoàdyer èv Tòv Iavoaviav mpòs aùròv êmorTodàs 
dmeoraÀkévat maparañoñvra peracygetw TS mpo- 
õocias, kal Toúrw ueyiotry xpyodpevos TekuNpiw 

ovuvioravev, ÔT oùk àv maperdàe: Ilavoavias aùróy, 
3 

el pù) mpòs Thv délwoiw dvrédeye. 

56. Aià ĝe raîra, kaldárep mpoephrapev, épvuyev 
eé “Apyovs mpòs "Asunrov ròv Modorrôv Bacıiàéa: 
hi e e 
katrapuyæv Õè mpos rùův éoTiav ikérns êyévero. o 
òè Paoideùs Tò pèv mpôrov mpoceékaro avrov 
diodpóvws ral mapekdàcei Îappeîv kal Trò oúvodov 
3 l ~ 3 m ~ > ld 3 A 
emnyyéàdero ppovrieîv aùroô ris dopadeias’ émet 
òè ot Aaxeðaruóvior rovs èmpaveordrovs Xrapria- 

- A 
TrÔv npéoßeis dmoorelavres mpòs Tòv ”AðunrTov 
etýrovv aùròv mpòs Tiuwpiav, AToKkaňoDvTeS mpo- 
ór kat àvpeðva rijs õàns “Edàdõos, mpòs Õè 
ToŬToLS u mapaðiðóvros aùròv moàeuoew épacav 
hi a Ca “EAA 2 ` TEN e 
PET TAVTWV TÕV úvæv, Tò T yikaĝh’ ò Bacı- 
A hS bi Ai 3 l 3 ~ bi A e ld 
Àcòùs pofnbels uèv ràs dmeràds, dev Õè rov ikérnv 


X] 


kal rhv èk tis mapaðóocews aioyóvyy ékkàwwv, 
énmeile ròv Oeporokàéa Tùy Tayiorņyv dmévar 
àdôpa rv Aareðamoviwv, kal xpvooð màñÂos 
3 dðwphoaro aùr® epóðiov rs puys. ó ðè Oe- 
iorokàñĵs mávrolev ħavvõpevos kat Tò ypvolov 


1 There is no reference for this statement, 


268 


BOOK XI. 55. 7—56. 3 


rcasons why Themistocles distrusted the members 
of the Congress. Furthermore, it was from the 
speech in his own defence which Themistocles had 
made in Athens on the former occasion that the 
Lacedaemonians had got the basis for the accusation 
they afterwards made. For in that defence Themi- 
stocles had acknowledged that Pausanias had sent 
letters to him, urging him to share in the act of 
treason, and using this as the strongest piece of 
evidence in his behalf, he had established that 
Pausanias would not have urged him, unless he had 
opposed his first request. 

56. It was for these reasons, as we have stated 
above, that Themistocles fled from Argos to Adme- 
tus, the king of the Molossians; and taking refuge at 
Admetus’ hearth he became his suppliant. The king 
at first received him kindly, urged him to be of good 
courage, and, in general, assured him that he would 
provide for his safety ; but when the Lacedaemonians 
dispatched some of the most distinguished Spartans 
as ambassadors to Admetus and demanded the person 
of Themistocles for punishment, stigmatizing him as 
the betrayer and destroyer of the whole Greek world, 
and when they went further and declared that, if 
Admetus would not turn him over to them, they 
together with all the Greeks would make war on him, 
then indeed the king, fearing on the one hand the 
threats and yet pitying the suppliant and seeking to 
avoid the disgrace of handing him over, persuaded 
Themistocles to make his escape with all speed with- 
out the knowledge of the Lacedaemonians and gave 
him a large sum of gold to meet his expenses on 
the flight. And Themistocles, being persecuted as 
he was on every side, accepted the gold and fled 


269 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


SeÉduevos ëgvye vurTòS ek Tis TÕv Moàorrõv 
xúpas, aupnpárTovTos adr návra Tà mpòs pvyhv 
Toî Paoidéws: eúpav è õúo veavíakovs Avyrnaràs 
TÒ yéos, épropiraîs Sè epyaciais xpwuévovs kal 
did Torto TÕv ðv eunmeipws čxovras, LETA ToÚTWV 

4 ëġvye. xpăpevos ğè vvkTepwais dĝorropiais Eabe 
Toùs , Aareðaoviovs, kal ði TÎS TÖV veaviorwv 
cùvolas Te kal kakotaheias karývrņoev els Thv 
’Aciav: évraðla & ëywv ðtevov, õvopa pev 
Avobeiðny, Sóén òè kal màoúrw Îavpatóuevorv, 
mpòs roôrov karéhvyev. 

5 ‘O è Avobelðns èróyyave hios æv Eépéov roô 
Baciàéws kal karà rhv idfaciw roô Eépéov rÀv 
óva rv Ilepoðv dracav etotriakws. Sióre 
ovvýðeirav uèv čywv mpòs rtòv Bacıiàéa, ròv ðè 
Oepiorokàéa ðià rov éàcov ooa Bovàópevos, èr- 

o nyycidato aùr ndvra ovunmpáćew. aćioðvros ðè 
To Oeprorokàéovs dyayeîv aùròv mpos tròv BépéNnv, 
TÒ èv mpõTov àvrTeîmev, dmohaiwwópevos Ti koa- 
alńoerar Sià ràs kara rv Ilepoðv aùrô yeyevn- 
uévas npáčeis, perà è rara pab®v rò ovubépov 
únýkovoe, kal mapaðóčws kal doßaðs aùròv 

q Stéowoev eis Thv Ilepoiða. čBovs yàp övros mapà 
roîs Ilépoais ròv ayovra nmaàakyvy T® Pacide? 
kopiķew raúrny èm anývņns kekpvupévns kal tTÔv 
åTavTÉvTwV pnõéva moàvrpaypoveiv unõè kar 
pw à àravrĝoa Ti åyopévy, aop taúrņ ovvéßnņ 
xphoacbar mpos Tw èm Boànv Tv Avodeiðnv. 

8 Tapackevacápevos yàp Tùv AmývNV ToÀvTEÀćoL 
TMAPANETÁOLACL KEKOOUNLÉVNV, cls Taúrnv èvébnre 


1 Plutarch (Themistocles, 26) calls him Nicogenes; the 
270 


BOOK XI. 56. 3-8 


by night out of the territory of the Molossians, the 
king furthering his flight in every way ; and finding 
two young men, Lyncestians by birth, who were 
traders and therefore familiar with the roads, he 
made his escape in their company. By travelling 
only at night he eluded the Lacedaemonians, and 
by virtue of the goodwill of the young men and the 
hardship they endured for him he made his way to 
Asia. Here Themistocles had a personal friend, 
Lysitheides by name, who was highly regarded for 
his fame and wealth, and to him he fled for refuge. 
Now it so happened that Lysitheides was a friend 
of Xerxes the king and on the occasion of his pas- 
sage through Asia Minor had entertained the entire 
Persian host.! Consequently, since he enjoyed an 
intimate acquaintance with the king and yet wished 
out of mercy to save Themistocles, he promised to 
co-operate with him in every way. But when Themi- 
stocles asked that he lead him to Xerxes, at first 
he demurred, explaining that Themistocles would 
be punished because of his past activities against 
the Persians ; later, however, when he realized that 
it was for the best, he acceded, and unexpectedly 
and without harm he got him through safe to Persia. 
For it was a custom among the Persians that when 
one conducted a concubine to the king one brought 
her in a closed wagon, and no man who met it inter- 
fered or came face to face with the passenger ; and 
it came about that Lysitheides availed himself of 
this means of carrying out his undertaking. After 
preparing the wagon and embellishing it with costly 
hangings he put Themistocles in it; and when he 


man who entertained Xerxes’ army is named Pythius by 
Herodotus (7. 27); Thucydides does not mention him. 


271 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Tòv OeuioToràéa, kot perà nadons doġaàelas Sia- 
aóoas évéruye TÔ Baciàeî, kai mepvàaypévws 
ópuýoas afe nap aùroô miores põèv dðikýcew 
Tò ävõpa. , Eoayayav Sè aùrov mpòs ròv Pacıàéa, 
kákeivov óvros T OQeprororàe? Àóyov kal uabóv- 

Tos ws obðèv Hõikyoev, areàvbn ris Tipwpias. 
57. Aóćas ð mapaðóćtws óm èyðpoð Šiaceoð- 
obat, máàw eis pelķovas kiwõúvovs évérece Šid 
ToraŬras airias: Mavõdvņ Aapeíov pèv fv Buyárnp 
To foveúoavrtos Toùs pdyovs, edd Sè yryota roô 
Eép£ov, peyiorns Ò dmoðoyis rvyydvovoa mapà 
Toîs Tépoas. aðr TÕv viðv èotepnuévy kab’ ôv 
kapòv Oepororàñs mepi Zadapiîva kaTevavuádynoe 
ròy oróàov rõv Ilepoðv, yaňerðs ëpepe Tv av- 
aipeoiw TOv TÉkvwv, kal Sià Tò péyebos Ts cvupo- 
3 pâs NÀceîro mapà rToîs màýleow. ary nubopévy 
TùV mapovgiav roô OQeporokàéovs Alev els tà 
Paciàcia mevhiunv olira aboca kal perà ŝa- 
kpýwv íkéreve ròv aðeàdòv embevai Tıuwpiav T® 
Oepuororàei. os © où mpoceîyev aùri, mepiýer 
Toùs apiorovs TÔv Ilepoðv déioðoa kai kabóàov 
Tà mÀàIy mapočúvovoa mpòs Ttův toô Qepioro- 
kàéovs mipwpiav. roô È’ öyàov ovvõpauóvros èri 
Tà Pacidera kal perà kpavyfs èfuroðvros èm 
Tiuwpiav ròv Oeiorokàéa, ó èv Pacideùs àr- 
ekpivaTo ÔıkaoTýpiov kataortýoew ék TÕv àplotwv 
Ilepcôrv, kal Tò kpibèv reúécobai ovvredeias’ máv- 
Twv è ovvevĝokyodvrwv, kal obévroşs ikavoô 
xpővov eis Tův mapaokeviv ris kpiocews, ó uèv 
Oepororàñs pabòv rùv Iepolða idàerrov, kal 
TaŬTN xpnoápevos katTà tùv àmooyiav, åmeàúbn 
1 Darius the Great. : 


wo 


po 


(2: 


272 


BOOK XI. 56. 8—57. 5 


had got him through in entire safety, he came into 
the presence of the king, and after he had conversed 
with him cautiously he received pledges from the 
king that he would do Themistocles no wrong. Then 
Lysitheides introduced him to the presence of the 
king, who, when he had allowed Themistocles to 
speak and learned that he had done the king no 
wrong, absolved him from punishment. 

57. But when it seemed that the life of Themi- 
stocles had unexpectedly been saved by an enemy, 
he fell again into even greater dangers for the fol- 
lowing reasons. Mandanê was the daughter of the 
Darius ! who had slain the Magi and the full sister 
of Xerxes, and she enjoyed high esteem among the 
Persians. She had lost her sons at the time Themi- 
stocles had defeated the Persian fleet in the sea- 
battle at Salamis and sorely grieved over the death of 
her children, and because of her great affliction she 
was the object of the pity of the people. When she 
learned of the presence of Themistocles, she went to 
the palace clad in raiment of mourning and with tears 
entreated her brother to wreak vengeance upon 
Themistocles. And when the king paid no heed to 
her, she visited in turn the noblest Persians with 
her request and, speaking generally, spurred on 
the people to vengeance upon Themistocles. When 
the mob rushed to the palace and with loud shouts 
demanded the person of Themistocles for punish- 
ment, the king replied that he would form a jury 
of the noblest Persians and that its verdict would 
be carried out. This decision was approved by all, 
and since a considerable time was given to make the 
preparations for the trial, Themistocles meanwhile 
learned the Persian language, and using it in his 


273 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


~ kJ ld e bi AT 4 + 
6 rv èykàņyudrwv. ó è Bacıiàcùs nepiyaphs yevó- 
Levos èm t owrnpig Ttàvðpòs peydàais aŭròv 
Swpeaîs èriunoe’ yuvaîka yàp aùÙT® mpòs yápov 
la Y lá 3 1 A z 
kowwviay ¿bevée Iepoiða, eùyeveig Te kal ráde 
Sadépovoav, ëri Sè kar åperhv èrawovpévnv, 
oikerÂðv Te nÀfjfos . . Ž rrpòs Õiakoviav kat mavro- 
õarðv èknwpdárwv kal ùv Anv yopqyiav mpòs 
7 aróňavow kal tpuġùv åppóķovoav. ¿ðwphoaro © 
aùr kai móàes Tpeîs mpòs darpopiv kal amóàav- 
Ié M r 4 A 3 A “~ M + ş 
ow eùbérovs, Mayvyoiav pèv tùv èni tô Maidvõpw, 
Ea m + 
mÀcîorov Tv karà Ttùv `Aciav móàewv čyovoav 
gîrov, eis provus, Muoôvra è eis pov, Eyovoav 
Odàarrav eùıyðuv, Adpakov é, dureódurov 
čxovoav göpav moňàýv, eis otrov. 

58. Qeuorokàñs èv oðv àmoàvbeis roô map 
“Edno. dóßov, rat mapaðótws Úno pev rv rà 
uéyiara eùepyernÂévrwv puyaðevleis, úrò Sè trõrv 
rà Šewórara nabóvrwv eùepyernleis, èv raúrais 
raîs móàeci kareßiwoe nmávrav T? mpòs åró- 
avow ayalðv eùmopovpevos, kal tTeňevrýoas év 

`~ “~ 3 
T Mayvyoią raps čruyev déroàdyov ral pvnpelov 

2 roô črt võv Õrapévovros. čvior è rÕv ovyypaġéwv 

A A — } b 2 la s 

hacè ròv Hépénv ènDvupýoavra máìw ortpatevew 
kJ A A e 2 Eai A + 
emi ùv “EMdòa mapakadeiv ròv Oeprorokàéa otpa- 
Tye rl roô moàépov, Tròv ÒÈ ovyywpýoavra mepl 
Toúrwv miores Àaßeîv evópkovs pù otparevcew 
kJ A ~y Y Y + 

3 mi roùs “EMnyvas dvev Oepuororkàéovs. odayıa- 


1 Capps suggests that a participle, e.g. êmigepopéryv, has 
fallen out of the text. 
2 ôv added by Dindorf. 


2TA 


BOOK XI. 57. 6—58. 3 


defence he was acquitted of the charges. And the 
king was overjoyed that Themistocles had been saved 
and honoured him with great gifts ; so, for example, 
he gave him in marriage a Persian woman, who was 
of outstanding birth and beauty and, besides, praised 
for her virtue, and [she brought as her dower] not 
only a multitude of household slaves for their service 
but also of drinking-cups of every kind and such 
other furnishings as comport with a life of pleasure 
and luxury.? Furthermore, the king made him a 
present also of three cities which were well suited 
for his support and enjoyment, Magnesia upon the 
Maeander River, which had more grain than any 
city of Asia, for bread, Myus for meat, since the 
sea there abounded in fish, and Lampsacus, whose 
territory contained extensive vineyards, for wine. 
58. Themistocles, being now relieved of the fear 
which he had felt when among Greeks, the man who 
had unexpectedly, on the one hand, been driven into 
exile by those who had profited most by the benefits 
he had bestowed and, on the other, had received 
benefits from those who had suffered the most griev- 
ously at his hands, spent his life in the cities we have 
mentioned, being well supplied with all the good 
things that conduce to pleasure, and at his death 
he was given a notable funeral in Magnesia and a 
monument that stands even to this day. Some his- 
torians say that Xerxes, desiring to lead a second 
expedition against Greece, invited Themistocles to 
take command of the war, and that he agreed to do 
so and received from the king guaranties under oath 
that he would not march against the Greeks without 


1 This marriage of Themistocles to a noble Persian lady 
is attested only by Diodorus and is almost certainly fictitious. 


275 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


gĝévros è raúpov Krat rv őpkwv yevopévwv, 
ròv OQeuiorokàéa kúka tro atpaTos mÀnpúocavra 
ékmeîv kat mapayphua TeeuvtTioat. kat Tòv pèv 
Hépénv danmoorivat tis èmpoàfs raúrņs, ròv õè 
Oecuiorokàéa ða ris llas redeuris dmoňoyiav 
ámoùmeiw kaion ört kaàðs èroMrevby rà 
mpòs roùs “EMnvas. 

4 ‘Hues è mdpeopev èml tùy reevrv dvõpòs 
peyiorov rõv “Eývwv, mepi ob modot õiaupiopn- 
Too móTepov oros dðikýoas Tv marpiða Kal 
Toùs dAdouvs “Eàànvas ëgpuyev eis Iépoas, Ñ roù- 
vavriov Ñ Te mós kal návres ot "EàÀnves eùep- 
yerņnlévres peyda ris uèv ydpiros èreàdbovro, 
ròv Ò eùepyéryv yayov aùròv' dĝikws eis rtoùs 

5 ¿oydrovs kivðúvovs. el é ris ywpis plóvov TýV Te 
púow rávõðpòs kai tràs mpáćeis éferdtoi per arpi- 
Beias, eùphoe: mávrwv ðv pvnuoveðopev aphotépois 
Toîs eipnpévois menrpwrTevkóra. Siò kal bavuáoerev 
dv Tis eikóTws el orepjoat opâs aùroùs dvõpòs 
roioúrov Tv púow ŅÂéàncav. 

59. Tis yàp repos, ris Lráprys màéov loyvoŭd- 
ons kal toô vavtikoð TÀv ýyepoviav čyovros Eòpv- 
Biáðov ro Xrapridrov, raîs iias mpdčeow 
apeider är" Tĝs Bráprys raúryy Tv óćav; Tiva 
ô ÄÀAÀov igrophkapev pĝ mpáče morýoavTa ôi- 
eveyketv aŭrtov uev rÕv ýyepóvwv, Tův è mów 
rr ‘EMyriðwv móiewv, roùs & “Eànvas tôv 
Bapßápaw; èri rivos òè orparnyoðvros eàdrrovas 
aġoppas Ñ peibovas kwõúvovs ovvéßy yevéobar; 

2 ris ðè mpòs dmasav tův èk ts `Acias Súvapw 

2 aùrâôv P, aùròv other MSS., deleted by Dindorf and 


Vogel. 2 äv added by Capps. 
276 


BOOK XI. 58. 3—-59. 2 


Themistocles. And when a bull had been sacrificed 
and the oaths taken, Themistocles, filling a cup with 
its blood, drank it down and immediately died. They 
add that Xerxes thereupon relinquished that plan of 
his, and that Themistocles by his voluntary death 
left the best possible defence that he had played the 
part of a good citizen in all matters affecting the 
interests of Greece. 

We have come to the death of one of the greatest 
of the Greeks, about whom many dispute whether 
it was because he had wronged his native city and 
the other Greeks that he fled to the Persians, or 
whether, on the contrary, his city and all the Greeks, 
after enjoying great benefits at his hands, forgot to 
be grateful for them but unjustly plunged him, their 
benefactor, into the uttermost perils. But if any 
man, putting envy aside, will estimate closely not 
only the man’s natural gifts but also his achieve- 
ments, he will find that on both counts Themistocles 
holds first place among all of whom we have 
record. Therefore one may well be amazed that the 
Athenians were willing to rid themselves of a man of 
such genius. 

59. What other man, while Sparta still had the 
superior strength and the Spartan Eurybiades held 
the supreme command of the fleet, could by his 
singlehanded efforts have deprived Sparta of that 
glory? Of what other man have we learned from 
history that by a single act he caused himself to 
surpass all the commanders, his city all the other 
Greek states, and the Greeks the barbarians? In 
whose term as general have the resources been 
more inferior and the dangers they faced greater? 
Who, facing the united might of all Asia, has found 


27T 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


dvaotárw Tý móe maparayðeis èvikņnoe; ris 8è 
Toîs čpyois év eipývņy tův marpiða vvarv kar- 
eakeúace ToroŬrois; ris Öè moňéuov pueyiorov 
katacyóvTos aùTův Õiéswoe, på Ò’ émwoig TÌ mepi 
TOÔ Çevyparos yevopéry TÀV negiv rv moňeuiwv 
Súvapiv èE ýuioovs pépovs èranreivwoev, dor 

3 eùxeipwrov yevésðar roîs “EMnoi; Siórep Örav 
Tò péyelos rõv ëpywv avroð bewphowpev, kal 
akonoĝvres TÀ kaTà pépos eŬpwpev èkeõŭvov pèv 
Únò rìs nódews Ņripacpévov, rv è mów ià 
Tàs èkeívov npáčes énapopévnv, eikórws Tù 
okoñsav elvat TÕv áracôv móňewv copwráryv 
kal émeikectaryv xaenwrtáryv npòs èkeîvov 

e [d 
eúpiokopev yeyevnpévnv. 

4 Iep pèv odv ris Oepiorokàéovs dperĝs el kal 
nenàcovákapev mapekpavres, AX ov où déiov 
êkpivapev Tv aperùv aùroô nmapaùmeîv åvemioń- 
pavrtov. 

"Apa õè roúrois nparropévois karà thv `Iraàiav 
Míikubos ó rhv Švvacreiav égywv ‘Pnyiov kal Zdy- 
kàņs móàw ékrie Ivéovra. 

60. Er’ dpxovros &’ °`Abývnor Anuoriwvos ‘Pw- 
paño pèv úrdrovs karéornoav Iloóràov Oùañépiov 
Ioràróàav kat I'deov Naúriov “Popov. émi òè 
Toútrwv `Abnvaîori orparnyòv éàópevoi Kipwva ròv 
Miàrıdõov kal Õúvapıv åÉróoyov mapaððvres, ét- 
énempav èm rv nmapáiov rÕs `Acias Bonbýcovra 
pèr Taîs ovppayoúoais móňeow, éNevbepócovra &è 

2 ràs* Iepoixaîs črt ppovpaîs kateyopévaşs. obros 


1 ràs Reiske : raîs. 


278 


BOOK XI. 59. 2—60. 2 


himself at the side of his city when its inhabitants had 
been driven from their homes,! and still won the vic- 
tory? Who in time of peace has made his fatherland 
powerful by deeds comparable to his? Who, when a 
gigantic war enveloped his state, brought it safely 
through and by the one single ruse of the bridge °? 
reduced the land armament of the enemy by half, 
so that it could be easily vanquished by the Greeks ? 
Consequently, when we survey the magnitude of his 
deeds and, examining them one by one, find that such 
a man suffered disgrace at the hands of his city, 
whereas it was by his deeds that the city rose to 
greatness, we have good reason to conclude that the 
city which is reputed to rank highest among all cities 
in wisdom and fair-dealing acted towards him with 
great cruelty. 

Now on the subject of the high merits of Themisto- 
cles, even if we have dwelt over-long on the subject 
in this digression, we believed it not seemly that we 
should leave his great ability unrecorded. 

While these events were taking place, in Italy 
Micythus, who was ruler of Rhegium and Zanclê, 
founded the city of Pyxus. 


60. When Demotion was archon in Athens, the 470 s.a 


Romans elected as consuls Publius Valerius Publicola 
and Gaius Nautius Rufus. In this year the Athenians, 
electing as general Cimon the son of Miltiades and 
giving him a strong force, sent him to the coast of 
Asia to give aid to the cities which were allied with 
them and to liberate those which were still held by 
Persian garrisons. And Cimon, taking along the fleet 


1 The Athenians all took refuge on the island of Salamis 
after the Persians had passed Thermopylae ; ep. chap. 13. 3 f. 
3 Cp. chap. 19. 5-6. . 


279 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


òè mapañaßwv ròv oróàov év Bvtavriw, kai karta- 
7 20 , yo , S r ? 
mÀeúoas émi mów Tùv ovopatouévyy ` Flióva, Tav- 
tyv èv Ilepoðv kareyóvrwv éyepwcarto, Lkûpov 
ôe Iledaoyõðrv évorxoúvrwv kal Aoàórmwv fero- 
ópkyoe, kal kriornv `Abnvaîov karaorýoas kat- 
ekàņpoúyyoe Tùv xæpav. perà ðè rara perbóvwv 
npáčewv åpćacðat ðravooðuevos, karénmàevoev eis 
rov Ilepaĝ, kal nposiaßóuevos màelovs Tprýpes 
Kal rùv dÀàyv yopyyiav déiðàoyov mapackevaod- 
Levos, TóTe èv éfénàevoev čywv Tpiýpeis čiako- 
cias, Ùorepov Òè peranemfpauevos trapà Tv ’Ióvov 
kal TÔv dÀàÀwv ånmdavrwv Tàs ånmaácas elye Tpiako- 
4oias. nmÀeúoas ov erà mavròs To oTódov mpos 
tv Kapiav, rv napabðadarriwv móàewv oat uèv 
Åoav èk tris EMdðos drwkiouévar, TaúTas mapa- 
xpiua cvvénreioev dnoorijvar Tv Ileprðv, ósar è’ 
nüpxov ŠiyÀwTrTor kal ppovpas čyovoar Ilepoikás, 
Bíav mposáywv ènroMópkei. npocayayóuevos” è 
tàs Karà Tv Kapiav móàeis, dpolws kal tàs év 
ka [g + + ` A m 2o 
5 T Avkig neicas mpooeàdpero. mapà ðè rÕv del 
npocribeuévav ovuudywv npoosaßóuevos vas èm 
màéov ùénoe ròv oróàov. 
t b3 t A ` w 2 ? e 
Oi è Ilépoar Tò èv metòv orpdrtevpa ôt éav- 
TÕv kaTeokeúacav, TÒ ÔÈ vavTtikòv ŅOporrav ék Te 
Doiwirys kal Kúrpov kait Kiirias’ éorparýyer ðè 
tôv Iepoixôv vvapewv Tibpavorys, viós æv Zép- 
2 [a ` ld hi Lg m 
6 ov vóbos. Kíipwv ðè muvharópevos ròv orõàov tv 


1 So Reiske: xai èv Boul. kararàevoas. 
2 So Eichstädt : mposayópevos. 


(2 


1 In describing the successes of Cimon, Diodorus has com- 
pressed the events of some ten years into one; Eïon was 
taken in 476 s.c. and the battle of the Eurymedon took place 
in 467 or 466 B.C. 

280 


BOOK XI. 60. 2-6 


which was at Byzantium. and putting in at the city 
which is called Eïon\ took it from the Persians who 
were holding it and captured by siege Scyros, which 
was inhabited by Pelasgians and Dolopes ; and set- 
ting up an Athenian as the founder of a colony he 
portioned out the land in allotments.? After this, 
with a mind to begin greater enterprises, he put in 
at the Peiraeus, and after adding more triremes to 
his fleet and arranging for general supplies on a 
notable scale, he at that time put to sea with two 
hundred triremes ; but later, when he had called for 
additional ships from the Ionians and everyone else, 
he had in all three hundred. So sailing with the 
entire fleet to Caria he at once succeeded in per- 
suading the cities on the coast which had been settled 
from Greece to revolt from the Persians, but as for 
the cities whose inhabitants spoke two languages ° 
and still had Persian garrisons, he had recourse to 
force and laid siege to them; then, after he had 
brought over to his side the cities of Caria, he like- 
wise won over by persuasion those of Lycia. Also, 
by taking additional ships from the allies, who were 
continually being added, he still further increased 
the size of his fleet. 

Now the Persians had composed their land forces 
from their own peoples, but their navy they had 
gathered from both Phoenicia and Cyprus and Cilicia, 
and the commander of the Persian armaments was 
Tithraustes, who was an illegitimate son of Xerxes. 
And when Cimon learned that the Persian fleet was 

2 This was an Athenian cleruchy, which differed from a 
colony in that the cleruchists did not lose their Athenian 
citizenship and did not necessarily reside on their allotments. 


3 It is to be presumed that Greek was their second lan~ 
guage and so they were non-Greek or at least mixed in race. 


281 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Iepoôv iarpißew mepi rhv Kúrpov, kal màeúoas 
émi roùs Papßdpovs, êvavpdynoe Šiakociais ral 
mevTýkovra vavt Tpos TpiakoTlas kal TETTA- 
páåkovra. yevouévov & åyðvos ioyupoð kal trÔv 
arówv dugorépwv Àaunmpôs àywvgopévwv, tò 
TeàevTatov evikwv ot 'AOnvaîot, kal moàààs uèv 
rõv évavriwv vaðs Sıéphepav, mÀelous è trÔv 

7 ékaròv oùv aùroîs roîs dvôpdow eîàov. rtôv è 
Àorðv veðv karapvyovoðv els trùv Kúrpov, ot 
pev & aùraîs ävðpes eis thv yîv dneyæpnoav, 
ait è vies kevat rÕv Ponfoúvrwv osai Toîs mode- 
iois êyevýlnoav úroyeipior. 

61. Mera òè rara ó pèv Kipwv oùrk åpreoheis 
TyÀkavry vikņ mapaypĵjua mavti T oTÓÀAW Tpos- 
karĵpev emi rò meow rõv Ilepoðv orparóreðov, 
oŭons Tis napepßoàfs mapà ròv Eùpvuéðovra ro- 
Tauóv. Povàcuevos Šè karaorparnyfoar roùs Pap- 
Pápovs, eveßißacev eis tràs atyuaàwriðas vas rv 
iwy roùs åpiorovs, oùs tridpas kal TÀv AAÀnv 

2 karaokeviv nmepibeis Ilepoicýv. ot Sè Báppapor 
mpoonàéovros pri To aoróàov raîs Ilepoicaîs 
vavol kal mapackevais ypevolévres únéìaßov tàs 
lias rprýpeis elvat. Šidrep obrToi pèv npoceðééavro 
Toùs `Abnvaiovs ós piàovs övras, ó sè Kipwv ğòn 
vukròs êmiyevopévys êkpipdoas roùs orparuðras, 
kal mpooðeyheis ws pios Úr aùrôv, etoénecev els 

3 Thv ortparoreõeiav rv Papfápwv. rTapayis &è 
peyáàņs yevopévns mapa rots Ilépoais, ot èv mepi 
Trò Kiuwva mávras roùs êvruyydvovras čkTewav, 
kal ròv uèv orparnyòv rv Pappdpwv ròv črepov 
Pepevõdryv, dðeàdiðoðv rob Pacidéws, èv ri orni 
karaħaßóvres èġóvevoav, rôv & &A\wv oùs uè 
282 


BOOK XI. 60. 6—61. 3 


lying of Cyprus, sailing against the barbarians he 
engaged them in battle, pitting two hundred and fifty 
ships against three hundred and forty. A sharp 
struggle took place and both fleets fought brilliantly, 
but in the end the Athenians were victorious, having 
destroyed many of the enemy ships and captured 
more than one hundred together with their crews, 
The rest of the ships escaped to Cyprus, where 
their crews left them and took to the land, and the 
ships, being bare of defenders, fell into the hands 
of the enemy. 

61. Thereupon Cimon, not satisfied with a vic- 
tory of such magnitude, set sail at once with his 
entire fleet against the Persian land army, which 
was then encamped on the bank of the Eury- 
medon River.! And wishing to overcome the bar- 
barians by a stratagem, he manned the captured 
Persian ships with his own best men, giving them 
tiaras for their heads and clothing them in the 
Persian fashion generally. The barbarians, so soon 
as the fleet approached them, were deceived by the 
Persian ships and garb and supposed the triremes 
to be their own. Consequently they received the 
Athenians as if they were friends. And Cimon, night 
having fallen, disembarked his soldiers, and being 
received by the Persians as a friend, he fell upon 
their encampment. A great tumult arose among the 
Persians, and the soldiers of Cimon cut down all who 
came in their way, and seizing in his tent Pheren- 
dates, one of the two generals of the barbarians and 
a nephew of the king, they slew him ; and as for the 
rest of the Persians, some they cut down and others 


1 In Pisidia, at least 125 miles from Cyprus. 


283 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ékrewov, oùs è karerpavpáritov, návras è Šid 
Tò nmapdðoćov rs èêmbéosews pevyew Nváyracav, 
kaĝóàov © ëkrmàņéis dua kal dyvora ToaŬTh 
kareîye roùs Iépoas, œb’ oi màeiovs Toùs emi- 
tiðepévovs aùroîs oitwes ĝoav ovk eyivwokov. 
4 roùs èv yàp "Ednvas oùy úneàdupavov rew 
mpòs aùroùs perà Õuvduews, TÒ oúvoàov unò’ yew 
aùroùs nmet)v orpatriàv memeiopévov Toùs è Mioi- 
Sas, vras óuópovs ral Tà mpòs aùroùs dÀAotpiws 
éxyovras, Úneàdußavov kew perà uváuews. rò 
Kal vouloavres ånò Tis Ņreipov Thv èmipopàv eîvar 
Tv moàeuiwv, mpòs ras vas ws mpos pıàias 
5 čdevyov. ris è vukròs oŭons doeàńvov kal oko- 
rews ovvéßawe rhv dyvorav moù pâov aŭéeoha, 
6 kal uņõéva råànbès Súvacðar iev. rò ral modod 
póvov yevouévov ðtà Tùv àračíav rv Papßpápwv, 
ó pèv Kipwv npoepnkùs roîs orpatuorais mpòs 
ròv åplqoðuevov mupoðv ovvrpéyew, pe mpòs tTaîs 
vavol oúooņpov, eùÀaßoúpevos pů ieorappévwv 
tv orparwrÂv kal mpòs åprayův óppnodvræv 
7 yévnraí Ti mapáàoyov. TVTæV È TpÒS TÒV mUpTÒV 
åÂporobévrwv ral mavoapévwv ris áprayĵs, TóTe 
Lèv eis ràs vaðs dmexwpnoav, ri Ò’ boTepaig Tpórar- 
ov orýoavtes dnénàevoav els Tùv Kúrpov, vevin- 
Kkóres úo raààloras vikas, Tù}v pèv kata yĝv, 
Tiv Šè karà Oádarrav' oùðémw yàp pvnuoveúovrai 
roraðraı kal TyÀkabraı mpdéeis yevéobar karà Tù 
ačrhv huépav kal vavtTık kal me orparonéðw. 
62. Kíiuwv òè Sà ris iias orparnyias rai 
åperis peyáda rarwplwkós, mepipónrtov oye Tùy 


284 


BOOK XI. 61. 3—62. 1 


they wounded, and all of them, because of the unex- 
pectedness of the attack, they forced to take flight. 
In a word, such consternation as well as bewilderment 
prevailed among the Persians that most of them did 
not even know who it was that was attacking them. 
For they had no idea that the Greeks had come 
against them in force, being persuaded that they 
had no land army at all; and they assumed that it 
was the Pisidians, who dwelt in neighbouring territory 
and were hostile to them, who had come to attack 
them. Consequently, thinking that the attack of the 
enemy was coming from the mainland, they fled to 
their ships in the belief they were in friendly hands. 
And since it was a dark night without a moon, their 
bewilderment was increased all the more and not a 
man was able to discern the true state of affairs. 
Consequently, after a great slaughter had occurred 
on account of the disorder among the barbarians, 
Cimon, who had previously given orders to the soldiers 
to come running to the torch which would be raised, 
had the signal raised beside the ships, being anxious 
lest, if the soldiers should scatter and turn to plunder- 
ing, some miscarriage of his plans might occur. And 
when the soldiers had all been gathered at the torch 
and had stopped plundering, for the time being they 
withdrew to the ships, and on the following day they 
set up a trophy and then sailed back to Cyprus, hav- 
ing won two glorious victories, the one on land and 
the other on the sea ; for not to this day has history 
recorded the occurrence of so unusual and so import- 
ant actions on the same day by a host that fought 
both afloat and on land. 

62. After Cimon had won these great successes by 
means of his own skill as general and his valour, his 


285 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Sótav où póvov mapà roîs modirais, dà Kal mapà 
Toîs Aois "EMyow. aiyuaàwTovs yàp eidet 
tpiakosias kal Terrapdkovta vas, dvõpas ðè vrp 
rovs Siouupiovs, ypnpárwv è nàñhos déródoyov. 
2 ot sè Mépoar TNÀKoŬTOIS atrópao TNEPLITENTW- 
KõTEs das Tprýpeis mÀclovs kateokeúacav, poßov- 
evor rv rÕv ° Abnvaiwv aŭðénow. anò yàp ToýTwv 
TÕv ypóővwv ý mós TÕv ° Abnvaiwv noddy eriðocw 
eàdupave, xpnuárwv TE mAýber kataokevaoleîoa Kal 
dóčNs peyáàns ev avôpeig kal oTparnyig Tuxoĝoa. 
ó è uos TÕv ’ Abqvalwv Serárny égeàópevos ek 
Tõv Àagúpwv avéðnke Tr@ leĝ, kal rhv èmiypahv 
emi TÒ karaorevachèv åváðyua evéypape Tývõe, 


(29 


eé ob y Eùponryy °Acias ixa móvros éveire 
A 7 ~ Fo y ? t 
Kat móňas Îvnrôv boðpos *Apns ènéye, 
oùðév mw Torodrov èmiyhoviwv yéver dvõpôv 
épyov êv Ņğneipw kal KATA TOVTOV Apa. 
ote yap êv Kúnmpw Múýðovs modoùs dàéoavres 
Powikwv ékaròv vas Edov êv meàdyet 
3 ~ 7 t EJ y ? y e Ed 
avôpõv nànlovoas, péya © čorevev Acis Úr 
aùT®v 
aaoo’ 1 ` 1 1 2 
nmÀnyeîo? duporépais yepol kpårTet moàépov. 
1 ropes after eige deleted by Vogel; Dindorf prefers 
to delete vaôs. 2 kparumoàépois Edmonds. 


1 The inscription is attributed to Simonides (frag. 103 
Diehl ; 171 Edmonds). 

2“ Todoa thing with both hands was to do it earnestly 
and thoroughly ; | ; there is a double intention here, the hands 
being also * arms °’ military and naval ” (Edmonds). 

3 fne contents of the three preceding chapters reveal 
Diodorus in the worst light. The inseription referred to a 
battle off Cyprus in 449 s.c. and had nothing to do with the 
battle of the Eurymedon, and Cimon could not have fought 
at Cyprus in the day and been at the Eurymedon in time 
286 


BOOK XI. 62. 1-3 


fame was noised abroad not only among his fellow 
citizens but among all other Greeks as well. For he 
had captured three hundred and forty ships, more 
than twenty thousand men, and a considerable sum 
of money. But the Persians, having met with so 
great reverses, built other triremes in greater number, 
since they feared the growing might of the Athenians. 
For from this time the Athenian state kept receiving 
significant enhancement of its power, supplied as it 
was with an abundance of funds and having attained 
to great renown for courage and for able leadership 
in war. And the Athenian people, taking a tenth 
part of the booty, dedicated it to the god, and the 
inscription which they wrote upon the dedication they 
made ran as follows * : 


E’'en from the day when the sea divided Europe 
from Asia, 
And the impetuous god, Ares, the cities of men 
Took for his own, no deed such as this among earth- 
dwelling mortals 
Ever was wrought at one time both upon land 
and at sea. 
These men indeed upon Cyprus sent many a Mede 
to destruction, 
Capturing out on the sea warships a hundred in 
sum 
Filed with Phoenician men ; and deeply all Asia 
grieved o'er them, 
Smitten thus with both ? hands, vanquished by 
war’s mighty power.? 
to land his men by nightfall. Moreover, great generals do 
not win battles by such comic-opera stratagems. The reliable 
description of the battle is in Plutarch, Cimon, 12-13. See 
E. Meyer, Forschungen, 2, pp. 1 $.; Walker in Camb. Ane. 
Hist. 5, pp. 54 ff. 
287 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


63. Tara pèv oĝv enpáyðn karà roðrov ròv évi- 
avróv. 

° Er äpyovros © 'Abúývyor Daiwvos év ‘Popy 
Tùy örmarov åpxův Šieðétavro Aeúkios Qovpios 
Mediodavòs kat Mápros Maviños Oùdowr. émi ðè 
TOÚTWV EYÉAN TLS ka} mapdðogos eyévero ovułopà 
Toîs Aareðaruoviois" ev yàp TÂ Zrdpry yevouévwv 
ceouôðv peyáňwv ouvéßņ meceîv tàs oikias èk 
Îeueàlwv rat Tv Aakeðapoviwv nàelovs rÕv ĝo- 

2 pvupiwv phapvaı. emi moàùv è ypóvov ovveyðs 
TÎS TÖAEWS KATAPEPOLEVNS kal TÖV OLKLÕV TLTTOV- 
gôv Toà owuarta Tois nTØLAaCL TÖV TOLywV ATO- 
Àaußavópeva Srehhdph, oùk óAàlyov ðè TrÕv kaTà TAS 

3 oikias xpNpáTæv Ò seouos evuývaro. kal ToÔTO 
pèv TÒ kakòv ğonrep Õaoviov TWÒS vepeoýoavros 
aùroîs érabov, dAàovs è kivõúvovs ór avípørmwv 

4 aùroîs ouvéßn yevéoðar ıd Toravras airíias. Et- 
wres kal Meoońvior mpòs Aakeðarpoviovs dÀÀo- 
Tpiws čxovres TÒ èv mpò Tto hovxiav yov, 
poßovuevor TÀV Tîs Zrdprys Ú únepoxýv Te kal õúva- 
pw enel Õè Ôa Tòv oeuòv édpwv Tos TÀeclovs 
aùrÂv droàwàdTtas, katreppóvnoav tÕv amodedeiu- 

2 La WA w 2 Ki > 2 
uévæv, ðÀlywv õvrwv. ðrmep mpos dÀAAÑÀovs ovv- 
Qépevor koiwi Tòv móàcpov eénveykav rov mpòs Toùs 

5 Aakeðaruoviovs. o &è Pacıideùs rõv Aareðaruoviwv 
°’Apxiðauos a Ts llas mpovolas kal karà Tòv 
oerauov éow%e rovs nmoàiras kal katà tTòv móÀeuov 

6 yevvalws Toîs èmıriðeuévois avrerdčaro. Ts pèv 
yàp mócws Gvveyouévņs Únò Ts ToÔ oeopot 
ÕeivórTyTos npõTos Lrapriarðv ék ris móàews dp- 
nácas Tù)v mavoràlay émi Tùv yæpav eéenýsnoe, 

1 So Bekker: rmpôrov. 
288 


BOOK XI. 63. 1-6 


63. Such, then, were the events of this year. 


When Phaeon was archon in Athens, in Rome the 459» 


consulship was taken over by Lucius Furius Medio- 
lanus and Marcus Manilius Vaso. During this year! a 
great and incredible catastrophe befell the Lacedae- 
monians ; for great earthquakes occurred in Sparta, 
and as a result the houses collapsed from their founda- 
tions and more than twenty thousand Lacedaemomans 
perished. And since the tumbling down of the city 
and the falling in of the houses continued uninter- 
ruptedly over a long period, many persons were 
caught and crushed in the collapse of the walls and 
no little household property was ruined by the quake. 
And although they suffered this disaster because some 
god, as it were, was wreaking his anger upon them, 
it so happened that other dangers befell them at the 
hands of men for the following reasons. The Helots 
and Messenians, although enemies of the Lacedae- 
monians, had remained quiet up to this time, since 
they stood in fear of the eminent position and power 
of Sparta ; but when they observed that the larger 
part of them had perished because of the earthquake, 
they held in contempt the survivors, who were few. 
Consequently they came to an agreement with each 
other and joined together in the war against the 
Lacedaemonians. The king of the Lacedaemonians, 
Archidamus, by his personal foresight not only was 
the saviour of his fellow citizens even during the 
earthquake, but in the course of the war also he 
bravely fought the aggressors. For instance, when 
the terrible earthquake struck Sparta, he was the 
first Spartan to seize his armour and hasten from the 


1 The correct date is 464 s.c. 


289 


7 hyyerdev. 


g Aarovihy. 


e 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


pi Ea Lg r 4 3 A + 
kal Toîs dAÀois morais TÒ aÙTÒ mpatTTew map- 
únakovodvrwv è rÔv Eraprarðv, 
A * + e [A 3 LA 4 
Torov TÒv TpóTov oi mepiàerphévres cwbnoav, oŬs 
2 t ` » fá z 
ouvrafaşs ó ßacıàcùs 'Apyðauos mapeokeválero 
moàeueîv Toîs dpeornkóow. 
~ e 
64, Oi è Meoońvior perà rõv Eiwrwv ovvray- 
bévres Tò èv npôrov &punoav èm rùv Endprny, 
lg 4 e ig y A 3 + 
únroaußdvovres aùrùv atphoew Sia Tùv èpnpiav 
trôv Bonlnoóvrwv: ðs © ğkovoav roùs rodeàeiu- 
uévovs uer `Apxðduov ro? Bacidéws ovvreray- 
Lévovs éroiuovs elvat mpòs ròv rèp ris marpiõos 
“~ A kJ Pa Ed 
ayva, ravrņns pèv ris èmpoàñs anéornoav, 
karaàaßópevoi Sè rs Meconvias ywpiov ôyvpõv, 
èk Toúrov TÙV ÖPNV TOLoŬÚ EVOL KATÉTPEXOV TŇV 
e m 
ol è Erapriârai karadvyóvres emi 
y hi m AG l 40 À 2 
Tù mapa TV nvaiwv Bońberav mposeàáßovro 
nap’ aùrôv ğúvapv* obðèv © Årrov kal mapa rTÕv 
dw ovuuáywv dðpoisavres Švvdpeis dérópayor 
A EJ ~ 
roîs moàeuiois èyevýlnoav. Kal Tò èv mpôrTov 
~ ~ t 
Toàù mpoeîyov TÕv modepiwv, VoTepov è úropias 
yevopévys os TÕv `Abnvaiwv pedàóvrwv dmoràivew 
mpòs roùs Meconviovs, ånéàvoav aùrôv rùv ovu- 
payiav, pýoavres ikavoùs yew mpòs Tòv êpeorðrTa 
lA Ai N + t y A 
Kivõvvov roùs åÀdovs ovuudyovs. oi è ` Alnvaîoi 
Sóéavres éavroùs Ņriuáolar, róre èv åmnààdyn- 
~ g 
cav’ perà è rara dAÀorpiws ëyxovres TÀ mpos 
y z E fal bi y kd 
roùs Aakeðaruoviovs del uâňov Tùv éxybpav èf- 
emúpoevov.? Siò kal raúryv pèr’ apv čàaßort rĝs 
zÀ lg kd Sè e À ô 2 
dÀdoTpiótTos, ŬĎorepov Šè al móňeis Õinvéyðnoav, 
kal peydàovs êraveàðpevat moéuovs čnàņoav ana- 
1 So Reiske: oĝror. 
3 pv Dindorf: tù. 
290 


3 So Hertlein : èrúpoevov. 
À 
4 S&a Wurm : étéìaßov. 


BOOK XI. 63. 6—64. 3 


city into the country, calling upon the other citizens 
to follow his example. The Spartans obeyed him 
and thus those who survived the shock were saved 
and these men King Archidamus organized into an 
army and prepared to make war upon the revolters. 
64. The Messenians together with the Helots at 
first advanced against the city of Sparta, assuming 
that they would take it because there would be no 
one to defend it ; but when they heard that the sur- 
vivors were drawn up in a body with Archidamus the 
king and were ready for the struggle on behalf of 
their native land, they gave up this plan, and seizing 
a stronghold in Messenia they made it their base of 
operations and from there continued to overrun 
Laconia. And the Spartans, turning for help to the 
Athenians, received from them an army ; and they 
gathered troops as well from the rest of their allies 
and thus became able to meet their enemy on equal 
terms. At the outset they were much superior to 
the enemy, but at a later time, when a suspicion 
arose that the Athenians were about to go over to 
the Messenians, they broke the alliance with them, 
stating as their reason that in the other allies they 
had sufficient men to meet the impending battle. 
The Athenians, although they believed that they had 
suffered an affront, at the time did no more than 
withdraw ; later, however, their relations to the 
Lacedaemonians being unfriendly, they were more 
and more inclined to fan the flames of hatred. Con- 
sequently the Athenians took this incident as the first 
cause of the estrangement of the two states, and later 
on they quarrelled and, embarking upon great wars, 


291 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


gav thv ‘EMdôõa ueydàwv atuxnudrwv. dAàà yàp 
mepi TOÚTWV TÀ KaTa uépos èv Toîs oikelors ypõvois 

4 avaypdijouev. TõTe Òe oi Aareðaruóviot oTpatev- 
oavres? émi rùv ‘Ilbóuny perà tôv ovppáywv 
ênoàóprkovv aŭrýv. oi © Ewres navðnuel tÕv 
Aakeðaruoviwv ddeorôrtes ovvepdyovv Trois Meo- 
onviois, kal notè èv èvikwv, motè è ńrrÂÕvTo. 
emi Ôè črn éka roô moàéuov uù Svvauévov ĝa- 
kpibivar, Õreréàovv Torov ròv xpóvov dňàńovs 
KAKOTOLOŬVTES. 

65. Merà è rara 'Abývnor uèv ĝv äpxæv 
Oeayeveiðns, ev ‘Põun & naro kaberorýkecav 
Aecúkios Aipiħos Mápepkos kai Aeúkios lovos 
"Iovàos, Oàvumias © ùx8n éBõounkoor) kai ysón 
kab’ Ñv vika ordõiov Ilappeviðns Ioocebwvdrys. 
enmi è roúrwv 'Apyeiois kal Murnvaiois èvéorn 

2 móàepos ià roraúras airias. Muknvaîot Sià rò 
maàaðv déíwpa rûs iias marpiðos oùy Úrýkovov 
Toîs `Apyeiois, onep al Aorral móàes ai katà tv 
’Apyeiav, dÀààà kar’ iÔiav rarróuevor Toîs °A pyelois 
où mpoceîyov: Ņupioßýrovv è kai mepi rv iepôv 
tis "Hpas, kal ròv dyôva rôv Nepéwv ġ)élovv 
aùrol ioixeîv: mpos è rovro? rv ’Apyelwv 
ynpioapévov uù) ovupayeîv cis Oepporúàas roîs 
Aakeðaruoviois, àv uÀ uépos tris hyeuovias aùroîs 
wapaðĝor, póvor rÕv rův `ÀApyeiav katToikovvrwv 


1 So Dindorf : orparnyńoavres. 


2 õrı after roúrois deleted by Dindorf. 


1! The famous Heraeum, situated at about the same distance 
from Mycenae and Argos in the hills south of the former. 
In it was later a celebrated statue of Hera, of gold and ivory, 
by Polycleitus. 


292 


BOOK XI. 64. 3—65. 2 


filled all Greece with vast calamities. But we shall 
give an account of these matters severally in connec- 
tion with the appropriate periods of time. At the 
time in question the Lacedaemonians together with 
their allies marched forth against Ithomê and laid 
siege to it. And the Helots, revolting in a body 
from the Lacedaemonians, joined as allies with the 
Messenians, and at one time they were winning 
and at another losing. And since for ten years no 
decision could be reached in the war, for that length 
of time they never ceased injuring each other. 

65. The following year Theageneides was archon 
in Athens, and in Rome the consuls elected were 
Lucius Aemilius Mamercus and Lucius Julius Iulus, 
and the Seventy-eighth Olympiad was celebrated, 
that in which Parmenides of Posidonia won the 
“ stadion.” In this year a war broke out between 
the Argivesand Mycenaeans for the following reasons. 
The Mycenaeans, because of the ancient prestige of 
their country, would not be subservient to the Argives 
as the other cities of Argolis were, but they main- 
tained an independent position and would take no 
orders from the Argives ; and they kept disputing 
with them also over the shrine of Hera ¢ and claiming 
that they had the right to administer the Nemean 
Games ? by themselves. Furthermore, when the 
Argives voted not to join with the Lacedaemonians 
in the battle at Thermopylae unless they were given 
a share in the supreme command, the Mycenaeans 
were the only people of Argolis who fought at the 


2 These Games had been first under the supervision of the 
city of Cleonae. The question of their supervision must have 
been in the air at this time, since it was transferred to Argos 
in 460 B.C. 


293 


168 B.Q 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


cuveuáxņoav of Muryyaîot roîs Aareðarpoviois. 
37ò Òè oúvoàov ónrønrevov aùroús, pýnore ioyú- 
cavres mi mÀéov ris yepovias dppioßnrý- 
owot roîs `Apyelois Sià TÒ maàarðv dpõóvnua Ths 
móàcws. Ôtà ù) raúras ràs airias dÀàÀotpiws ĝia- 
keiuevot, TáÀar pèv čonevõov åpat TYV TOÀAW, TTE 
Sè kapòv eÙlerov čyew èvópľov, opðvres rToùs 
Aareðaruoviovs rerarewwpévovs kal uù Òvvaué- 
vous roîs Murnvaloirs Ponbeîv. dlpoisavres obv 
déiódoyov Šúvapuv ër re” Apyovs kal êk TÕv ovupa- 
yiðwv nóàewv eorpdrevoav èm aùroús, vkýoavrtes 
òè udyy Toùs Muryvalovs kal ovykàeicavres èvrTòs 
4 reyôv enoMópkovv Tv mów. ot òè Mvenvaior 
xpóvov pév Twa ToÙS moňoproĝvras eùróvws huv- 
vovTo, petrà Òè Tafra Àeimróuevoi TÔ Toàéuw, kal 
rÔv Aarxearpoviwv p) Švvaupévwv Poboa Sià 
Toùs lÔlovs moàéuovs kal rhv ék tÔv oeopôv 
yevopévny aùroîs ovuġopdv, aàAwy è’ oùk övrwv 
OVU LÁXWV, ÈPNUIQ TÖV ÈTLKOVPOÚVTWV KATA KpaTOS 
5 jAwoav. ot è `Apyeîor roùs Murnvaiovs dvòpa- 
moðioduevot kal ĝekdryv èé aùrôv r@ le® kal- 
repúcavres, ràs Murývas karéokapav. abt pèv 
ov ý mós, eùðaíuwv èv roîs dpyalois ypővois 
yevopévņ kal peydiovs ăvðpas éyovoa kai mpáģers 
déroàdyovs èmıreàeoapévn, Toraóryv éoye TÙV 
karaorpopýv, kal Õiéuewev doikyTos péypi TÕV 
kab? huâs ypóvwv. 
ara èv obv ènrpdyôn karà Torov ròv êv- 
avróv. 

66. Em dpxyovros È ’'Abúvnot Avowrpárov 
‘Pwpaîot karéornoav úrmarovs Aevkiov Iwápiov 
Maueprivov kal Ioúnràov Povpiov Diġpwva. ènmi 
294 


BOOK XI. 65. 2—66. 1 


side of the Lacedaemonians. In a word, the Argives 
were suspicious of the Mycenaeans, fearing lest, if 
they got any stronger, they might, on the strength 
of the ancient prestige of Mycenae, dispute the right 
of Argos to the leadership. Such, then, were the 
reasons for the bad blood between them ; and from 
of old the Argives had ever been eager to exalt their 
city, and now they thought they had a favourable 
opportunity, seeing that the Lacedaemonians had 
been weakened and were unable to come to the aid 
of the Mycenaeans. Therefore the Argives, gather- 
ing a strong army from both Argos and the cities of 
their allies, marched against the Mycenaeans, and 
after defeating them in battle and shutting them 
within their walls, they laid siege to the city. The 
Mycenaeans for a time resisted the besiegers with 
vigour, but afterwards, since they were being worsted 
in the fighting and the Lacedaemonians could bring 
them no aid because of their own wars and the dis- 
aster that had overtaken them in the earthquakes, 
and since there were no other allies, they were taken 
by storm through lack of support from outside. The 
Argives sold the Mycenaeans into slavery, dedicated 
a tenth part of them to the god, and razed Mycenae. 
So this city, which in ancient times had enjoyed 
such felicity, possessing great men and having to 
its credit memorable achievements, met with such 
an end, and has remained uninhabited down to our 
own times. 
These, then, were the events of this year. 


66. When Lysistratus was archon in Athens, the 467 s.o 


Romans elected as consuls Lucius Pinarius Mamer- 
tinus and Publius Furius Fifron.! In this year Hieron, 


1 Fifron is a corruption of Fusus. 


295 


2 


3 


La 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


sè roúræwv ‘Iépwv ó rôv Evupakociwv Baoiàeùs troùs 
'Avagida malas roð yevopévov Tupdvvov LAykàns 
eis Zupakoúsas petamepjópevos peyáñais Swpeaîs 
dvepipvnore rûs T'éAwvos yevopévns mpòs Tòv 
naTépa aùrÕv evepyecias, ka avvepovàevev ağroîs 
HN TV hAuciay Üvõpwuévots ånuThoa Àóyov mapà 
Mucúlov TOÔ emirporevovros, kal T)V ÒvvasrTeiav 
aùroùs mapañaßeîv. ToVTWV ò emaveàbóvrwv eis 
rò ‘Púyiov, kai Tòv , ĉmitponov Àóyov dnarrovvrwv 
TÕV Srorquévwv, ó Míxubos, åvùp öv åyaĝós, 
avvýyaye Tos martpikoùs d'Àovs tõv malwv kal 
Tov Aàóyov otw kalapôs anéðwkev, DTE änavras 
ToS mapóvras Qavpatew Týv Te Sicarocóvny kal 
TÅV TioTiW, TOÙS ÕÈ maldas peTapeànbévras è êri Toîs 
npaybetow ågioðv TÒ Mikvlov TmáNw TÅv åp 
napaàaßeîv, kal maTpòs efovoiav è exovra kal Táģw 
diorkeîv TÀ kaTà TYV Svvaoreiav. où uùv ò Mikv- 
bós ye GUVEXÓPIIEY, dAd mávra Tapaðoùs akpißpôs 
Kal TÙY ibiav oùciav êvhépevos eis mÀotov egénàev- 
gev èk ToÎ ‘Pryíov, TpoTepmópevos únzò Tis Tõv 
öxàwv eùvoías. oĝTos pev ov eis rùv “EMdòa 
KaTápas èv Teyéors Tis, 'Apraðias kaTepiwoev 
emawoúnevos. “Tépwv ò ò TÕv Zvparociwv Bacı- 
Àcùs êreàeúrnoev év tÀ Kardvy, kal tiuðv pw- 
kÂv éTuyev, WS Åv KTIOTNS yeyovðs TIS TÖÀACwS. 
oros uév ov dapas čr évðeka KaTÉALTE TNV 
Paordeiav Opaovpovàw TO aðeàdõ, ôs pée Xv- 
parkociwv eviavrov éva. 

67. Er äpxovros 8’ 'Abývnos Avoavíov ‘Pw- 
aioi karéornoav úndrovs “Anmov Kàaúðıov kal 
Tiro Kovrov Kamırwdov. émi è roúrwv ®pa- 
oúßovàos ó rv Xupakociwv Bacideùs éférecev èk 
296 


BOOK XI. 66. 1—67. 1 


the king of the Syracusans, summoning to Syracuse 
the sons of Anaxilas, the former tyrant of Zanclê, and 
giving them great gifts, reminded them of the bene- 
factions Gelon had rendered their father, and advised 
them, now that they had come of age, to require an 
accounting of Micythus, their guardian, and them- 
selves to take over the government of Zanclê. And 
when they had returned to Rhegium and required of 
their guardian an accounting of his administration, 
Micythus, who was an upright man, gathered together 
the old family friends of the children and rendered so 
honest an accounting that all present were filled with 
admiration of both his justice and good faith; and 
the children, regretting the steps they had taken, 
begged Micythus to take back the administration and 
to conduct the affairs of the state with a father’s 
power and position. Micythus, however, did not 
accede to the request, but after turning everything 
over to them punctiliously and putting his own goods 
aboard a boat he set sail from Rhegium, accompanied 
by the goodwill of the populace ; and reaching Greece 
he spent the rest of his life in Tegea in Arcadia, en- 
joying the approval of men. And Hieron, the king 
of the Syracusans, died in Catana and received the 
honours which are accorded to heroes, as having 
been the founder of the city. He had ruled eleven 
years, and he left the kingdom to his brother 
Thrasybulus, who ruled over the Syracusans for one 
year. 


67. When Lysanias was archon in Athens, the 466 s.e 


Romans elected as consuls Appius Claudius and Titus 
Quinctius Capitolinus. During this year Thrasy- 
bulus, the king of the Syracusans, was driven from 


1 Cp. chap. 49. 
297 


DIODORUS OF SICIL 


ts apys, mept o rà karà pépos dvaypáńovras 
ġuâs avaykaîóv orų Bpayù rToîs ypóvois dvaðpa- 
uóvras ar apxĵs dmavra kaĥapôs èkbeîvar. 

2. Téiwv ó Aewvopévovs åper kai orparnyig Toàù 
Toùs Aous Öievéyras ral Kapynoviovs rara- 
orparņnyńoas èvirņnoe mapatáée: peydày Toùs Bap- 
Bápovs, kabórı mpoeipnrari: yponodpevos è emeôs 
roîs kararoàeunheTot rat kabódov roîs mànoo- 
xöpois rêo. npoceveyheis pidarfpúnws, peydàns 

3 čruyev dnoðoyís mapà roîs YireMwTais. oîros 
Lèv obv TÒ TAVTWV AYATWPEVOS Ötà TV MPQÓTNTA, 
Sreréàcoe ròv Biov elpyvikÂôs péxpi rijs Tedeuvris. 
Thv õè Baoidciav Õiaðeéduevos ‘lépwv ò nmpeoßú- 
raros rv aðeàpôv oùy öpolwşs pye rv vno- 

4 reraypévwv: Ñv yàp kal piàdpyvpos rai Piaios kal 
kalóàov rs ánàótņros rai kañokayabias? dào- 
tpuóraros. iÒ kal mÀelovés tives dpioraohar 
Bovàóuevoi mapakartéoyov ràs iðias pps ià Tùv 
Téàwvos óav kal rův eis roùs dravras Pure- 

5 Aras eùvorav. perà è Tùy ‘lépwvos Tedevrhv 
mapañaßpàdv rv apxùìv Opaoúßovàos ó dðeàßòs 
únepéßaàe Ti kakig tròv mpò aùrtoÎ Paoideóoavra. 
Biaios yàp &v ral ġovkòs mooùs pèv TÔv 
noùrtÂv dvýper mapà rò Õikarov, ovk ôÀlyovs è 
huyaðevwv eml ypevõéoi daßoñaîs rås oŭoias eis 
rò Paciùròv dveàdufave’ kaĝóàov Sè poôv ral 
pioovpevos Úno Tv dðixovpévwv, pobopópwv tài- 
fos eéevoàčynoev, dvriírayua rartaokevágwv raîs 

1 zà added by Dindorf. 

3 ráðeàġoð after xaħoxåyablaş omitted by Pa and deleted 
by Vogel 
298 


BOOK XI. 67. 1-5 


his throne, and since we are writing a detailed account 
of this event, we must go back a few years and set 
forth clearly the whole story from the beginning. 
Gelon, the son of Deinomenes, who far excelled all 
other men in valour and strategy and out-generalled 
the Carthaginians, defeated these barbarians in a 
great battle, as has been told '; and since he treated 
the peoples whom he had subdued with fairness and, 
in general, conducted himself humanely toward all 
his immediate neighbours, he enjoyed high favour 
among the Sicilian Greeks. Thus Gelon, being be- 
loved by all because of his mild rule, lived in uninter- 
rupted peace until his death. But Hieron, the next 
oldest among the brothers, who succeeded to the 
throne, did not rule over his subjects in the same 
manner; for he was avaricious and violent and, 
speaking generally, an utter stranger to sincerity and 
nobility of character. Consequently there were a 
good many who wished to revolt, but they restrained 
their inclinations because of Gelon’s reputation and 
the goodwill he had shown towards all the Sicilian 
Greeks. After the death of Hieron, however, his 
brother Thrasybulus, who succeeded to the throne, 
surpassed in wickedness his predecessor in the king- 
ship. For being a violent man and murderous by 
nature, he put to death many citizens unjustly and 
drove not a few into exile on false charges, confiscat- 
ing their possessions into the royal treasury ; and 
since, speaking generally, he hated those he had 
wronged and was hated by them, he enlisted a large 
body of mercenaries, preparing in this way a legion 


1 Cp. chaps. 21 ff. 
3 Deinomenes had four sons, Gelon, Hieron, Polyzelus, 
and Thrasybulus. 


299 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


6 moùrikaîs Suvdueow. del Sè udov roîs modi- 
Tas åneylópevos, Kal moàÀoùs uèv úßpitwv roùs õè 
dvarpâv, ġvdykaoe Toùs dõikovpévovs åmoorivar. 
Siórrep oi Zuparóoror npooTyoduevor TOÙS HYyNTO- 
pévovs wpunoav ènt Tùy Kkaráàvow rs Tupavviĝos 
mavõnuei, kal ovvrayhévres únrò rtõv ýyeuóvwv 

7 avreiyovro Tis ¿Àevbeplas. Opaovßovàos è dpôv 
Tv mów ŠÀàņv èr aùròv otpatevopévny, TÒ pèv 
Tmpõrov eneyeiper dyw katamaóew TÙV OTÁOW: WS 
8’ édpa TY Spuy TÕv Zuparooiwv åkatáravorov 
ovoav, ovvýyayev čr re Tis Kardvns roùs kartor- 
olévras ú% Iépwvos Kal roùs Àdovs ovuuáyovs, 
étt „òè piolodópwv nmàñbos, wore roùs dravras 
yevéoba Oxeðöv mept Toùs uuplovs mevrakioyı- 

8 Alovs. oŬros pèv ov Tis móàews kaTernpas TÅv 
Svopağopévyy ’Aypaðviv kal tv Nĝoov òyvpov 
oĝoav, kal ék ToÚTwV ôpopevos Šreroňéuet Tpòs 
Ttoùs dhpeorôrTas. 

68. Ot ôè Zvpakóoror Tò èv npõrTov pépos rs 
módews kareàdBovro rv òvopatouévyv Túynv,! èk 
taŭúrņs è óppðpevot npeopevràs ànéoreriav els 
Téàav kal °Arpdyavra kal Ledvoðvra, mpòs è 
Toúrors eis ‘Iuépav kat mpòs tràs rôv Eikeiĝôv 
móàces ràs év T peooyeiw reuévas, åÉroûvres 
karà Táygoşs ovveňðeðv kal guveňevlłepðoat ràs 

2 Zupakoðoas. nmdávrwv è mpobðúuws úrakovóv- 
Twv, kal ouvTóuws dnogTeÀdvrwv TV uèv mečoùs 
kal imneîs otparuotas, trÕv Şè vas puakpàs 
kekogunpuévas cis vavuayiav, raxù ovvýyðn Šýva- 


1 iróxy MSS. ; cp. Cicero, In Verrem, 4. 119: “tertia est 
urbs quae . . . Tycha nominata est.” 


300 


BOOK XI. 67. 6—68. 2 


with which to oppose the citizen soldiery. And since 
he kept incurring more and more the hatred of the 
citizens by outraging many and executing others, he 
compelled the victims to revolt. Consequently the 
Syracusans, choosing men who would take the lead, 
set about as one man to destroy the tyranny, and once 
they had been organized by their leaders they clung 
stubbornly to their freedom. When Thrasybulus saw 
that the whole city was in arms against him, he at 
first attempted to stop the revolt by persuasion ; but 
after he observed that the movement of the Syra- 
cusans could not be halted, he gathered together 
both the colonists whom Hieron had settled in Catana 
and his other allies, as well as a multitude of mer- 
cenaries, so that his army numbered all told almost 
fifteen thousand men. Then, seizing Achradinê, as 
it is called, and the Island,? which was fortified,’ and 
using them as bases, he began a war upon the revolt- 
ing citizens. 

68. The Syracusans at the outset seized a part of 
the city which is called Tychê,' and operating from 
there they dispatched ambassadors to Gela, Acragas, 
and Selinus, and also to Himera and the cities of 
the Siceli in the interior of the island, asking them 
to come together with all speed and join with them 
in liberating Syracuse. And since all these cities 
acceded to this request eagerly and hurriedly dis- 
patched aid, some of them infantry and cavalry and 
others warships fully equipped for action, in a brief 
time there was collected a considerable armament 

1 Achradinê was the height north of the city and the 
Island is Ortygia, on which the palace and public buildings 
were located, 

2 As a matter of fact Achradinè also was fortified. 

3 This section adjoined Achradinê on the west. 

301 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


us àéióypews Toîs Eupakocios. SÒ kal tàs 
vaŭs karapricavres ot Evupakóoiot kal Tv Tmebhv 
Súvaıv érráfavres, éroípovs éavroùs daréðekav 
3 kal neti kal karà Odàarrar Siaywviteohar, ô ðè 
@paoúßovàos èykaradeirópevos rò rv ovu- 
uáyæv kal ràs eàmiðas èv aùroîs čywv toîs pobo- 
ġópois, rs pèv `Axpaðıvĝs rat rs Nýoov rúpios 
Åv, rò è Àorròv pépos TiS móàews kaTteîyov ot 2v- 
pakócioi. perà $è rara ô pèv Opaoúßovàos Tais 
vavoiv èmrÀceúoas eml roùs modepiovs, rat Àeidhets 
Tti vavuayig, ouyvàs pèv Tprýpeis åméßañe, rañs & 
Mais karéhvyev els rhv Nĝoov. ôpolws ðè kal 
tày nebiv Súvapv mpoayayàv ér rĝs `Axpaðıvis 
kal maparaćápevos èv Toîs mpoaoreiois TTN, 
kal moààoùs åroßaàdv Ņvaykaoðn máw eis Tùv 
’Aypaðwhv åroywphoar. réàos è dmoyvoùs Tùv 
rupavviða õıerpeoßeósaro mpòs roùs Luparociovs, 
kal ovvĝéuevos rà mpòs aùroùs Úmóomovðos år- 
5 Alev els Aorpoús. ot è Bupakdorot ToðTov 
ròv Tpórov eevlepwoavres Tùv marplða Toîs pèv 
puobopópois ovveyópnoav aneàbeîv èk rÕv Zvpa- 
kovov, ràs è dAdas móàes ras Tupavvovuévas 
Ñ dpovpàs eyovoas eÀevlepúoavrtes årokaréornoav 
raîs móàcoi tàs õnpokparias. ànmò è ToúTwv TÕV 
r 3» 7 p3 COE S P3 ` 
xpóvwæv elpńvyv čyovoa mody émiðoow éaßpe mpòs 
eùðaiuoviav, kai ĝiepúdače tTův Šnuokpariav ëT 
oyeðòv éfýkovra péypi Ts Aiovvoiov Tupavviðos. 
1 Opacúßovàos ðè kañðs bepeMwbhetoav Baocideiav 
mapaàaßóv, cà rùv lòlav kakiav atoypõs åméßañe 
302 


Ja 


Q 


BOOK XI. 68. 2-7 


with which to aid the Syracusanus. Consequently the 
Syracusans, having made ready their ships and drawn 
up their army for battle, demonstrated that they 
were ready to fight to a finish both on land and on 
sea. Now Thrasybulus, abandoned as he was by his 
allies and basing his hopes only upon the mercenaries, 
was master only of Achradinê and the Island, whereas 
the rest of the city was in the hands of the Syracusans. 
And after this Thrasybulus sailed forth with his ships 
against the enemy, and after suffering defeat in the 
battle with the loss of numerous triremes, he with- 
drew with the remaining ships to the Island. Simi- 
larly he led forth his army also from Achradinê and 
drew them up for battle in the suburbs, but he 
suffered defeat and was forced to retire with heavy 
losses back to Achradinê. In the end, giving up hope 
of maintaining the tyranny, he opened negotiations 
with the Syracusans, came to an understanding with 
them, and retired under a truce to Locri. The Syra- 
cusans, having liberated their native city in this 
manner, gave permission to the mercenaries to with- 
draw from Syracuse, and they liberated the other 
cities, which were either in the hands of tyrants or 
had garrisons, and re-established democracies in 
them. From this time the city enjoyed peace and 
increased greatly in prosperity, and it maintained its 
democracy for almost sixty years, until the tyranny 
which was established by Dionysius.? But Thrasy- 
bulus, who had taken over a kingship which had been 
established on so fair a foundation, disgracefully lost 


1 Epizephyrian Locri on the toe of Italy. 
2 In 406 B.c.; cp. Book 13. 95 ff. 


1 Bovàopévovs after Odìarrav deleted by Bekker and Vogel, 
303 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Tùy apyýv, kai ġvyæav eis Aokpoùs évraôba ròv 
orròv ypóvov iðwTeúwv kateßiwoev. 

8 "Apua òè roúrois mparrouévois év TÅ Poun tõre 
nmpóTws kareordlyoav ýuapyxoti réTTapes, dios 
Zixivios kal Aeúkios Neuerwpios, mpòs è Toúrois 
Mápros Aoviàos kai &rópios ’Aridos. 

69. Tog & eviavoiov ypóvov reànàvlóros ”A0ń- 
vot pèv Îpye Avoibeos, ev ‘Póuy © öraror 
kabeorýkecav Aeúkios Oùañépios Iloràródas kat 
Tiros Apios Máuepkos. émi ðè roúrwv rara 
tv `Aciav `Apráßavos, rò èv yévos ‘Tprdvos, 
Svvduevos Dè mÀetorov mapà TO Baoe Eépén kal 
TÕV Sopvpópwv dpqyoŭúuevos, čkpiwev dveàeîv Tòv 
Hépénv kal Tv Paoideiav eis éavròv peraorijoa. 
avaxowwoduevos è tyv èmBovàe mpòs Mbpi- 
drv Tòv eùvoôyov, ôs v katTakormoThs TOÔ Bacı- 
Aéws kal Tv kvpiwrdryv čywv miotw, dua òè kal 
avyyevs ©v `Apraßdávov kat pios únýkovoe mpòs 

2 Tùv émpovàńv. úr rovrov ðè vurròs eioayleis ð 
’Apráßavos eis rov Kkorðva, kal ròv Hépénv 
åveóv, æpunoev eml Toùs vioùs ToÔ paoidéws., 
oav ðè oôTot Tpeis Tòv åpiðpóv, Aapeîos uè ó 
rpeoßýraros kal 'Apragépēns, èv roîs Pacrdeiors 
Srarpißovres, ò Sè rpiros ‘Yordomns anóðnuos ðv 
kar êreîvov ròv Kapõv' elye yàp Tùv èv Bdrrpois 

3 oarpaneiav. ó © ov `Apráßavos mapayevóuevos 
éri vurròs oùons mpòs Tòv 'Apraépėnv ënoe 
Aapeîov ròv dĝeàdòv aùroð povéa yeyovévar ToÔ 
maTpòs kal A Bacıàeiav eis éavròv mepiornâv. 

4 ovvepovievoev obv aùr Tpò Toĵ katasyeîv èkeîvov 
Tiv àpxův okoneîv nrws LÀ Sovàevúon ŝia paðvuiav, 
dAd Baciàeóon ròv hovéa To nmaTpòs Tiuwpnod- 
304 


BOOK XI. 68. 7—69. 4 


his kingdom through his own wickedness, and fleeing 
to Locri he spent the rest of his life there in private 
station. 

While these events were taking place, in Rome this 
year for the first time four tribunes were elected to 
ofħce, Gaius Sicinius, Lucius Numitorius, Marcus 
Duillius, and Spurius Acilius. 

69. With the passing of this year, in Athens Lysi- 
theüs was archon, and in Rome the consuls elected 
were Lucius Valerius Publicola and Titus Aemilius 
Mamercus. During this year, in Asia Artabanus, an 
Hyrcanian by birth, who enjoyed the greatest influ- 
ence at the court of King Xerxes and was captain 
of the royal body-guard, decided to slay Xerxes and 
transfer the kingship to himself. He communicated 
the plot to Mithridates the eunuch, who was the 
king’s chamberlain and enjoyed his supreme confi- 
dence,and he, since he was also a relative of Artabanus 
as well as his friend, agreed to the plot. And Arta- 
banus, being led at night by Mithridates into the 
king’s bed-chamber, slew Xerxes and then set out 
after the king’s sons. These were three in number, 
Darius the eldest and Artaxerxes, who were both 
living in the palace, and the third, Hystaspes, who 
happened to be away from home at the time, since 
hc was administering the satrapy of Bactria. Now 
Artabanus, coming while it was yet night to Arta- 
xerxes, told him that his brother Darius had murdered 
his father and was shifting the kingship to himself. 
He counselled him, therefore, before Darius should 
seize the throne, to see to it that he should not 
become a slave through sheer indifference but that 


he should ascend the throne after punishing the 


305 


465 B.G 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


pevos: ènņyycilàaro & aùt® ouvepyoùs mapééeobat 

5 roùs opvpópovs To Basıiàéws. merobévros ðè roô 
’Apragépov kal Tapaxppo perà Tôv Sopupópwv 
dveàóvros rov dðecàdòv Aapeîov, pôv ar® TV 
emBoàùv eùpooðoav, kal mapadaßav roùs iðiovs 
vioùs kal poas kapòv yew tv Paoiàciav kata- 

8 krýoaobai, maier TÔ Eidet ròv `Apragépénv. ó ðè 
tpwbeis kal oùðèv malaw únrò rhs mànyis huúvaro 
ròv `Apráfavov kal rarevéykas aŭro TÀANnyùv 
Kkaipiav drékrewe. mapaðótws ðè owbeis ò `Apra- 
Eépëns kal ròv povéa roô marpòs TeTLuwpnuévos 
mapéaße rhv rôv Ilepoðv Pacideiav, Bépéns uèv 
ov ròv eipnuévov tpórov ereňeúrņoe, PaciÀevoas 
rôv Ilepoðv ëry màeiw trÕv eikooi, thv è dpxùv 
Sraðeéduevos ó 'Apraġépéns ¿ßacievoev črn ter- 
TapákovTa. 

70. Em &pyovros © 'Abývyow `Apyeðnuiðov 
‘Pwpaîor èv karéornoav úrndrovs AŬÀov Oùep- 
yinov kal Tirov Mwoúriov, 'Oàvumas ®© Ayxôn 
épõounkoor) kal vdr, kaf? Ñv êvika ortdôiov 
Hevopôv Kopivðios. émi è roúrwv dnmoordvres 
Odoo: anò `Abnvaiwv, perdàwv auhiobnrovres, 
eknooprylévres úno trôv ’Abnvaiwv hvaykdoln- 

2 gav mdv úr èkeivovs Tdrreoĝlar. öpoiws Õè kal 
Aiywýras droorávras ° Alnvator xepwoópevor TÅV 
Aïywav moMopreîy éneyeipnoav: aŬŭrTy yàp Á móts 
Toîs karà darrav ayðoı modÀàdkiş enuepoĝoa 


1 So Wurm: yepwodpevoi. 


3 Titus Numicius Priscus, according to Livy, 2. 63. 
3 A victory celebrated by Pindar, Ol. 13. 
2 Those of Mt. Pangaeus (now Pirnari) on the mainland, 


306 


BOOK XI. 69. 4—70. 2 


murderer of his father; and he promised to get 
the body-guard of the king to support him in the 
undertaking. Artaxerxes fell in with the advice and 
at once, with the help of the body-guard, slew his 
brother Darius. And when Artabanus saw how his 
plan was prospering, he called his own sons to his side 
and crying out that now was his time to win the 
kingship he strikes Artaxerxes with his sword. Arta- 
xerxes, being wounded merely and not seriously hurt 
by the blow, held off Artabanus and dealing him a 
fatal blow killed him. Thus Artaxerxes, after being 
saved in this unexpected fashion and having taken 
vengeance upon the slayer of his father, took over 
the kingship of the Persians. So Xerxes died in the 
manner we have described, after having been king 
of the Persians for more than twenty years, and 
Artaxerxes succeeded to the kingship and ruled for 
forty years. 

70. When Archedemides was archon in Athens, the 
Romans elected as consuls Aulus Verginius and Titus 
Minucius,! and the Seventy-ninth Olympiad was cele- 
brated, that in which Xenophon of Corinth? won the 
“ stadion.” In this year the Thasians revolted from 
the Athenians because of a quarrel over mines? ; but 
they were forced to capitulate by the Athenians and 
compelled to subject themselves again to their rule. 
Similarly also, when the Aeginetans revolted, the 
Athenians, intending to reduce them to subjection, 
undertook the siege of Aegina ; for this state, being 
often successful in its engagements at sea, was puffed 


which yielded both gold and silver. The seizure of these 
mines by Philip of Macedon in 357 xB.c., from which he 
derived in time an income of 1000 talents a year, laid the 
financial basis for the rise of Macedonia to supreme power 
in Greece, 


307 


4641 B.Q 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ppovýparós TE TAPS Åv kal ypnuáTwv kal Tp- 
pov eùmopeîro, kal Tò oúvodov dMoTpiws det ôi- 


3 ékeirro mpos ` Abnvaiovs. Srónep orTpatevoavres èm’ 
aùrův Tv xøpav Ejwoav, kal Tùy Aiywav moop- 
koĝvres éonmevõov éàeîv katTà kpáros. Kkabóňov yàp 
ml moù t Övvduet mpokónrrovres oùkéri rToîs 
ovuudyois Wonep mpóTtepov énerk®s èypõvrTo, AÀÀd 

la ` e lA D ld e i 

4 Biaiws kal ónepnhdvws Ĥpxov. drep of moddol 
TÕv ovpudywv Tv Bapúrnra hépew dðvvaroðvres 
dÀAńÀois Sredéyovro mepi dmoordoews, kal Twes 
ToÔ kowo ovveðpiov karappovýoavres kar” iav 
ÈTATTOVTO. 

5 "Apa ðèrTovrois mparropévoris  Abnvaîor adarro- 

m~ bd 3 + 3 t 3? z 
kparoŭvres eis “Aupinoàw ègénewhav oikýropas 
uupiovs, oðs pèv k rv moùrtôv, oùs Ò èk tTôv 
ovpudywv kaTraàéavres, Kal TV XÓpav kKaTakÀn- 

t 3 ~ Pai 
povyńoavTtes péypi pěv Twos êkpdtouvv tÔv Qpakôrv, 
üorepov è aùrôv dvaßdvræwv eis Opdryy ovvéßn 
mávras Toùs eiopaàóvras els Tùv xópav rôv pqg- 
m e kJ m ? ~ t ~ 
kôv úno rv 'Hõwvõôrv radovpévwv ðraphaphvar. 

Em’ dpyovros È ° Abúvnoti Tànroñéuov ‘Pow- 
paot katréorņoav úrnárovs Tírov Koivriov kal 
Kówrov Zepoviňov Xrpoûkrov. èni dè Tovrwv 
’Apragépéņns ó Baciieùs rôv Ilepoðv pre riv 

3 + Ea 
Baoiàeiav åvakrnoáuevos, Tò pèv mpõrTov koàdoas 
Toùs uereoynkóras rs To marpòs dvapésews 
l4 ` N hi la t e Ea 
Srérağe TÀ KaTà TÙY Baoideiav ovupepóvrws avrĝ. 
~ ~ + 
2 ôv pèv yàp Ûrapyóvrwv satparðv tToùs dÀÀoTpiws 


1 Of the Delian League ; cp. chap. 47. 
308 


BOOK XI. 70. 2—71. 2 


up with pride and was also well provided with both 
money and triremes, and, in a word, was constantly 
at odds with the Athenians. Consequently they sent 
an army against it and laid waste its territory, and 
then, laying siege to Aegina, they bent every effort 
on taking it by storm. For, speaking generally, the 
Athenians, now that they were making great ad- 
vances in power, no longer treated their allies fairly, 
as they had formerly done, but were ruling them 
harshly and arrogantly. Consequently most of the 
allies, unable longer to endure their severity, were 
discussing rebellion with each other, and some of 
them, scorning the authority of the General Con- 
gress,! were acting as independent states. 

While these events were taking place, the Atheni- 
ans, who were now masters of the sea, dispatched 
ten thousand colonists to Amphipolis, recruiting a 
part of them from their own citizens and a part from 
the allies. They portioned out the territory in allot- 
ments, and for a time held the upper hand over the 
Thracians, but at a later time, as a result of their 
further advance into Thrace, all who entered the 
country of the Thracians were slain ? by a people 
known as the Edones. 

71. When Tlepolemus was archon in Athens, the 
Romans elected as consuls Titus Quinctius and 
Quintus Servilius Structus. This year Artaxerxes, 
the king of the Persians, who had just recovered the 
throne," first of all punished those who had had a part 
in the murder of his father and then organized the 
affairs of the kingdom to suit his own personal advan- 
tage. Thus with respect to the satraps then in office, 


2 In the battle of Drabescus ; cp. Book 12. 68. 2, Thucy- 
dides, 1. 100. 3? Cp. chap. 69. 
309 


463 B.Q 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


éxovtas mpòs aÙròv dréornoe, Tv Õè aúroð pidwv 
emiAééas roùs eùlérovs mapéðwke tràs oartpareias. 
enepeàýn Sè kai rÕv mpoodðwv kal Ts vvauewv 
katackevis, kal kabóàov tùv Baociàciav õànv èm- 
ekôs doikðv ueydàys dmoðoyhs êrúyyave mapà 
roîs Iépoais. 

3 Oi Sè riv Atyurrtov karoikoĝvres mvhöuevor Tùv 
HBépéov tTeàeuriv kat rùv õànv èmibeciw kat Tapayhv 
ev rý PBaoidcig trôv Iepoðv, ékpwav dvréyeoĝa 
ris eàevhepias. eùbùs ov dðpoisavres Súvauw 
anéornoav trôv Ilepoôv, kal roùs popooyovras 
Tùy Aiyvrrov rv Iepoðv ikßpadóvres karéornoav 

4 Paciàéa ròv ðvouatópevov `Ivapù. oros è rò 
PÈV TPÕTOV ÈK TÕV ÈYYWPIWV KATÉÀEYE OTPATLWTAS, 
perà Sè raðra kal pobopópovs k Tv dàdochvôv 
dðpoltwv kareokeðače Šúvapıv déróxpewv. čmeppe 
òè kal mpòs Alnvaiovs mpéofeis mepi ovuuayias, 
úmoyvoúuevoşs aùroîs, àv èdevhepõcwot Toùs 
Aiyvrriovs, kowi aùroîs mapéżeoðar rův Bacı- 
àciav kal nodanràaciovs tis evepyeoias damoðwoew 

5 xápıras. ot ĝè `Abyvaîor kpivavres ovupépew aŭ- 
tots roùs pèv Ilépoas eis rò vvaròv ranmewoôv, 
roùs è Alyvrriovs idiovs éavroîs mapackevdoar 
mpòs Tà mapdàoya Tis TÓxNs, è&fnhicavro tpiako- 

6 ois Tprýpeot Bonbeiv roîs Aiyvrriois. ot pèv oĝv 
 AOnvaîot perà moààñs npobvpias mept tùv ToÔ 
oróov mapaokevův èyivovro. 'Apraċépéņs ðè 
mulóuevos rv anrnõoraow tÔv Aiyvrriwv Kal 
tràs eis ròv mõàepov mapaokevás, ëkpwe ev TÔ 
ueyéber rv Suváuewv Únepâpar Toùs Aèlyvnmriovs. 
cùbùs ov éE dmacôv rôv oarpaneirðv rarédeye 

1 tfs ĝvr. karagxevis Dindorf: rv vuv. xal okevis. 


810 


BOOK XL 71. 2-6 


those who were hostile to him he dismissed and from 
his friends he chose such as were competent and gave 
the satrapies to them. He also concerned himself 
with both the revenues and the preparation of arma- 
ments, and since in general his administration of the 
entire kingdom was mild, he enjoyed the favour of 
the Persians to a high degree. 

But when the inhabitants of Egypt learned of the 
death of Xerxes and of the general attempt upon the 
throne and the disorder in the Persjan kingdom, they 
decided to strike for their liberty. At once, then, 
mustering an army, they revolted from the Persians, 
and after expelling the Persians whose duty it was 
to collect the tribute from Egypt, they set up as 
king a man named Inarôs. He at first recruited 
soldiers from the native Egyptians, but afterwards he 
gathered also mercenaries from the other nations and 
amassed a considerable army. He dispatehed am- 
bassadors also to the Athenians to effect an alliance, 
promising them that, if they should liberate the 
Egyptians, he would give them a share in the king- 
dom and grant them favours many times greater 
than the good service they had rendered. And the 
Athenians, having decided that it was to their ad- 
vantage to humble the Persians as far as they could 
and to attach the Egyptians closely to themselves 
against the unpredictable shiftings of Fortune, voted 
to send three hundred triremes to the aid of the 
Egyptians. The Athenians, therefore, with great en- 
thusiasm set about the preparation of the expedition. 
As for Artaxerxes, when he learned of the revolt of 
the Egyptians and their preparations for war, he con- 
cluded that he must surpass the Egyptians in the 
size of his armaments. So he at once began to enrol 


311 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


otparuðras kal vas kareckevaće, kal TÄS AAANS 
åndens mapaokevis muéňciav énoreîro. 

Kai Tà pèv katà Tùy ° Aalav kal rv Atyurrov èv 
TOVTOLS ÑV. 

72. Karà è riv Zixeàlav äpri karaeàvpévns 
Tis èv raîs Dvpakovoais Trupavvlõos kal macôv rv 
katà tùv vioov nóňewv Ņàevbłepwuévæv, modiy 
êriðoow ¿Adubavev ġ oúunasa Direla mpòs eùða- 
poviav: elphvnv yàp čyovres ol DireMÂTa kal yo- 
pav ayaðùv vepðpevor, Štà rò nAflos rv kaprôv 
Taxù raîs oùoiais dvérpeyov ral Tùv yopav èràń- 
pwav oikerðv kal rryvðv kal rijs Ans eùðarpo- 
vias, peydàas èv Àaußdvovres mpooóðovs, oùðėv 
òè eis roùs eiwhóras moňéuovs åva\lorovrtes. perà 
òè rara mdv els moàéuovs ral ordoeis evémesov 
òà roraúras twàs alrias. raraúsavres TÀV 
Opaovfovàov rvpavvíða ovvýyayov kràņoiav, kat 
mepi Tis lÖiaşs Õnpokparias Povàevoduevot mávres 
ópoyvwuóvws ėļmpisavro Aiòs pèv edevhbepiov 
koňottiatov dvòpidvra karaokevdoat, kar èviav- 
Tòv òè Ovew 'Edevhépia kaè dyðvas émupaveîs 
morty karà Tùv aùrùv huépav v Ĥ rov rúpavvov 
karaàúoavres ŅNÀàevhépwoav rv marpiða’ Oúew &’ 
êv Toîs dyðot rots eoîs raúpovs Terpakociovs kal 
mevrýkovTa, kai ToÚTovs Šamavâv els TůV TÔV TON- 
3 rÕv eùwyiav. ràs è dpyàs åráoas roîs åpyaíois 

moàiTas dmévepov: Toùs è Éévous roùs ml ToÔ 

Téwvos moùrevhévras obk Ņéiovv peréyew Taútns 

Tis Tıuijs, eite oùk délovs kpívavres, eite kal 

dmiorolvres pýnore ouvrelpapuévoi tupavvíðt kal 


312 


o 


BOOK XI. 71. 6—72. 3 


soldiers from all the satrapies, build ships, and give 
his attention to every other kind of preparation, 

These were the events of this year in Asia and 
Egypt. 

72. In Sicily, as soon as the tyranny of Syracuse 
had been overthrown and all the cities of the island 
had been liberated, the whole of Sicily was making 
great strides toward prosperity. For the Sicilian 
Greeks were at peace, and the land they cultivated 
was fertile, so that the abundance of their harvests 
enabled them soon to increase their estates and to fill 
the land with slaves and domestic animals and every 
other accompaniment of prosperity, taking in great 
revenues on the one hand and spending nothing upon 
the wars to which they had been accustomed. But 
later on they were again plunged into wars and civil 
strife for the following reasons. After the Syracusans 
had overthrown the tyranny of Thrasybulus, they 
held a meeting of the Assembly, and after deliberat- 
ing on forming a democracy of their own they all 
voted unanimously to make a colossal statue of Zeus 
the Liberator and each year to celebrate with sacri- 
fices the Festival of Liberation and hold games of 
distinction on the day on which they had overthrown 
the tyrant and liberated their native city ; and they 
also voted to sacrifice to the gods, in connection with 
the games, four hundred and fifty bulls and to use 
them for the citizens’ feast. As for all the magis- 
tracies, they proposed to assign them to the original 
citizens, but the aliens who had been admitted to 
citizenship under Gelon they did not see fit to allow 
to share in this dignity, either because they judged 
them to be unworthy or because they were suspicious 
lest men who had been brought up in the way of 


313 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Lovápxw ovveorpaTevuévot vewTepie èmyeph- 
cwow: omep kal ovvéßy yevéoðħðai. ToÔ yap léiw- 
vos mÀelovas tv pupiwv moùroypaphoavros évovs 
piobopópovs, èk ToúTwv mepreňeinovTo TÀciovs TÔ 
ÉTTAKLOXIÀLWV KATA TOÙS ÚTOKELLÉVOUS KALPOÚS. 

73. Ofrot rs èk TÔv åpyapeoiðv Tipis aT- 
eìavvópevot yaňerðs čßepov, kal ouuppovýoavres 
ånéoryoav rÕv Lupakociwv, kal Tis TÕÀewsS kar- 
eàdBovro Týv re °Axypaðwwův kai rhv Nĝoov, dupo- 
Tépwv rv rómwv Toútrwv eyóvrwv (ðiov reîyos 

2 kaìðs kareorevacpévov. ot òè Dupakóoioi mAÀw 
euneoóvres els rapayhv TÒ Àoirmòv ris móňews 
Kareîyov, kal rò mpos tàs `Emmoààs TeTpappévor 
aùris drereiyioav kal moààùv dopdáàerav éavroîs 
kareokevacav' eùlùs yàp Tis ml Thv xwpav éčóðov 
roùs dpeorykóras eùyepðs elpyov kal Tayù TÕv 
3 èmiryõciwv énolnoav anopeîv. ol è Eévot Toîs pèv 

màýbeow eàcirovro ræv Lupakosiwv, Taîs è éu- 
mepioais Taîs Karà móàcuov moù mpoetyov: ĉið 
Kal ywouévwv karà TùvV mov émbéocewv kal 
Karà uépos ovumàokðv, Taîs pèv dyas of Eévot 
ènporépovv, eipyópevot è rs xwpas ňeimovro 
tais mapackevaîs Kal tpopijs ¿omáviov. 

Kal rà uèv karà Tiv Dikeàlav ev roúrtois Ñv. 

74. Em dpyovros Ò ’°Abývnoi Kóvwvos, év “Po- 
Ln Tùv marov àpxùv eiyov Kówros dfios Où- 
Bovàavòs xal Tißépios Aiuiàos Mdpepros. émi è 
roúrwv `Apračépéns èv ô Pacideùs rôv Ilepoôv 
Karéorņnoe orparnyòv émi ròv mpòs Alyurriovs 
nóàepov `Ayarpévyy ròv Aapeíov pèv viðv, éavrToð 
sè Oeîov: rovrw Sè mapaĝoùs orparıwrõv inmméwv 
Te kal nelôv únèp Tàs Tpiákovra pupiáðas mpoo- 
314 


BOOK XI. 72. 3—74. 1 


tyranny and had served in war under a monarch 
might attempt a revolution. And that is what actu- 
ally happened. For Gelon had enrolled as citizens 
more than ten thousand foreign mercenaries, and of 
these there were left at the time in question more 
than seven thousand. 

73. These aliens resented their being excluded 
from the dignity attending magistracies and with one 
accord revolted from the Syracusans, and they seized 
in the city both Achradinê and the Island, both these 
places having their own well-built fortifications. The 
Syracusans, who were again plunged into disorder, 
held possession of the rest of the city ; and that part of 
it which faced Epipolae they blocked off by a wall and 
made their own position very secure ; for they at once 
easily cut off the rebels from access to the country- 
side and soon caused them to be in want of provisions. 
But though in number the mercenaries were inferior 
to the Syracusans, yet in experience of warfare they 
were far superior ; consequently, when attacks took 
place here and there throughout the city and isolated 
encounters, the mercenaries regularly had the upper 
hand in the combats, but since they were shut off 
from the countryside, they were in want of equip- 
ment and short of food. 

Such were the events in Sicily of this year. 

74. When Conon was archon in Athens, in Rome 
the consulship was held by Quintus Fabius Vibulanus 
and Tiberius Aemilius Mamercus. This year Arta- 
xerxes, the king of the Persians, appointed Achae- 
menes, who was a son of Darius and his own uncle, 
to be commander in the war against the Egyptians ; 
and turning over to him more than three hundred 
thousand soldiers, counting both cavalry and infantry, 


315 


462 B.O 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


2 érače karanoàepoar Troùs Alyvrrtiovs. oros èv 
oûv éneðh karývryoev eis ÅLyVTTOV, KATEOTpaTo- 
méðevoe mànoiov ro Neiàov, kai mhv Ôúvauv ek 
Ts dðorropias dvadaßav mapeokeváerTo Tà mpòs 
Thv páynv' ot © Alyúrrior ovvnôpoikóres ék rìs 
APúns kal rs Alyónrtov riv ðúvauw, dvépevov 

3 Tùy mapà rv '`Abyvaiwv ovupayiav. KkaTtTanràev- 
oávræwv Šè rôv `Abnvaiwv eis ùv AiyurrTov perà 
dakrociwv vev kal perà TrÕv Åiyvntiwv mapa- 
trafapévæav mpòs Toùs Iépoas, êyévero páx Kap- 
Tepá. kal péypi pév Tivos ot Įlépoar Toîs mANhec 
npoéyovres énÀeovékTovv, perà òè Tara TÕv 
’Abnvaiwv Biacauévaw Kral roùs kab’ éavroùs re- 
raypévovs Tpejauévwv ral mooùs dvarpovvrwv, 
Tò Àoinòv nÀhbos rôv Bappádpwv npòs puyiv &æp- 

4unoe. moot Sè kara rv gvuyhv yevopévov 
ġóvov, Tò Teàevraiov oi pèv Ilépoat Tò mÀéov pépos 
Tis Šuvdpews droßaàðvres karéġvyov mi Tò ka- 
Àoŭuevov Aevròv reîyos, ot © °’Abnvaîor raîs bias 
arôpayabiais vikņnpa mepinenoryuévoi ovveðiwéav 
roùs Papßápovs eis Tò mporeipevov ywplov, kal oùr 
dġioravto Tis moàopkias. 

5 `Apračépěns è mvlðópevos rv rõv idiw rrav, 
Tò uèv npôrov dnéoreiÀé twas TÕv piwv perà 
ToÂðv ypnuáræw eis rhv Aakeðaipova, kat Toùs 
Aakeðaruoviovs héiov nmóàepov égeveykeñv roîs 
’Abnvaiois, vouibwv oùTw rovs év AiyónTw vikâv- 
ras’ Abnvalovs dronàeúoew eis tàs °Abúvas Bonbý- 

6 covras rf marpiôv rv è Aakeðauoviwv oŬrTe 
xpýara Šečapévwv oŭre Aws mposexóvrwv Tois 
ùro Iepoðv déiovpévois ároyvoùs Tiv ånò rôv 


816 


BOOK XI. 74. 38 


he commanded him to subdue the Egyptians. Now 
Achaemenes, when he had entered Egypt, pitched 
his camp near the Nile, and when he had rested 
his army after the march, he made ready for battle ; 
but the Egyptians, having gathered their army from 
Libya and Egypt, were awaiting the auxiliary force 
of the Athenians. After the Athenians had arrived in 
Egypt with two hundred ships and had been drawn 
up with the Egyptians in battle order against the 
Persians, a mighty struggle took place. And for a 
time the Persians with their superior numbers main- 
tained the advantage, but later, when the Athenians 
seized the offensive, put to flight the forces opposing 
them, and slew many of them, the remainder of the 
barbarians turned to flight en masse. There was much 
slaughter in the course of the flight, and finally the 
Persians, after losing the larger part of their army, 
found refuge in the White Fortress,! as it is called, 
while the Athenians, who had won the victory by 
their own deeds of valour, pursued the barbarians as 
far as the aforesaid stronghold and did not hesitate 
to besiege it. 

Artaxerxes, on learning of the defeat of his troops, 
at first sent some of his friends with a large sum 
of money to Lacedaemon and asked the Lacedae- 
monians to make war upon the Athenians, thinking 
that if they complied the Athenian troops who had 
won the victory in Egypt would sail back to Athens 
in order to defend their native city. When the Lace- 
daemonians, however, neither accepted money nor 
paid any attention whatever to the requests of the 
Persians, Artaxerxes despaired of getting any aid 


1 According to Thucydides (1. 104) this was a part of 
the city of Memphis. 


317 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Aakxeĝarpoviaw Pońberav ó *Apratépëns čas 
Svvápreis mapeokevábero: ÊmoTýoas è aùroîs 
Nyepóvas Apráßatov kat Meydßvčov, ävõpas 
aperi Srahépovras, ekéneppe moàeuńoovras Toîs 
iyvnmriois. 

75. Er’ dpxovros & 'Alhvnow Eòbinmnov ‘Pow- 
patoi karéornoav ndrovs Kdwrov Xepoviiov kal 
Ernópiov Ilosroúpiov *`AÀßivov. emi Sè rToúrwv 
kara tv 'Aciav `Apráfatos kaè Meydßutos èx- 
mepphévTes emi ròv npòs Alyvnriouvs móàeuov 
dvélevěav èr ris Iepaiðos, êxovres orTpatubTas 
inmes re kal meboùs mÀelovs rÕv Tprákovra pv- 

2 pidðwv. os ô ÑABov eis KiMkeiav ral Oowirny, 
tàs pèv meks Övvápers àveàdußavov èk rîs dðor- 
Topias, vaûs Sè nmpooséračav karaorevátew roîs re 
Kvurpiois ral Poing: xal roîs rhv KiMxlav oikoôor. 
katapriobeoðv" Sè rprýpwv Tpiakooiwv, raúras 
exóopnoav êmPdárais re Tois kpariorois kal õmÀois 
kal PBéàeot kal roîs dàdois roîs mpòs vavpayiav 
xpyoipois. orot uèv ov mepi tàs mapaskevàs 
EywovTo Kat yvpvacias TÕV oTpaTıwTÕV énoroðvro 
kal ovvelðibov čnavras raîs moàepuraîs èuneipiais, 
kal mepi Taĝra Srérpujav oxeðóv Ti rov Ýroreipevov 
4 Eviavrõv’ ot è karà Tùy Aiyvnrov °Abnvaiot roùs 
mepi TÀ Méugw kataġvyóvras ełs rò Aevròv 
Teîxos émoióprovv: apvvouévwv è trôv Iepoôv 
eùpõorws où Svváuevot Tò xwpiov éàeîv, Ëuewav 
emi Ts noMopkias ròv èvavróv. 

76. Karà è rv Zixeàlav Dvuparóoror èv noie- 
poĝvres Toîs åġegrneóor Éévois ouveyeis mpocßoààs 
Enorobvro Ti Te Axpaðıvf) kal r) Njow, kal vav- 
payxig pev eviknoav roùs dnoorávras, neti & obk 
318 


k 


BOOK XI. 74. 6—76. 1 


from the Lacedaemonians and set about preparing 
other armaments. In command of them he placed 
Artabazus and Megabyzus, men of outstanding 
merit, and dispatched them to make war upon the 
Egyptians. 

75. When Euthippus was archon in Athens, the 
Romans chose as consuls Quintus Servilius and 
Spurius Postumius Albinus. During this year, in 
Asia Artabazus and Megabyzus, who had been dis- 
patched to the war against the Egyptians, set out 
from Persia with more than three hundred thousand 
soldiers, counting both cavalry and infantry. When 
they arrived in Cilicia and Phoenicia, they rested 
their land forces after the journey and commanded 
the Cyprians and Phoenicians and Cilicians to supply 
ships. And when ‘hree hundred triremes had been 
made ready, they fitted them out with the ablest 
marines and arms and missiles and everything else 
that is useful in naval warfare. So these leaders 
were busy with their preparations and with giving 
their soldiers training and accustoming every man 
to the practice of warfare, and they spent almost this 
entire year in this way. Meanwhile the Athenians 
in Egypt were besieging the troops which had taken 
refuge near Memphis in the White Fortress; but 
since the Persians were putting up a stout defence, 
they were unable to take the stronghold and so spent 
the year in the siege. 

76. In Sicily the Syracusans, in their war upon the 
mercenaries who had revolted, kept launching attack 
after attack upon both Achradinê and the Island, and 
they defeated the rebels in a sea-battle, but on land 


1 7e added by Capps, ep. ch. T4. 1. 
2 So Wesseling: xarapriobévraw, 


319 


46l B.o 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


loyvov érßadeîv èr ris móňcws Sià Tv dxupórnra 

2 rÕv TóTwv. petrà è raĵra mapardéews yevopévns 
eml ris yöpas, kal rv åywviouévaw map’ dupo- 
répois êkÎúpws kivõvvevóvrwwv, necetv ovvéßn ovk 
oàiyovs map duporépois, vichoar è roùs Lvpako- 
ciovs. perà Sè Tv pdyyv ot Dupakóciot Toùs uèv 
émiàéKrTovs, ôvras éčakociovs, airious yevopévovs 
rÎs virns, eorepávwcav dpioreîa Šóvres dpyvpíov 

A ld 
uvâv ékdorw. 

3 “Apa è roúrois mparTouévois Aovrérios èv ó 
Trôv ixedðv hyemov, yaderðs čxav rois tÀv 
Karavyy oikoôot cià rv apaipeow ris TÕv Puke- 
ðv yæpas, orpárevoev ér’ aùroús, óuolwş Šè 
kal tÕv Bupakosiwv orpatTevodvrwv ènmi Tùv 
Karávyv, orot pèv kow) kratekànpoúyņnoav rův 
xyopav kal roùs™ karoikiobévras? úp ‘Iépwvos roô 
Òuvdorov énoàépouv: avriraybévraw è trÔv èv T 
Karávy kal \erphévræww màelocti páyais, obrot uèv 
eéénecov èk tris Karávns, kal rhv vôv oĝoav Atrvnv 
ekrýoavro, mpò tovtov kañovpévny “Ivnocav, ot © 
ef apxis ek Tis Karávns vres éropisavro modÀĝ 
xpóvw Tův marpa. 

4 Toúrwv ðè mpaylévrwv oi karà rhv ‘Iépwvos 
ÒvvacTtelav eknentwkóres ek trÕv iðiwv móňewv 
éyovres roùs ovvaywviGouévovs karhÀbov ecis Tàs 
narpiðas Kal roùs dðikwsşs ràs dàorpias móàeis 
adnpnuévovs è£éßañov èr rõv móňewv’ roúraw & 
hoav Feot kat 'Akpayavrivoi kal ‘Iuepaîor. 

5 maparàņoiws è roúrois kal “Pyyivoi perà Lay- 


1 roùs added by Dindorf. 
2 So Wesseling : xaroixrobévres. 


320 


BOOK XI. 76. 1-5 


they were unable to expel them from the city because 
of the strength of these two places. Later, however, 
after an open battle had been fought on land, the 
soldiers engaged on both sides fighting spiritedly, 
finally, although both armies suffered not a few 
casualties, victory lay with the Syracusans. And 
after the battle the Syracusans honoured with the 
prize of valour the elite troops, six hundred in 
number, who were responsible for the victory, giving 
them each a mina ! of silver. 

While these events were taking place, Ducetius, 
the leader of the Siceli, harbouring a grudge against 
the inhabitants of Catana because they had robbed 
the Siceli of their land, led an army against them. 
And since the Syracusans had likewise sent an army 
against Catana, they and the Siceli joined in portion- 
ing out the land in allotments among themselves and 
made war upon the settlers who had been sent by 
Hieron when he was ruler of Syracuse.? The Catani- 
ans opposed them with arms, but were defeated in 
a number of engagements and were expelled from 
Catana, and they took possession of what is now 
Aetna, which was formerly called Inessa; and the 
original inhabitants of Catana, after a long period, 
got back their native city. 

After these events the peoples who had been ex- 
pelled from their own cities while Hieron was king, 
now that they had assistance in the struggle, returned 
to their fatherlands and expelled from their cities 
the men who had wrongfully seized for themselves 
the habitations of others ; among these were inhabi- 
tants of Gela, Acragas, and Himera. In like manner 
Rhegians along with Zanclians expelled the sons of 


1 About four pounds sterling. 2 Cp. chap. 49. 1. 


321 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ig Ai P 
kàalwv roùs °Avagiàov Tatas Suvaorevovras èk- 
Paàóvres hAcvlépwoav tàs ratpiĝas. pera ĝè Tarta 
Kaudpwav pèv Teàðor KATOLKTOVTES (24 åpxis 
karerìņnpoúyņnoav: ai Sè módeis oyeðòv racat Tpos 
~y Ld ~ 
Tv kardàvow Tv moàépwv ópuýoacat, kal kot- 
` 2 2 A 
vòv ÖÖyuA TONTHEVAL, MPÒS TOÙS KATOLKODVTAS 
éévous ðreAvlnoav, kal roùs pvydõðas raraðeéd- 
` > 
pevar Toîs apyalois moàitais TaS móÀcs dréðocav, 
A ` [A m~ 
Toîs è Eévois roîs ĉia ràs Svvaoreias dàdorpias 
hi 2 w m 
tàs mõÀcis éyovot ovveywpnoav Tà éavrõv dToko- 
6 piġew Kal karoikeîy dmavras év r Meconvig. at 
z a 
Lèv oðv kard Bixeàlav êv taîs móàeot otdoeis kal 
bj ~ 
Tapayal ToÛTov Tòv Tpõmov kareàvlnoav, at ðè 
t AI 3 g 1 ’ "~ 
móàes TàS åmaorpiovs moùreias anoßañoñoa 
y A 
oxeðòv dmacaı Tàs iðlas yæpas kaTekànpoúxnoav 
Troîs moàiras mêow. 
bd ? Ld 3 d 
77. Emr dpyovros © Abyor Ppacıxdelðov 
3 À AS b3 y 3 A 2 kd a 3 f 
Oàvumàs pèv ġxôy óyõonkoorý, kab? v èvika 
2 m 
oraðiov Topúňas OQerraàós, ‘Pwpaîor © úrdrovs 
[g ld Z y t h 
katréorņnoav Kówrov ®dßiov xal Tirov Kotvriov 
KamırwAîvov. nl è roúrwv karà èv Tùv ° Aciav 
© an PN ` 4 RT ESR 
oi rôv Iepoðv orparnyol Siaßdavres èn? rv KiM- 
kiav vaĵs ÈV KATEGKEŬATAV TPLAKOCLAS KEKOCUN- 
~ N 
pévas kaàðs mpos Tv moei ypelav, TÒ òè 
metov orparónreðov Àafóvres nmpoyov me ià 
Zvpias kal Dowikys’ ovumaparàéovros è kal To 
A ~ A 2 
arõňov Ti nebh OTpanR karývrnoav eis Méhu 
"A y ~ 4 
2 rfs Aiyúrrov. kal TÒ pèv mpõTOov TV Toop- 
kiav To Aevkot teiyovs ËAvoav, karanÀnéduevoi 
Toùs Alyvrriouvs kal roùs 'Abnyvaiovs: perà õè 
1 So Reiske: moeplww. 2 So Wesseling : mepi. 
1 Cp. chap. 48. 
P P 


322 


BOOK XI. 76. 5—77. 2 


Anaxilas, who were ruling over them, and liberated 
their fatherlands.!* Later on Geloans, who had been 
the original settlers of Camarina, portioned that land 
out in allotments. And practically all the cities, 
being eager to make an end of the wars, came to a 
common decision, whereby they made terms with the 
mercenaries in their midst ; they then received back 
the exiles and restored the cities to the original 
citizens,? but to the mercenaries who because of the 
former tyrannical governments were in possession 
of the cities belonging to others, they gave permis- 
sion to take with them their own goods and to settle 
one and all in Messenia. In this manner, then, an 
end was put to the civil wars and disorders which 
had prevailed throughout the cities of Sicily, and the 
cities, after driving out the forms of government 
which aliens had introduced, with almost no excep- 
tions portioned out their lands in allotments among 
all their citizens. 

77. When Phrasicleides was archon in Athens, the 
Eightieth Olympiad was celebrated, that in which 
Toryllas the Thessalian won the “ stadion ” ; and 
the Romans elected as consuls Quintus Fabius and 
Titus Quinctius Capitolinus. During this year, in 
Asia the Persian generals who had passed over to 
Cilicia made ready three hundred ships, which they 
fitted out fully for warfare, and then with their land 
force they advanced overland through Syria and 
Phoenicia; and with the fleet accompanying the 
army along the coast, they arrived at Memphis in 
Egypt. At the outset they broke the siege of the 
White Fortress, having struck the Egyptians and the 
Athenians with terror; but later on, adopting a 


2 i2. to the descendants of the first settlers. 
323 


460 B.a 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Tara éuhpóvws Ďovàevoduevot karà ortóua pèv 
maparárreaðar ŠrérÀwov, otparnyýuaoı è épio- 
TiuoŬvTO katañĝoat TOV móÀepov. Srómep Kal TÔV 
kd ~ „ A m 

Artnirôv veðv óppovoðv €v Ti Hposwrirð Àeyo- 
Lén výow, TÒvV nepippéovra morapòv Ŝuopvéi 

3 ĉLaňaßóvres repov éroiņyoav tiv vioov. rÕv õè 
veðv dġvw kabiķovoðv émi Enpàv tùv yiv, ot pèv 
Alyúntioi karanàayévres êykaréàmov roùs Aby- 
valovs kal npòs tToùs Ilépoas Sredúsavro' oi òè 
’Aĝnvaîot ovupágaw vres ëpnpoi kal tàs vaôs 
ópðvres dxpýorovs yeyevņpévas, raras pèv èv- 
énpnoav õmws uù Toîs moàeulois Únoyeipiot yevn- 
Oow, aùrol dè où karanràayévres Tùv ÕewwóTryTa 
ris nmepiorádoews mapekdàovv dÀNńÀovs uyõèv àv- 
dérov mpâôkat rv npokarepyaopévov yava. 

4 Šiónep raîs perais úmepßañdóuevot Toùs év Oep- 

2 e p A t 2 3 ld e , 
ponúdais únèp rs ‘EMdaðos arohavõvras, éroipws 
elyov ĉıaywvieoðat mpòs roùs modepiovs. oi è 
orparnyoi rôv Iepoðv ”Aprdfpatos kai Meydfvýos, 

ópðvres rův Únmepßoàův ris eùroàuias TÕv mode- 
uiwv kal àoyisápevot iTi ToŬTovs où Öuvaròv 
dveàeîv dvev Tob moàààs uvpidðas amoßaàeîv rv 
lblwv, arovõàs élevro mpòs roùs *`Alnvaiovs raf’ 
ås če ywpis kivðúvwv dnrebeîv aùroùs èk rtis 

5 Alyúrrov. ot èv ov `Abnvaîot dià rùv iôiav 
åper)v ruyóvres rs owrnpias ånfàbov èk rtis 
Aiyúrrov, kal ĝià rìs Apúns eis Kuphvyv àm- 
eÀlóvres èsæbnoav mapaðóćws eis Tův martpiða. 

6 "Apa è roúrois mparropévois év uèv Taîs °Aĝy- 
vas 'Egidàrns ò Lopwviðov, ðnpaywyòs ðv ral 
TÒ nlos napotúvas xarà trðv 'Apeorayırâv, 

1 So Meurs: Iipwrlôov. 
824 


BOOK XI. 77. 2—8 


prudent course, they avoided any frontal encounters 
and strove to bring the war to an end by the use of 
stratagems. Accordingly, since the Attie ships lay 
moored at the island known as Prosopitis, they 
diverted by means of canals the river which flowed 
around the island, and thus made the island a part 
of the mainland. When the ships thus all of a sudden 
came to rest on dry land, the Egyptians in alarm 
left the Athenians in the lurch and came to terms 
with the Persians. The Athenians, being now with- 
out allies and seeing that their ships had become 
useless, set fire to them to prevent their falling into 
the hands of the enemy, and then themselves, undis- 
mayed at the alarming plight they were in, fell to 
exhorting one another to do nothing unworthy of the 
fights they had won in the past. Consequently, with 
a display of deeds of valour surpassing in heroism 
the men who perished in Thermopylae in defence 
of Greece, they stood ready to fight it out with the 
enemy. But the Persian generals, Artabazus and 
Megabyzus, taking note of the exceptional courage 
of their foes and reasoning that they would be unable 
to annihilate such men without sacrificing many 
myriads of their own, made a truce with the Atheni- 
ans whereby they should with impunity depart from 
Egypt. So the Athenians, having saved their lives 
by their courage, departed from Egypt, and making 
their way through Libya to Cyrenê got safely back, 
as by a miracle, to their native land.! 

While these events were taking place, in Athens 
Ephialtes the son of Sophonides, who, being a popular 
leader, had provoked the masses to anger against the 
Areopagites, persuaded the Assembly to vote to cur- 


1 “ The most of them perished,” says Thucydides (1. 110). 
325 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


čneroe ròv Òfpov ynpioparı peou rÅv ék ’Apelov 
náyov Bovàùv kal rà mdrpia kal mepipónra vóppa 
Kkaraàðsai. où uv ab@ós! ye Srédvye TNArovros 
dvouńuaocw èmßaàópevos, &A\àù Tis vurrtòs åvaipe- 
beis dönàov čoye rÅv Toð Biov reàevrýv. 

78. Toô ©’ êvavgiov ypóvov čieànàvðőros Aý- 
vot uèv Ñv čpxwv iàokàñs, êv ‘Popy Sè ràv 
Ürarov àpxyhv Šieðéfavro Aios Ioorovpos ‘Ph- 
yoñàos kal Lrópios Doúpios Meðioñavós. èri ðè 
toúrwv Kopivðíors kat 'Emðavpiois mpòs Aby- 
valovs vorávros Toàéuov, éotpdrevoav êm aùrtoùs 
’Abnvaîor, kal yevopévns pdyys ioyvpôâs èviknoav 

2°Aĝnvaoi. peydàw Sè oróàw karanieúoavrtes Tpos 
roùs vouatouévovs ‘Ades, dvéßnoav eis Ttùv 
Ieioróvvyoov, kal TÔr moàepiwv åveîdov oùk oÀl- 
yous. ovorpahévrwv è tôv Iedorowvnoiwv kal 
Súvajuv déróoyov dlporsávrwv, ovvéoTy pán Tpòs 
roùs `Abnvalovs mepèl rhv ôvopaġopévny Kekpuġd- 
3 Àciav, kaf’ Ñv mdàw èvirņqoav °Abnvaîor. Torwoúrwv 
Sè eùnpepnuáTwv aùrois yevopévwv, Toùs Aiywýras 
ópðvTes meßġpovņnpatıopévovs pė” Taîs mpoyeyevn- 
uévais mpaeow, aħotpiws òè éxovras mpòs aù- 
4 Toús, čyvwoav katranoàeuĵoar. Õıò kal oTóňov èr 
aùroùs déióàoyov amooreiidvrwv trv ’Abnvaiwv, 
oi rv Aïyiwav karoikoĝvres, peyáàny èunepiav 
ëyovres kal óav rv karà Îdàattrwv ayovwv, où 
Kkarenàdynoav Tùv Ûrnepoy)y TÕv `Abyvaiwv, yov- 
Tes è TPLÝpELS İKAVAS KAL NMpPOCKATACKEVÁCAVTES 
érépas, vavuáyņoav, kal àephévres årméßañov 


2 So Wesseling : dôpóws. 3 So Dindorf: pè d. 


826 


BOOK XI. 77. 6—78. 4 


tail the power of the Council of the Areopagus and 
to destroy the renowned customs which their fathers 
had followed. Nevertheless, he did not escape the 
punishment for attempting such lawlessness, but he 
was done to death by night and none ever knew how 
he lost his life. 

78. At the conclusion of this year Philocles was 
archon in Athens, and in Rome Aulus Postumius 
Regulus and Spurius Furius Mediolanus succeeded 
to the consulship. During this year a war arose 
between the Corinthians and Epidaurians on the one 
hand and the Athenians on the other, and the 
Athenians took the field against them and after a 
sharp battle were victorious. With a large fleet they 
put in at a place called Halieis, landed on the Pelo- 
ponnesus, and slew not a few of the enemy.! But 
the Peloponnesians rallied and gathered a strong 
force, and it came to a battle with the Athenians 
near the place called Cecryphaleia ? in which the 
Athenians were again victorious. After such suc- 
cesses the Athenians, seeing that the Aeginetans 
were not only puffed up over their former achieve- 
ments but also hostile to Athens, decided to reduce 
them by war. Therefore the Athenians dispatched 
a strong fleet against them. The inhabitants of 
Aegina, however, who had great experience in fight- 
ing at sea and enjoyed a great reputation therefor, 
were not dismayed at the superiority of the Atheni- 
ans, but since they had a considerable number of 
triremes and had built some new ones, they engaged 
the Athenians in battle, but were defeated with the 


2 Halieis is on the Argolie Gulf, near Hermione. Thucy- 
dides (1. 105) says that the Athenians were defeated. 
2 An island off Epidaurus, 


327 


459 B.O. 


bo 


ag 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Tprýpes ¿Põouýkovra: avvrpipévres òè Toîs dpovh- 
paor Sa rò péyelos ts ovupopâs, Iraykáoðnoav 
eis Tiv ` Abnvaiwv cvvréňerav katataxbivar. TaîTa 
uev ov Aewrpárns ó ó otpatqyòðs katenpágato Toîs 
’Abnvaiors, Toùs návras ðianoàeuýoas pijvas èvvéa 
Tpòs ToÙS Aiywýras. 

“Apa õè ToŬTOLS TpaTTouévoLs KATÀ Tv, Zeke- 
Àíav Aovrérios ò Tõv Likedðv Paoidevs, &vopa- 
auévos Tò yévos ioyówv òè KaT’ ekeivovs Toùs 
xpóvovs, Meévawov Lèv nóv čktTie Kal Tùův ovv- 
eyyvs xöpav Toîs katoikiobeTot Õeuépioe, oTpa- 
Tevodpevos ki ènt nów agióoyov Mopyavrõvav, 
kal yepwodpevos aùrýv, ðófav dmnvéykarto map 
Toîs ópoebvéo. 

79. Toô & éviavolov xpóvov SreAnàvbóros Ab- 
AGA èv ĝpxe Biaw, èv ‘'Põun òè rv Ürarov 
åpxùv Sredéfavro IHovràos Zepoviñios ZrpoôkrTos 
ral AeŬkos AlBovmos "AMBas. èri Sè Toútwv 
Kopivbíois kal Meyapeĝor mep xópas óópov ye- 
vopévns åuħoßnrýsews, eis móAeuov ai mõàes 
êvénecov. TÒ èv ov mpõTov Tv yøpav &ANńAwv 
Sreréàovv Aenàaroðvres kal kar SÀiyovs ovu- 
mÀokàs? moroúpevor: aùtouévns è rhs Sradopâs oi 
Meyapeîs del uâêňov éÀaTrovuevot ka ToÙS Ko- 
pwbiovs popovpevor, cvppáyovs emorýoavro Toùs 
'Aqvaiovs. Siò kal mdàw Tõv TÉÄEwV EpapidAwv 
Ttaîs vvaueoi yevouévwv, kal rv Kopwbiwv peTà 
Hedorovvyoiwv agroddyo Svvduer oTpaTevodvTwv 
eis rhv Meyapixýv, ’Abvatot cvupaxiav čnepuhav 
Tots Meyapeôow, hs HyeirTo Mvupwviðns, avp èr 
aper avpačóuevos: Vevo évns òè Tapatdews 
ioyupôâs èri noàùv ypõvov, kal raîs dvðpayabiaıs 
328 


BOOK XI. 78. 4—79. 3 


loss of seventy ships ; and, their spirits crushed by 
so great a disaster, they were forced to join the league 
which paid tribute to Athens. This was accomplished 
for the Athenians by their general Leocrates, who 
was engaged in the war with the Aeginetans nine 
months in all. 

While these events were taking place, in Sicily the 
king of the Siceli, Ducetius, a man of famous family 
and influential at this time, founded the city of 
Menaenum and distributed the neighbouring terri- 
tory among the settlers, and making a campaign 
against the strong city of Morgantina and reducing 
it, he won fame among his own people. 

79. At the close of the year Bion was archon in 
Athens, and in Rome Publius Servilius Structus and 
Lucius Aebutius Albas succeeded to the consulship. 
During this year a quarrel arose between the Cor- 
inthians and Megarians over land on their borders 
and the cities went to war. At first they kept making 
raids on each other’s territory and engaging in clashes 
of small parties ; but as the quarrel increased, the 
Megarians, who were increasingly getting the worse 
of it and stood in fear of the Corinthians, made allies 
of the Athenians. As a result the cities were again 
equal in military strength, and when the Corinthians 
together with Peloponnesians advanced into Megaris 
with a strong army, the Athenians sent troops to the 
aid of the Megarians under the command of Myro- 
nides, a man who was admired for his valour. A 
fierce engagement took place which lasted a long 


1 &v after Pacitàeùs deleted by Dindorf. 
2 «kai pdyas pixpås after cvuràokàs deleted by Reiske. 


329 


458 B.C. 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ékatépwv ééioovpévwv, TÒ Teeuralov éviknoav 
’AOnvaîot kal mooùs dveîov tv modeulwv, 
4era © oàiyas Ņuépas máùw yevopévys toyvpâs 
uáxyņs èv t àeceyouévy Kiuwàlg, mdÀw èviknoav 
A > A ~ 
’AOnvaîo kal moods aveîdov TÕv modeulwv 

Oi Dwreis éveorhoavro móàepov mpòs Awpeîs, 
roùs mpoyóvovs èv Aareðaruoviwv, olkovras è 

SÀ A K [a A B A H E ? 
móàceis Tpeîs, Kvrivov kal Bory ral ‘Epweórv, 

A ` 
kepévas nrò tTòv Àódov ròv ovouačóuevov Ilap- 
vacoóv. TÒ èv oðv mpõTov Biq yerpwodpevot ToÙs 
Awpieîs raréoyov aùrðv ràs móÀeas' perà Õè 
~ A ô z A N AÀ hj 
rara Aareðaruóviot èv Nikxouýðnv ròv Kàeo- 

[A ? t 8 ld Eai A “~ ~ 
uévovs éténeupav Bonbúýoovra tToîs Awpieðot Sià 
Tův ovyyéverav’ elye © oros Aareðaruoviovs èv 
xiÀlovs mevrakociovs, mapa Sè rv dMwv Ieào- 

6 movvnolwv pvplovs. oros èv ov èritTporos &©v 
IMceiorovarros ro Baciàéws mabòs övros, perà 
Tocaúrys Švváuews ¿Bońðnoe Toîs Awpieðot, viký- 
cas è Toùs Dwreîs kal ras módeis avarrnodpevos 
roús Te Dwreis kal Awpieis SijAdagev. 

80. °Abnvator è mvhópevoi Toùs Aareðaipoviovs 
Tòv èv mpòs Dwkeîs móàeuov karaàeàvkévai aù- 
Toùs òè pée rhv eis olkov èrdvoðov moreî- 
obar, čyvwoav ênmbDéohat kara thv óðorropiav Toîs 
Aareĝaruoviois. eorpárevoav ov èr aùroŭs, 

À ? AI A la hi (0) A lA ` 
mapaiaßóvres roùs `Apyelovs kal Oerraàoŭús’ kal 
mevrýkovra pèv vavel otpariwTais è pvpiois Kal 

? A a 
TeTpakioyiàlois émPadoðvres” aùrots, kareàdfov- 


1 Here the MSS. add perà &' ôùlyas huépas máňw yevoudvns 
loyupâs páyxyņs (mdv y. è. páyņs omitted by the f group), but 
without any subject or verb. Hence most editors delete 
these words as a scribal repetition and even the preceding 


330 


BOOK XI. 79. 3—80. 1 


time and each side matched the other in deeds ot 
courage, but at last victory lay with the Athenians, 
who slew many of the enemy. And after a few days 
there was another fierce battle at Cimolia, as it is 
called, and again the Athenians were victorious and 
slew many of the enemy. 

The Phocians went to war with the Dorians, who 
are the original stock of the Lacedaemonians and 
dwell in the three cities, Cytinium, Boeum and 
Erineüs, which lie at the base of Mt. Parnassus. 
Now at first they subdued the Dorians by force of 
arms and occupied their cities; but after this the 
Lacedaemonians, because of their kinship, dispatched 
Nicomedes, the son of Cleomenes, to the aid of the 
Dorians. He had fifteen hundred Lacedaemonians 
and ten thousand men from the rest of the Pelo- 
ponnesians. So Nicomedes, who was the guardian 
of Pleistonax the king, who was still a child, came to 
the aid of the Dorians with this large army, and after 
inflicting a defeat upon the Phocians and recovering 
the cities they had seized, he made peace between 
the Phocians and the Dorians. 

80. When the Athenians learned that the Lace- 
daemonians had concluded the war against the 
Phocians and were about to make their return home, 
they decided to attack the Lacedaemonians while on 
the march. Accordingly they dispatched an army 
against them, including in it Argives and Thes- 
salians ; and with the intention of falling upon them 
with fifty ships and fourteen thousand men, they 


Kal noàoùs åd. T. moeuiwv. But these last words may have 
been a conscious repetition by Diodorus for emphasis. 

3 èmpadoûvres suggested by Vogel, émıpovàevovres Hertlein : 
émi Bañórvres. 


331 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


2 ro tàs mepi tùv [lepáverav mapóðovs. Aakeðar- 
uóvior Sè muvlavópevoi Tà karà roùs ’`Abnvaiovs 
mapĵàbov ris Borwrias eis Távaypav. rv ðè 
’Abyvaiwv mapayevopévæwv eis Tùy Boiwriav Kal 
mapardéews yevouévys, ioyupà ovvéor páyxn 
Kai rv èv Qerraiĝðv peraßañouévwv êv Ti påxy 
mps roùs Aakeðarpoviovs, Tv è ’Afnvaiwv Kat 
TÔv `Apyelwv oùðèv Årrov iaywvitopévwv, énmesov 
uèv obk ôÀlyot map dpportépois, vukròs È èm- 

3 Aaßoúons Šieàúðnoav. perà Sè rañra roîs *`Abnvai- 
ois kouibouévys &yopâs modiis èk tis ` ATTucis, ot 
Qerradol kpivavres èmbéohar tavr? ka? aùris* 
Öpas ÖernvVoTorNTdpevot vVUKTÒS ATNÁVTWV TOÎS Kopi- 

4 Covor ràs àyopás. TÕv Õè mapapvàarróvræwv ° Aby- 
vaíwv åyvooúvrwv Kal mpooĝðefauévwv roùs Oer- 
raods ws piàovs, ouvéßnë modos kat moikiñovs 
àåyâvas yevéobar mepi TÄS ayopâs. TÒ pèv yàp TpÂ- 
rov ol Qerrañoi, npooðexhévres rò TÕv Tmodepiwv 
Sià rv čyvorav, éxtewov Toùs évruyxávovras, kal 
cuvreraypévor Toîs TeÂopupnuévos ovunÀekópevot 

5 moàdoùs dvýpovv. oí è karà TÙùv otpatoneðeiav 
övres `Abnvaîor nvbópevor rv Ôv Oerrañðv èri- 
eow, kov karà orovõýv, kat Troùs Oerradoùs èé 

6 èġóðov Tpepdpevor moiùv êroiovv póvov. èmpon- 
Oqodvrwv è râv Aareðarpoviwv Toîs errados 
ouvreraypévy t ðvvápei, kal Toîs otpatonéðors 
Sois yevouévns mapardéews, ovvéßn Stà TÀv yevo- 
uévyv hiàotiuiav moààoùs map’ auporépois åvarpe- 
Ovar. réos é, rÅs uáxys åu$íðofov Aaßoúonņs 
Tò téàos, ovvéßņy rovs re Aaxeðaruoviovs åupio- 

1 So Reiske: ioyvpâs. 
2 So Reiske : rars. 
332 


BOOK XI. s80. 2—6 


occupied the passes about Mt. Geraneia. But the 
Lacedaemonians, having information of the plans of 
the Athenians, took the route to Tanagra in Boeotia. 
The Athenians advanced into Boeotia and formed in 
line of battle, and a fierce struggle took place ; and 
although in the fighting the Thessalians deserted to 
the Lacedaemonians, nonetheless the Athenians and 
the Argives fought the battle through and not a few 
fell in both armies before night put an end to the 
struggle. After this, when a large supply-train was 
on its way from Attica for the Athenians, the Thes- 
salians decided to attack it, and taking their evening 
meal at once, they intercepted by night the supply- 
train. The Athenians who were guarding the train 
were unaware that the Thessalians had changed sides 
and received them as friends, so that many conflicts 
of various kinds broke out around the convoy. For 
at first the Thessalians, who had been welcomed by 
the enemy in their ignorance, kept cutting down all 
whom they met, and being an organized band engag- 
ing with men who had fallen into confusion they slew 
many of the guards. But the Athenians in the camp, 
when they learned of the attack of the Thessalians, 
came up with all speed, and routing the Thessalians 
at the first charge, they were making a great slaughter 
of them. The Lacedaemonians, however, now came 
to the rescue of the Thessalians with their army in 
battle order, and a pitched battle between the two 
armies ensued, and such was their rivalry that many 
were slain on both sides. And finally, since the battle 
ended in a tie, both the Lacedaemonians and the 


3 kal added by Post. 
t aùrĝs Capps (cp. Class. Phil. 22. 255): ris. 
5 kal after ovvéßn deleted by Dindorf. 
3332 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Bnrioar mepi tis virns kal roùs ° Abnvaiovs. Tóre 
uèv ov èmaßoúons vukròs kal ris viens dupi- 
Sdtov yevouévns, Šrerpeoßeúovro mpòs aAAńÀovs 
kal rerpaunvialous orovðas ènorýoavTto. 

81. Tof & èviavolov ypõvov Šieànàvbóros Aby- 
vnoi èv pye Mvyobeiðns, èv ‘Poun © üraror 
Krareoráðnoav Aoŭúkios Aovkpartios kal Tiros Oùe- 
roúpios Kiywpõvos. èml dè roúrwv Onßpaîot èv 
Teraneiwwpévot Õià TV mpòs Bépénv aùroîs yevo- 
ué ovppayiav, èbýrovv Št oô tpórov Súvarvr’ 
àr! davaħaßeîv rhv mdrpiov ioyúv re kai óav. rò 
kal râv Borwrâv ånávrwv rarańġpovoúvrwv kal 
unkéri npoceyóvrwv roîs Onfaiois, Ņélovv ToÙs 
Aakeĝarpoviovs ti móde ovuneprrorioat Thv OÀNV 
ýyeuoviav ris Borwrias: ènnyyéovro ©’ aùrots 
åvri raúrņs rîs xápiros iði modeuýoew Toîs 
’Abnvalois, Wore pyõepiav åvdayryy elvat roîs 
Enapridrais érxròs ris Iedorovvýoov Súvapw 
etayayeiv mebýv. ot òè Aareðarpóvior S4 p kpi- 
vavres ouppépovra Àéyeww aùroùs Kat vopiķovres 
tràs Ońßas, àv aùfýowow, čoeoðar rìs TÕv 
'Abnvaiwv wonrep åvriraàóv twa’ Ôıðmep Exovres 
róre mepi Távaypav čroruov Kat péya oTtparóre- 
ov, rs pèv rv Onfaiwv róàews peikova ròv 
mepißoàov kareokedacav, tàs Ò èv Borwrig móde 
4 qvdykacav únordrreoĥart Toîs OnBaiois. ot òè 

’Abyvañor rv èmpoùjv rôv Aakeðaruoviwv ĝia- 

róar onevðovres, Súvauv dEróoyov ovveoThoavTo, 

kal orparņyòv eiàovro Mupwviðny ròv Kaňiov 


o 


a 


1 Súvawr àv Dindorf: ĝývawro. 
2 The main verb of the sentence has been lost, here or 


after rwa infra. 
834 


BOOK XI. 80. 6—81. 4 


Athenians laid claim to the victory. However, since 
night intervened and the victory was still a matter 
of dispute, each sent envoys to the other and they 
concluded a truce of four months.1 
81. When the year ended, in Athens Mnesitheides 
was archon, and in Rome the consuls elected were 
Lucius Lucretius and Titus Veturius Cicurinus. Dur- 
ing this year the Thebans, who had been humbled 
because of their alliance with Xerxes, sought a 
way by which they might recover both their ancient 
influence and reputation. Consequently, since all the 
Boeotians held the Thebans in disdain and no longer 
paid any attention to them, the Thebans asked the 
Lacedaemonians to aid them in winning for their city 
the hegemony over all Boeotia ; and they promised 
that in return for this favour they would make war b 
themselves upon the Athenians, so that it would no 
longer be necessary for the Spartans to lead troops 
beyond the border of the Peloponnesus. And the 
Lacedaemonians [assented], judging the proposal to 
be to their advantage and believing that, if Thebes 
should grow in strength, she would be a kind of 
counterweight to the increasing power of the Atheni- 
ans ; consequently, since they had at the time a large 
army in readiness at Tanagra, they increased the 
extent of the circuit wall of Thebes and compelled 
the cities of Boeotia to subject themselves to the 
Thebans. The Athenians, however, being eager to 
break up the plan of the Lacedaemonians, made 
ready a large army and elected as general Myronides 
1 This was the battle of Tanagra. Thucydides (1. 108), in 
contradiction to Diodorus, states that the Lacedaemonians 
were victorious; at any rate they returned home via the 


Isthmus without any further opposition on the part of the 
Athenians. 2 During the Persian invasion. 


335 


457 B.O 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


oÛros è karañégas TÕV ToÀTÂV Toùs ikavoùs Tap- 
ýyyeidev aùroîs, èkhéuevos huépav èv Ñ Tùv èk TÎs 

6 TóÀcwS dváķevěw Ñ pee moveîobar. enel © ò 
auvreraypévos Kaps fee, kal TÖV OTpaTDTÕV 
Twes oÙ karýyroav TPOS TV dpiopévnv åhoppýv, 
dvaàaßov rToùs mpocenàvlóras mpoñĝyev eis TV 
Borwriav. Tôv ðè hyepóvæv rivès kat rÕv piwv 
épaoav ôeîv dvapévew Toùs kabvorepoðvras, ð è 
Mvupwviðns, ovveròs ðv dpa kal paorıkòs oTparn- 
yós, oùk čġnoev avapeveîv: arepaivero yàp ToùsS 
Lèv ékovoiws kaĝvorepoðvras tijs ¿£dðov kai kaTà 
TÅv áxnv dyevvôs kai ðerðs kew, kal cia ToÛTO 
ovðè Toùs Únèp TÜS marpiðos kwvõúvouvs ÚTooTýTE- 
obar, Toùs Ò érToiuovs katà TÙV auvTeTay pé 
ýpépav napayevnlévras pavepoùs eivai Sió. kal 
TYV êv TÔ Toàépw Tačw où kaTañebjovow" rep kal 

6 ovvéßn yevéoðar. ŠÀíyovs yàp npodyaw otpatıó- 
Tas, kal Toúrovs dpiorovs raîs dvðpayaliais, 
maperdčaro karà rův Borwriav mpòs moaràa- 
cious, kal KaTÀ kpáros mepieyévero TÖV Avti- 
Taylévrwv. 

82. Aore? s gl nps? aùr pyõepuâs årodeine- 
char rv év tois Eunpocbev xpõvois yeyevņuévwv 
mapatdgewv Toîs ’AOnvaćiocs' %} Te yàp èv Mapa- 
lôr yevopévn viky kal TÒ mepi Ilàaraids kara 
Hepoćv TpoTépnua kal TAa Tà meppBónTa Tõv 
’Abqyaiwv čpya coke? pnòèv mpoéyetv TÅS HáXNS 

2 ĝs évirnoe Mupwviðns Toùs Borwrovs. ékeivwv 
yàp ai èv èyévovro mpòs Bapßápovs, aí è ovv- 
ereàéoĝnoav per dMwv cvuudywv, raúrnv ôè 
1 So Capps: Ñuépav. ? So Dindorf: orparnyór. 
2 So the MSS. ; Vogel prefers mapáratıs. 
336 


BOOK XI. 81. 4—82. 2 


the son of Callias. He enrolled the required nuniber 
of citizens and gave them orders, announcing a day 
on which he planned to march forth from the city. 
And when the appointed time arrived and some of 
the soldiers had not put in appearance at the speci- 
fied rendezvous, he took those who had reported and 
advanced into Boeotia. And when certain of his 
officers and friends said that he should wait for the 
tardy men, Myronides, who was not only a sagacious 
general but energetic as well, replied that he would 
not do so ; for, he declared, men who of their own 
choice are late for the departure will in battle also 
play an ignoble and cowardly part, and will therefore 
not withstand the perils of war in defence of their 
country either, whereas the men who presented 
themselves ready for service on the appointed day 
gave clear evidence that they would not desert their 
posts in the war. And this is what actually took 
place; for leading forth soldiers who were few in 
number but the bravest in courage, he drew them 
up in Boeotia against a vastly superior force and 
utterly defeated his opponents. 

82. In my opinion this action was in no way inferior 
to any of the battles fought by the Athenians in 
former times ; for neither the victory at Marathon 
nor the success over the Persians at Plataea nor the 
other renowned exploits of the Athenians seem in 
any way to surpass the victory which Myronides won 
over the Boeotians. For of those other battles, some 
were fought against barbarians and others were 
gained with the aid of allies, but this struggle was won 


337 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Tv mapdračw *Abnvaîoi póvoi Šrakıvðvveðoavres 
êviknoav kat npòs ‘EMMývwv rovs dpiorovs &inywvi- 

3 avro. Sokoðot yàp ot Borwrol katà tàs TÕV 
òewôv Úropovàs Krat Toùs moàepkoùòs dyõvas 
LNòevòs Àcineohðar rv AMwv: Üorepov yoðv aùrol 
Onfaîor mept AckrtTpa kal Mavriverav uõvot mpòs 
Aakeðaruoviovs änavras kal ToÙs ovu áyovs mapa- 
Tafduevot peyiornv èv óav ér dvòpelg kart- 
ekrýoavto, Ts ò '‘EMaáõos åndons ýyepoóves 

4 àveiniorws eyevýðnoav. tÕv è avyypapéwv, 
Kkainep Tĝs páxs TavTns êmpavoôs yeyernuévns, 
oùðeis oÙTE TOV TpõTOV aùris oŬTE TÀV Stdrafw 
dvéypape. Mvpwviðns èv oðv èmpave? páxy v- 
kýoas ToÙS Bowwroòs évápuños èyevýðn Toîs mpò 
aùToĝ yevouévois hyepóow emipaveordrois, Qep- 

5 orokàet kat Miàridòy kai Kiuwn. ó dè Mupwviðns 
petà Tùy yevopévnv vikyv Távaypav èv kroop- 
kýoas, mepieîÀev aùris TA Teix, Thv è Borwriav 
dnragav mòv éTeuve kal kaTtéplepe kal Toîs 
arpatıwTais Õieàdv rà Àdoupa mdvras @peňeiars 
àðpaîs èkóounoev. 

83. Oi è Borwrol mapotuvÂévres émi T ĉia- 
plop ris xopas, ovveorpádpqnoav nmavðņuei, kat 
orparevoavres ŅOporoav ueydànv Súvapw. yevo- 
pévns è uáyns v Oivoġýrois ts Bowwrias, kal 
TÒ Sewòv duporépaw Tais pvyaîs ppwpévws ro- 
pevóvrav, òruépevoav èv T) paxy' poyis Sè rÔv 


2? In 371 and 352 r.c. respectively. 

3 Thucydides (1. 108) mentions the battle of Tanagra 
(supra, chap. 80) and that of Oenophyta (infra, chap. 83), but 
not this engagement, and the authority of Diodorus’ account 
is questioned generally by modern historians. What Diodo- 


338 


BOOK XI. 82. 2—83. I 


by the Athenians single-handed in pitched battle, and 
they were pitted against the bravest warriors to be 
found among the Greeks. For in staunchness in the 
face of perils and in the fierce contests of war the 
Boeotians are generally believed to be surpassed by 
no other people ; at any rate, sometime after this 
the Thebans at Leuctra and Mantineia,! when they 
unaided confronted all the Lacedaemonians and their 
allies, won for themselves the highest reputation for 
courage, and contrary to expectation became the 
leading nation of all Greece. And yet, although this 
battle of Myronides has become famous, none of our 
historians has deseribed either the way it was fought 
or the disposition of the troops engaged in it.? 
Myronides, then, after defeating the Boeotians in a 
remarkable battle, came to rival the reputations of the 
most renowned commanders before his time, namely, 
Themistocles, Miltiades, and Cimon. Myronides 
after this victory took Tanagra by siege, levelled its 
walls, and then he passed through all Boeotia, break- 
ing it up and destroying it,’ and dividing the booty 
among lis soldiers he loaded them all down with spoil 
in abundance. 

83. The Boeotians, exasperated by the wasting of 
their land, sprang to arms as a nation and when they 
had taken the field constituted a great army. A 
battle took place at Oenophyta in Boeotia, and since 
both sides withstood the stress of the conflict with 
stout hearts, they spent the day in fighting ; but after 


rus did was to mistake two accounts of the same battle (of 
Oenophyta) for two battles (cp. Busolt, Griech. Gesch. 3. 1, 
p. 319). 

3 This refers to the dissolution of the Boeotian League, 
under the hegemony of Thebes, which had just been re- 
established by the Spartans (chap. 81. 3). 


339 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


’Abnvaiwwv tpepapévwv roùs Borwroús, ó Mupw- 
viõðņns macôv rv rarà tùv Bowriav móàewv 
2 èykpar)s èyévero nàv Onbðv. perà è rara 
êk ris Bowwrias dvateúćas orpárevoev èm} Ao- 
kpoùs Toùs vouaopévovs `Orovvriovs. roúrovs 
òè éé édóðov yerpwoáuevos, kal \aßov öuýpovs, 
3 êvéßañev eis tùv Iapvaciav! maparànoiws õè 
roîs Aokpoîs kal roùs Pwreîs kararoàeuýoas, kal 
Aaßav óuńpovs, àvéķevéev els rv @erraàlav, 
eykaàðv pev mept ts yevopévns npoðocias, mpoo- 
Tárrwv òè karaðéyeoðar roùs vuydõðas: rv õè 
Dapoadiwv où mpocõeyouévwv, éroMópket TÀv 
4 mów. ènel òè rhv pev mów oùr ŅÒúvaro piq 
xepwcachar, rv dè modopkiav mToàùv ypóvov úré- 
uevov ol Dapodàoi, TÒ Tvikaĝra anoyvoùs rà 
kara Tyv Oerrañiav enaviàbev els tàs °`Abhvas. 
Mvupawiðns èv ov èv dÀiyw xpóvw peydàas mpd- 
écris èmreàeoduevos meptpónrov čce tův óav 
Tapà TOÎS TOÀLTUS. 
Tara pèv ov ènpáyðņ kara Torov ròv évi- 
avrtóv. 
84. Em dpyovros © 'Abńvnot Kañàiov mapà 
bi ? + 3 A 3 + A Eas ? z 
Lèv ` Hàeioris ’Oàvumias ixin pia mpòs traîs oyõoń- 
kovra, kaĝ’ Ñv vika oraðiov Tloñóuvaoros Kupy- 
vaîos, v ‘Poun © únrñpyov ünmaror Lepovios 
Zovàrikios kal Iloórios Oùodovuvios `A pevrivos. 
2em è roúrwv Toàuiðns ò rteraypévos èri rôs 
vavrikijs Öuvduews, dpÀúuevos mpòs tiv Mupw- 
viðov áperýv Te kal Öófav, éomevðev afióoyóv Tı 
3 kaTepydoacðai. tð kal kar’ èkeivovs ToÙùs Kat- 
poùs unòevòs mpõrepov neroplnkóros tův akw- 
vikýv, mapekádňece Tov Òfpov ycu riv TV 
340 


BOOK XI. 83. 1—84. 3 


a severe struggle the Athenians put the Boeotians to 
flight and Myronides became master of all the cities 
of Boeotia with the exception of Thebes. After this 
he marched out of Boeotia and led his army against 
the Locrians who are known as Opuntian.! These 
he overpowered at the first attack, and taking hos- 
tages from them he then entered Parnasia. In like 
manner as he had done with the Locrians, he also 
subdued the Phocians, and after taking hostages he 
marched into Thessaly, finding fault with the Thes- 
salians for their act of treachery and ordering them 
to receive back their exiles; and when the Phar- 
salians would not open their gates to him, he laid 
siege to the city. But since he could not master the 
city by force and the Pharsalians held out for a long 
time against the siege, for the present he gave up 
his designs regarding Thessaly and returned to 
Athens. Thus Myronides, who had performed great 
deeds in a short space of time, won among his fellow 
citizens the renown which was so widely acclaimed. 

These, then, were the events of this year. 

84. While Callias was archon in Athens, in Elis the 
Eighty-first Olympiad was celebrated, that in which 
Polymnastus of Cyrenê won the “ stadion,” and in 
Rome the consuls were Servius Sulpicius and Publius 
Volumnius Amentinus. During this year Tolmides, 
who was commander of the naval forces and vied with 
both the valour and fame of Myronides, was eager to 
accomplish a memorable deed. Consequently, since 
in those times no one had ever yet laid waste Laconia, 
he urged the Athenian people to ravage the terri- 


1 The Locrians on the Strait of Euboea, so named after 
their capital Opus. 


1 So Wurm: ġaporaàíav. 
341 


456 B.A 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Enrapriar®v yópav, énnyyéňero è yiàiovs ómàiras 
mapaňaßav eis Tas Tprýpers perà TovTwv moplýoew 
Lèw my Aakwvhv, ranmewooev ðè TV TÕV 

4 Znapriarðv ððéav. ovyxwpnodvrwv õè rôv Aby- 
vaíwv, Povàópevos Àaðpaíws màelovas önàiras' 
ètayayetv, reyváterai Tt Toroĝrov. oi èv moira. 
Sreàdupavov aùròv karaàéfew eis Tùv oTpartiàv 
tÂv véwv Toùs åkuáovras raîs ńýÀAkiars kal Toîs 
oopaow eùòpwororárovs’: ó dè Toàpiðns oreóðwv 
uù uóvov Toùs Teraypévovs yiÀlovs éayayev eis 
TYV orpateiav, npooiwv ékdorw TÕV véwv kait TÅ 
poun Siadepóvrwv čňeyev ðs pédet kaTañéyew 
aùróv' Kpeîrrov ov édnoev eÂeňovriv ortparevew 
uLâMov Ñ õa rôv karaàódywv avaykaobivai okeîv. 

B enel Sè mÀelovs rÔv tpioyiÀiwv ToÚTw TÖ Àóyw 
ovvéneioev éÂeovrhv aroypáheoðat, roùs È doi- 
nos oùkéri areVðovras éwpa, TÓTE TOÙS wpooyNy- 
uévovs yiňlovs raréħetev èk trõv Aww. 

6 ‘Os © aùr kai TàÀa Tà mpòs Tùv oTpareiav 
ÅTOÍHAOTO, TEVTÝKOVTA pÈvV Tprýpeow åvýxðn kat 
rerpakioyıňíois ónÀiras, kararàeúsas òè Tis 
Aarxwvhs eis Mebavny, Toro èv TÒ ywpiov ele, 
rÂv òè Aarxedaruoviwv Bonônodvrwv dvétevée, kal 
maparàeúoas cis rò T'úbeov, eniverov rÔv Aare- 
Saruoviwv, yepwoápevos ŠÈ kat rary TV TOW 
kal rà vewpia trõv Aakeðarpoviwyv éuTpýoaS, TV 

7 yópav ðýwoev. ékeilev Šè dvaylets čnÀevoe rìs 
Kepaňànvias cis Zdruvbðov: raúrņv è xepwod- 
pevos kal nmáoas tràs èv ti Kepadànvig módes 
npocayayópevos, eis TÒ mépav ŠénmÀevoe kal kat- 
fpev cis Naúrarrov. öpoíws è kal raúrņnv éf 

1 So Dindorf; roàlras. 
342 


BOOK XI. 84. 3-7 


tory of the Spartans, and he promised that by taking 
one thousand hoplites aboard the triremes he would 
with them lay waste Laconia and dim the fame of 
the Spartans. When the Athenians acceded to his 
request, he then, wishing to take with him secretly 
a larger number of hoplites, had recourse to the fol- 
lowing cunning subterfuge. The citizens thought 
that he would enrol for the force the young men in 
the prime of youth and most vigorous in body ; but 
'Tolmides, determined to take with him in the cam- 
paign not merely the stipulated one thousand, ap- 
proached every young man of exceptional hardihood 
and told him that he was going to enrol him; it 
would be better, however, he added, for him to go 
as a volunteer than be thought to have been com- 
pelled to serve under compulsion by enrolment. 
When by this scheme he had persuaded more than 
three thousand to enrol voluntarily and saw that the 
rest of the youth showed no further interest, he then 
enrolled the thousand he had been promised from all 
who were left. 

When all the other preparations for his expedition 
had been made, Tolmides set out to sea with fifty 
triremes and four thousand hoplites, and putting in 
at Methonê in Laconia, he took the place ; and when 
the Lacedaemonians came to defend it, he withdrew, 
and cruising along the coast to Gytheium, which was 
a seaport of the Lacedaemonians, he seized it, burned 
the city and also the dockyards of the Lacedae- 
monians, and ravaged its territory. From here he 
set out to sea and sailed to Zacynthos which belonged 
to Cephallenia ; he took the island and won over all 
the cities on Cephallenia, and then sailed across to 
the opposite mainland and put in at Naupactus. This 


343 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


edóðov afv, karýkioev eis Taúrny Meoonviwv 
roùs èmońuovs, Óroonóvõovs úrò Aakeõðamoviwv 

8 åġelévras’ karà yàp ròv aùròv ypővov oi Aare- 
Saruóvior npòs rToùs Eŭwraşs kal Meoonviovs 
menroeunkóres ml mÀéov, róTe kpaTýoavres augo- 
tépwv roùs pèv èé IOouns brooróvõovs aphkav, 
kabórı mpocipnrar, tôv È EiNbrwv roùs airiovs 
Ts moordoews koàdoavres Toùs QAÀovs kKaTe- 
SovàdboavrTo. 

85. Er àpxyovros & 'Abývnot LwororpárTov 
‘Pwpaîoi èv úrarovs karéornoav loúràov Oùa- 
\épiov Ioràikóàav kat Pérov Kàwôiov “Phyiddov. 
enl &è roúrwv Toàpiðns èv mepi thv Bowwriav 
Seérpißev, ’Abnvaîor Sè Hepiràéa ròv Eavhinrov, 
râv åyabðv dvõpôv, orparnyòv raréornoav, kal 
Sdvres aùr Tpihpeis mevrýkovra kal yi\lovs TÀ 

2 ras ééémempav émi riv Ieàoróvvnoov. oôros õè 
ris Ieàorovrvýoov mov èmópðnoev, eis è rùv 
’Akapvaviav ĉtaßàs mìiùy Olvaððv drdoas tàs 
nóňeis mpoonyáyero. ot èv obv °Abnvaîoi karà 
torov ròv vavròv màcliorwv móàewv Ñpéav, èr 
ávõpeíg è Kral orparņyig peydànv öğav rat- 

le 
EKTÝOAVTO. 

86. Er’ äpyovros & 'Alivyow ’Apiorwvos 
‘Powpaîo: èv karéornoav órárovs Kówrov Ďáßiov 
Oùßovàavòv kal Aevkiov Kopvýov Kovpirivov. 
enl Sè roúvrwv `Abnvalois rat Iedorovvnoiois 
mevraereîs èyévovro onovõðal, Kiuwvos roô Abn- 
valov ovvôepévov traðras. 

2 Karà 8è rùv Xuxeàlav 'Eyeoraiois ral Mdv- 
Bairais èvéorn módepos mepi xópas ris mpòs T® 
Matádpw morau: yevopévns è páyns toxvpűs 
344 


BOOK XI. 84. 7—86. 2 


city he likewise seized at the first assault and in it 
he settled the prominent Messenians whom the Lace- 
daemonians had allowed to go free under a truce. 
At this time, it may be explained, the Lacedae- 
monians had finally overcome both the Helots and 
Messenians, with whom they had been at war over 
a long period,! and the Messenians they had allowed 
to depart from Ithomê under a truce, as we have said, 
but of the Helots they had punished those who were 
responsible for the revolt and had enslaved the rest. 


85. When Sosistratus was archon in Athens, the 455 s.a 


Romans elected as consuls Publius Valerius Publicola 
and Gaius Clodius Regillus. In this year Tolmides 
was occupied in Boeotia and the Athenians elected 
as general a man of the aristocracy, Pericles the son 
of Xanthippus, and giving him fifty triremes and a 
thousand hoplites, sent him against the Peloponnesus. 
He ravaged a large part of the Peloponnesus, and 
then sailed across to Acarnania and won over to 
Athens all the cities with the exception of Oeniadae. 
So the Athenians during this year controlled a very 
large number of cities and won great fame for valour 
and generalship. 


86. When Ariston was archon in Athens, the 454 s.a 


Romans elected as consuls Quintus Fabius Vibulanus 
and Lucius Cornelius Curitinus. This year the 
Athenians and Peloponnesians agreed to a truce of 
five years, Cimon the Athenian having conducted 
the negotiations. 

In Sicily a war arose between the peoples of Egesta 
and Lilybaeum over the land on the Mazarus River, 


1 The beginning of the war is deseribod in chap. 64 under 
the year 469, which is five years too early. 


1 So Dindorf: màņoiov (cp. Thue, 1. 111). 
545 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ovvéßņ mooùs map’ auporépois dvarpeðivat kal 

3 rÎs hidotiuias BÀ ANé TàS móÀcs. peETÀ òè TÀ 
moùroypapiav tv èv rais móàecti yevopévyv Kal 
ròv åvaðacpòv rĝs xöpas, moðv eiki kal ðs 
érvye nmenoMroypapnuévwv, evõcouv ai móàes kal 
máàw eis moùTikàs ordceis kal Trapayàs evémrrov' 
LáorTa è rò raròv èrenóàacev év raîs Lupakoú- 

4ous. Tuvõapiðns yáp tıs roùvoua, Üpáoovs ral 
TóÀuŅS yéuwv ğvôpwros, rò uèv mpôrov mooùs 
TÕv nevýrwv dveàdpßave, kal cwparonmorðv Tov- 
Tovus éavr® mpòs Tupavviða éroiovs èrolet Šopv- 
pópovs. perà è rara Hôn havepòðs ðv őr 
Svuvaoreias ópéyerat, Îavdrov kpiow órocyæv 

5 kareðixdoĝðy. dnrayopévov Õè eis Tò Õeopwrýpiov 
ot noàvwpnhévres ór’ aùroð ovveorpápnoav kal 
roîs åmáyovot ràs yeîpas ènépepov. Ttapayñs ğè 
yevopévns karà Tv nów, guveorpáßņoav ot ya- 
piécraroi TÕv noùrÕv kal roùs vewrepicavras 
ovvapráoavres dua r® Tuvðapiðn dveîdov. meo- 
vákis Õè rovrov ywopévov, kal rÕv dvõpðv Tupav- 
vios êmÂvpovvrwv, ó Sfjpos ênnvéxôn puýoacða 
Toùs `Alnvaiovs, kal vópov Beîvart maparàiýoiov TË 
map’ èkeivois yeypapuévy mepl dorpakıopoð. 

87. Iapà yàp ’Abnvalois Ekaorov rôv noMrôv 
Eòet ypdpew eis Öorparov Toðvopa To Sokoðvros 
pdħora úvaoßaı rupavveîv rÕv moùrõv, mapà Šè 
roîs Bupakosiois eis mérañov èñaias ypáheohat ròv 


1 Cp. chap. 76. 2 Cp. chap. 55. 


3846 


BOOK XI. 86. 2—87. 1 


and in a sharp battle which ensued both cities lost 
heavily but did not slacken their rivalry. And after 
the enrolment of citizens which had taken place in 
the cities ! and the redistribution of the lands, since 
many had been added to the roll of citizens without 
plan and in a haphazard fashion, the cities were in 
an unhealthy state and falling back again into civil 
strife and disorders ; and it was especially in Syracuse 
that this malady prevailed. For a man by the name 
of Tyndarides, a rash fellow full of effrontery, began 
by gathering about him many of the poor, and organ- 
izing them into an armed unit he proceeded to make 
of them a personal bodyguard ready for an attempt 
to set up a tyranny. But after this, when it was 
evident that he was grasping after supreme power, 
he was brought to trial and condemned to death. 
But while he was being led off to prison, the men 
upon whom he had lavished his favours rushed 
together and laid hands upon those who were arrest- 
ing him. And in the confusion which arose through- 
out the city the most respectable citizens, who had 
organized themselves, seized the revolutionists and 
put them to death along with Tyndarides. And 
since this sort of thing kept happening time and 
again and there were men whose hearts were set on 
a tyranny, the people were led to imitate the Atheni- 
ans and to establish a law very similar to the one 
they had passed on ostracism.? 

87. Now among the Athenians each citizen was 
required to write on a potsherd (ostracon) the name 
of the man who, in his opinion, was most able through 
his influence to tyrannize over his fellow citizens ; 
but among the Syracusans the name of the most 
influential citizen had to be written on an olive 


84T 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


vvarórarov rv noùrôv, siapiðunhévrwv è rôv 
neráwv ròv nmÀeîora nméraàa Aaßóvra ġeúyew 
2 mevtaeri) xpóvov. ToVTw yàp TÔ Tpőnmw Šiedu- 
Bavov ramewwocew rà gpovýpara TrÔv mÀeîorov 
ioyvóvrwv év raîs marpiov raĝóňov yàp où movn- 
pías koàdoeis ¿ÀdupBavov mapà Tv mapavopovvrwv, 
dÀÀà Ôvvduews kal aùtýoews rÕv dvõpðv èrolovv 
Taneivwow. ot èv ov `Abnvaîoi roro Tò yévos 
Tis vopolecias wvópacav anrò roô ovufpefnróros 
3 ôoTpaxıopóv, oi è Xvpakóoiot meraMouóv. oĝrTos 
òè ò võpos Šiépewe mapà èv Tois 'Abnvaiois èri 
moàùv ypóvov, mapà Sè roîŭs Evparociois kateàúðn 
4 rayù ða roraúras rwàs airias. rv peyiorwv 
dvôpôðv vyaðevouévwv, ot yapıiéoraroi TÕV Toà- 
TÕv kal Õvvdpevor tà Ts llas dperñs Toà TÔv 
kowðy enavophoðy dhioravro Tv õnpociwv mpd- 
ewy, kat Sià rov aro roô vópov ġóßov iwrevovres 
Sreréàovv, émpeàdpevoi è ris ilas oùsias es 
Tpufùv améràwov, ot è movnpõraroi TÔV moùTÂv 
kal róàuņ ðrapépovres édpóvričov rv ðņuociwv 
kat Tà nÀýON npòs Tapayhyv kal vewrepiopòv mTpo- 
5 erpérovro. Õiónep ordoewv yivouévwv TmdÀw, kal 
TÖV Todðv eis Siadopàs ekTpenropévwv, TaÀw Ù 
mós eis ouveyeîs kai peyáňas évémmre Tapayds' 
êneróàaġe yàp õņnpaywyðv màñlos kal ovkodav- 
Tôv, kai Àóyou ewórys únròð rv vewrépwv 
oreiro, kai kalódov modot rà faa rÔv èm- 
Tnõcevudrwv avri ris madas kal ønrovõalaş 
aywyñs ÑAÀdTTovTO, kat raîs uèv oùolais Sià 
TIV eiphvnv mpoékormtov, tis © ópovolas kal roô 


1 From petalon (“ leaf ”). 


348 


BOOK XI. 87. 1-5 


leaf, and when the leaves were counted, the man 
who received the largest number of leaves had to go 
into exile for five years. For by this means they 
thought that they would humble the arrogance of 
the most powerful men in these two cities; for, 
speaking generally, they were not exacting from 
violators of the law a punishment for a crime com- 
mitted, but were effecting a diminution of the influ- 
ence and growing power of the men in question. 
Now while the Athenians called this kind of legisla- 
tion ostracism, from the way it was done, the Syra- 
cusans used the name petalism.! This law remained 
in force among the Athenians for a long time, but 
among the Syracusans it was soon repealed for the 
following reasons. Since the most influential men 
were being sent into exile, the most respectable 
citizens and such as had it in their power, by reason 
of their personal high character, to effect many re- 
forms in the affairs of the commonwealth were taking 
no part in public affairs, but consistently remained in 
private life because of their fear of the law, attending 
to their personal fortunes and leaning towards a life 
of luxury ; whereas it was the basest citizens and 
such as excelled in effrontery who were giving their 
attention to public affairs and inciting the masses to 
disorder and revolution. Consequently, since fac- 
tional quarrels were again arising and the masses 
were turning to wrangling, the city fell back into 
continuous and serious disorders. For a multitude 
of demagogues and sycophants was arising, the youth 
were cultivating cleverness in oratory, and, in a word, 
many were exchanging the ancient and sober way 
of life for the ignoble pursuits ; wealth was increas- 
ing because of the peace, but there was little if any 


349 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


6 Šıkaronpayetv OÀiyy ris éyivero hpovris. Sıórep ot 
Zuparóorot perTayvóvTes Tòv mept Toî TeraNouo 
vópov karéňvoav, oAiyov xpóvov aùr xpnoápevor. 

Ka Tà pèv karà riv Zireàlav év rovrois f Ñv. 
Emr dpxovros © 'Abúvyoi Avoikpárovs èv 
Pá kareorabnoav üraroi l'dios Navrios ‘Pov- 
eN gi s s Fo 
tidos kal Aeúkios Mwoúkios Kapovriavós. èm. òè 
Toúrwv Ilepixàñs ó rv °` Abnvaiwv erparnyòs dro- 
Bàs eis Ileàoróvvnoov ¿ðýwoe ryv trõv Licvwviwv 

2 xöpav. emeğeAlóvrwv è er aùròv tÕv Zicvwviwv 
navõnpel Kal páxns YVONIS, ò Iepixàñs vicýoas 
Kal moods karà trùv pvyhv dveàwv katérÀewoev 
aùroùs eis moopkiav. mpoofpoààs Sè morovpevos 
Toîs Teixeot, kal u) Òuvduevos éÀeîv TV TóÀW, étt 
Sè kal rôv Aareðaruoviwv anmooreidvrwv Boñ- 
berav roîs moMopkovpévois, dvétevćev k ris X- 
Kkvôvos’ eis è Tùy Akxapvaviav nÀcúoas kal Tùv 
rv Oinaĝðv yæpav karaðpapov Kral Àadúpwv 
nàñlos abpoisas, anénàevoev èk ts `Akapvavias. 

3 perà òè rara Alov eis Xeppóvyoov yiàiois Tv 
ToùTÂVv katekànpovynoe Tv xæpav. dpa È To- 
Tors mpattrouévois Toàuiðns ó érepos aTparqyòs eis 
tiv Eùßorav mapeàbwv dàdois yiňiois modirais 
Tarv kat TÀ rõôv Načiwv yñv Šréverue. 

4 Karà òè riv Zixeàiav Tvppnvâv Antopévav Tiv 
darrav, oi Zupakógot vavapyov éàóuevot Da- 
ÜAov émempav eis rhv Tvuppnviav. oros © èx- 
mÀceúoas TÒ pev mpõrov vioov tùv òvouatouévyv 
Aibdàcrav ênóphnoe, mapà è rv Tuppnvrôv Àdbpa 

1 taúryv xal added by Wesseling on the basis of Pausanias 
(1. 27. 5), who says of Tolmides oýyaye uèv şs Eùßorav ral 
Natov `Aĝyvaiwv ràņpoŭyovs. 

350 


BOOK XI. 87. 6—88, 4 


concer for concord and honest conduct. As a result 
the Syracusans changed their minds and repealed 
the law of petalism, having used it only a short 
while. 

Such, then, was the state of affairs in Sicily. 

88. When Lysicrates was archon in Athens, in 
Rome the consuls elected were Gaius Nautius Rutilus 
and Lucius Minucius Carutianus. During this year 
Pericles, the general of the Athenians, landed in the 
Peloponnesus and ravaged the territory of the 
Sicyonians. And when the Sicyonians came out 
against him in full force and a battle was fought, 
Pericles was victorious, slew many as they fled, and 
shut them up in their city, to which he laid siege. 
But when he was unable by making assaults upon the 
walls to take the city, and when, besides, the Lace- 
daemonians sent aid to the besieged, he withdrew 
from Sicyon ; then he sailed to Acarnania, where he 
overran the territory of Oeniadae, amassed much 
booty, and then sailed away from Acarnania. After 
this he arrived at the Cherronesus ? and portioned 
vut the land in allotments to one thousand citizens. 
While these events were taking place, Tolmides, the 
other ? general, passed over into Euboea and divided 
it and the land of the Naxians among another 
thousand citizens. 

As for the events in Sicily, since the Tyrrhenians 
were practising piracy at sea, the Syracusans chose 
Phağřllus as admiral and sent hin to Tyrrhenia. He 
sailed at first to the island known as Aethaleia è? and 
ravaged it, but he secretly accepted a bribe of 
money from the Tyrrhenians and sailed back to Sicily 


1 The Thracian, in 447 B.C. 
2 ie. in active command. 3 Elba. 


351 


453 B.Q 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


xpýpara \aßav, anéràcvoev eis rhv Direàlav oùðèv 

5 diov uvýuņs Ďiampačdpevos. oi è Zvparóooi 
roûrov pev ws mpoðóryv karaðıxdoavres épvyd- 
Sevoav, ërepov Šè orparnyòv karaorýoavres ’Åre)- 
Añv ečanéorerav èmi Tuppnvoùs ëyovra Tprýpeis 
éfýkovra. oôros Sè rùv napabaddrriov Tvppnviav 
karaðpapwv, amipev eis Kúpvov kareyopévnv úrò 
Tvppnvôv rar èreivovs roùs ypóvovs: moplýoas Šè 
màcîora rÅs výoov kal rùv Albdàcav yerpwoápevos, 
enmavñàĝev eis tràs Eupakoúoas aiyuaàdTwv re 
nAÑos kopibwv kal rv Any péàcav dywv oùr 

6 oàiynv. perà òè rara Aovkérios ó rôv Diceàðv 
anyoúpevos tràs módeis dmdoaş tràs óuoeðveis 
nà ris “Ypàas eis iav kal kowùhv Ñyaye ovvré- 
Àciav, Òpacricòs © öv vewrépww œpéyero mpay- 
páTwv, kal mapà TOÔ kowoÎ rv Liev åbpoisas 
Súvaıv déiódoyov tràs Mévas, hris fv aùroô martpis, 
LeTgkwev eis TÒ mediov, kal mÀnolov TOÔ Tepévovs 
trv övopatouévwv Ilarôv ëktTioe mów aćıó- 
àoyov, ùv anò rv npoepnuévwv bev òvópače 
Hadiv. 

89. Emei 8è mepi rõv leðv Toúrwv èpvýoðnpev, 
oùk dfióv ore mapaırev Tùv mepi TÒ tepòv 
apxaróTyrá Te kat rv dmoriav kaè rò oúvoàov 
TÒ mepi Toùs òvouatouévovs kparñpas iðiwpa. 
pvboñoyoĝst yàp TÒ Téuevos Toûro diadépeiw Tv 
dààwv apyarðtnrTıe kal oepaopð, mov èv aùr 

2 napaðóčwv nmapaðeðopévwv. mpôTov uèv yàp kpa- 
TIpés ciot TÔ peyélet pèv où karà nâêv peydàor, 
nmyyas È eéaiouvs avaßáddovres èé åpubýrov re 
Bulo kal maparàýorov ëyovres rv úow roîs 


352 


BOOK XI. 88. 4—89. 2 


without having accomplished anything worthy of 
mention. The Syracusans found him guilty of 
treachery and exiled him, and choosing another 
general, Apelles, they dispatched him with sixty 
triremes against the Tyrrhenians. He overran the 
coast of Tyrrhenia and then passed over to Cyrnus,! 
which was held at those times by the Tyrrhenians, 
and after sacking many places in this island and 
subduing Aethaleia, he returned to Syracuse accom- 
panied by a multitude of captives and not a little 
other spoil. And after this Ducetius, the leader of the 
Siceli, gathered all the cities which were of the same 
race, with the exception of Hybla, into one and a 
common federation ; and being an energetice man, 
he was always grasping after innovations, and so he 
gathered a large army from the Sicilian League and 
removed the city of Menae, which was his native 
state, and planted it in the plain. Also near the 
sacred precinct of the Palici, as they are called, he 
founded an important city, which he named Palicê 
after the gods just mentioned. 

89. Since we have spoken of these gods, we should 
not omit to mention both the antiquity and the in- 
credible nature of the shrine, and, in a word, the 
peculiar phenomenon of The Craters,? as they are 
called. The myth relates that this sacred area sur- 
passes all others in antiquity and the reverence paid 
to it, and many marvels there are reported by tradi- 
tion. For first of all there are craters which are not 
at all large in size, but they throw up extraordinary 
streams of water from a depth beyond telling and 

1 Corsica. 

a The Greek word means “ Mixing Bowls.” These 


geysers near Mt. Aetna are mentioned by Vergil (eneid, 9. 
585) and described at length by Macrobius, Sat. 5. 19. 15 ff. 


353 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


AéBnot rois Úrò mupòs moààoô kaouévois kai rò 
3 wp ĉdmupov dvafáàovow. čpuhaow uèv oêv 

exet Tò avaßaňàóuevov Vwp òs Óndpye Sıdrvpov, 

où piv arppi tùy èniyvwow čyet Õià rò pyåéva 

Toàpâv dpachar Toúrov: ryÀkavryv yàp Ëyet kard- 

mànéw ý rv öypðv avaßoà) ðore Šorev rò 
4 lelas Tivòs åvdyrns yiveoðar Tò avußaŭvov. Tò pèv 
yàp Vwp lelov karakðpov Tův öopnow ëxei, Tò 
è xdapa Ppópov moňùv ral foßepòv ètiņor rò õè 
ToúTwV mapaðočóTepov, oŬre Úmeperyetrar TÒ Úypòv 
oùŭTe dmodeimet kivyow Sè kal Plav feúparos eis 
úpos eatpouévnv éyxet Îavuáoiov. roraúrns Šė 
Beorpereias oŭons mepl Tò TéÉLevos, ot péyioTor TV 
öprkwv èvrala ovvredoðvrat, kal roîs émopkýoao 
avvrőuws ń Toĵ arpoviov kóňaois åkoňovðe tiwvès 
yàp Tis ópáoews orepnlévTes Trův èk TOÔ Teuévovs 
6 äpoðov moroðvrar, peydàns © oğons deroðaruo- 
vias, ot ràs dupiofßnrýoeis ëyovres, órav Úré twos 
Únepoyis katıoyúwvTat, TH Sà TÕv õpkwv ToÚTwr 
ávarpícei! kpívovrai. čaTL ÖÈ TOÔTO TÒ TéÉpeEvos Èk 
Tiwa ypóvwv dovàov TETNpPNuévov, kal Toîs dTu%oð- 
OW OLKÉTALS KAL KUpÍOLS QYVØUOCL NEPLTENTWKŐOL 
mov mapéyeraı Poberav: Toùs yàp els rToôrto 
karaġvuyðvras oùk éyovow éfovolav oi eorórar 
Peaiws åmayew, kal péypi Toúrov Šiauévovow 
&oweîs, péypt äv èm Õwpiouévois hidavðporois 
meloavres oil kúpiot kal ðóvres ða TÕvV öprwv 
ràs mep TrÔv öpooyiðv miores dnrayádywor.? 


(3 


~] 


1 So Madvig : dvapéoe. 2 So Madvig : draMayôcı. 
354 


BOOK XI. 89.27 


have very much the nature of cauldrons which are 
heated by a strong fire and throw up boiling water. 
Now the water that is thrown up gives the impression 
of being boiling hot, but this is not known for certain 
because of the fact that no man dares touch it ; for 
the amazement caused by the spout of water is so 
great that men believe the phenomenon to be due 
to some divine power. For not only does the water 
give out a strongly sulphurous smell but the yawning 
mouth emits a mighty and terrifying roar ; and what 
is still more astonishing than this, the water neither 
pours over nor recedes, but has a motion and force 
in its current that lifts it to a marvellous height. 
Since so divine a majesty pervades the sacred area, 
the most sacred oaths are taken there and men who 
swear falsely are immediately overtaken by the 
punishment of heaven ; thus certain men have lost 
their sight when they depart from the sacred pre- 
cinct. Ånd so great is the awe of the deities of this 
shrine, that men who are pressing claims, when, for 
instance, they are being overborne by a person of 
superior dignity, have their claims adjudicated on the 
strength of the preliminary examination of the wit- 
nesses supported by oaths taken in the name of these 
deities. This sacred area has also been recognized 
for some time as a place of sanctuary and has been 
a source of great aid to luckless slaves who have 
fallen into the hands of brutal masters ; for if they 
have fled there for refuge, their masters have no 
power to remove them by force, and they remain 
there protected from harm until their masters, having 
gained their consent upon conditions of humane treat- 
ment and having given pledges, supported by such 
oaths, to fulfil their agreements, lead them away. 


355 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


8 kai oùôeis ioropeirar TÖV ewkötTwv Toîs oké- 
zas miorw TaÚTY mapaßds: oŭrw yap ù TÕv 
dev Serciðaruovia Toùs opóoavtas Tpòs ToÙs ov- 
Aous moroùs mow. éori è kal TÒ Téuevos év 
neðiw eorpere? reipevov kal oToaîs Kat raîs 
kÀàais karaàúoeow ikavôs kekoounpévov. nepi 
èv oðv Troúræv ikavôs ýuîv eiphobw, mpòs Sè ryv 
ouvexi roîs npoïoropnpévois irýynow ênmdviperv. 

90. ʻO yàp Aovkérios ryv Hadxiv kricas kai 
mepidaßov aŬrhv dEroÀóyw TEXEL, KATEKÀANpoÚxNuUE 
tùv uopov yæpav. ouvéßy ðè rv mów raúryy 
Stà rýv ris xøpas åperův kat ðA Tò nAÑÂos rõv 

2 oikyrópwv rayečav Àaßeîv aŭfnow. où moàùv ðè 
xpóvov eùðaipovýoaca KkaTeokáġn, kai ðıépewev 
goikqros uéypi rÔv Kab? pâs ypóvwv' mepi &v 
Tà Karà pépos àvaypāňopev v rToîs oikelois 
xpóvors. 

3 Kal rà pèv karà rùv Pukeàlav èv Toúrois Ñv. 
karà è rhv `Iraàiav perà rv karaokapiy rtis 
Evulápews ónò rôv Kporwvarðv vorepov Teow 
okr© npòs Toîs mevrýkovra Qerradðs ovvayayov 
toùs úrooimovs trv Evfapirðv èé apys ækioe 
Tùìv Eúóßapw, kepévnv åvà uéoov motajpðv Övoîy, 

4 roô re Lufápios kat Kpdbios. ayahi © čyovres 
xæpav rayù raîs oùsiais mposavénoav. kara- 
oyóvres ðè Tův mów éry ôdiya mav éténecov èk 
ris Eufdápews’ mepl Êv Tà katà pépos dvaypáar 
mepacópela karà Tv éxopévyv Pipàov. 

[Deest annus Ol. 82, 1 : 452 a. Chr.] 


1 There is no further mention of Palicê in the extant 
portions of Diodorus. 


3856 


BOOK XI. 89. 83—90. 4 


And history records no case, out of all who have given 
slaves such a pledge as this, of a violation ; so faithful 
to their slaves does the awe in which these gods are 
held make those who have taken the oath. And the 
sacred area, which lies on a plain meet for a god, 
has been appropriately embellished with colonnades 
and every other kind of lounging-place.—But let 
what we have said suffice for this subject, and we 
shall return to the narrative at the point where our 
history broke off. 

90. Ducetius, after founding Palicê and enclosing 
it with strong walls, portioned out the neighbouring 
countryside in allotments. And it came to pass that 
this city, on account of the fertility of the soil and 
the multitude of colonists, enjoyed a rapid growth. 
It did not, however, prosper for long, but was razed 
to the ground and has remained without habitation 
until our own day ; regarding this we shall give a 
detailed account in connection with the appropriate 
period of time.: 

Such, then, was the state of affairs in Sicily. In 
Italy, fifty-eight years after the Crotoniates had 
destroyed Sybaris, a Thessalian ? gathered together 
the Sybarites who remained and founded Sybaris 
anew; it lay between two rivers, the Sybaris and 
the Crathis. And since the settlers possessed a fertile 
land they quickly advanced in wealth. But they had 
possessed the city only a few years when they were 
again driven out of Sybaris, regarding which event 
we shall undertake to give a detailed account in the 
following Book.: 


(The year 452 B.c. is lacking.) 


2 Presumably one of the Thessalians mentioned in Book 
12. 10. 2. 3 Book 12. 9 ff. 


357 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


91. Er dpyxovros & ’'Abývnow *Avriðórov ‘Pw- 
paño karéorņnoav únárovs Aeúkiov Ioortoúpiov 
kal Máprov “Opáriov. mi è Toúrwv Aovrérios 
ó rv Zukedðv xav tv ýyepoviav Aïrvnv pèv 
kateàdperTo, Tov hyoúpevov aùris Soofovýoas, eis 
Sè rv `Akpayavrivwv ywpav àvaļeúčas perà ðv- 
vápews Mórvov ġpovpoúpevov nò tv *Åkpayav- 
Tiva énoMópkyoe: rôv è 'Akpayavrvwv Kal 
Zupakosiwv emBonfnyodvrwv, auvvdipas páynv Kal 
npotephoas týàacev duhorépovs èk TvV eTpaTo- 

2 méðwv. kal róTe pèv TOÔ yepâvos vorauévov 
Srexwpioðnaoav eis Tùv oikeiav, ot è Evparóoiot 
Tòv arparnyòv Bóàkwva, ris ýTTNs aitıov òrra Kal 
Sséavra Àdôpq ovpnpdrrew T® Aovkeriw, kara- 
Ôixdoavtes s nmpoðóryv danéktrewav. To Oépovs 
òè dpxopévov orparņyðv črepov katéorņoav, ® 
Súvajuv déódoyov Öóvres nmpocéračav kara- 

3 moàepioar Aovkériov. oĝTos è Topevbeis perà Tis 
Õuvápews karéàaße rov Aovukériov ortparoneðev- 
ovra mepi tàs Nopás’ yevopévns Sè mapardtews 
peEyáàns, kal mov nmap auporépois mintóvrwv, 
póyis Łvupakóoioi Řiaodpevoi Toùs Zixeňoùs èrpé- 

AVTO, KAL KATA TÙV puyiw moods dveîàov. TÔv 
òè Seaduyóvrwv ot màclovs pèv eis TÀ ppoúpia T®v 
Liked reowbnoav, diyor è perà Aovkerlov 

4 rÕv aùrôv ànmiwv peréyew mpoeiiovro. dua Õè 
Toros nparrouévois `Akpayavrivoi rò Mórvov 
ġpoúpiov kareyóuevov nò rv perà Aovkeriov 
Eexedðv égerodópryoav, kal rv Súvajuv åmaya- 
yóvres mpòs Toùs Xupakoslovs vevnkykóras òn 
kow) kateorparonéðevoav. Aovkérios Sè Sià Tù 
Ñrrav Toîs dois ovvrpiBeis, kal TÔv ortparrwrÂv 
358 


BOOK XI. 91. 1—4 


91. When Antidotus was archon in Athens, the 451 s.a 


Romans elected as consuls Lucius Postumius and 
Marcus Horatius. During this year Ducetius, who 
held the leadership of the Siceli, seized the city of 
Aetna, having treacherously slain its leader, and then 
he moved with an army into the territory of the 
Acragantini and laid siege to Motyum, which was 
held by a garrison əf Acragantini; and when the 
Acragantini and the Syracusans came to the aid of 
the city, he joined battle with them, was successful, 
and drove them both out of their camps. But since 
at the time winter was setting in, they separated 
and returned to their homes ; and the Syracusans 
found their general Bolcon, who was responsible for 
the defeat and was thought to have had secret deal- 
ings with Ducetius, guilty of treason and put him 
to death. With the beginning of summer they ap- 
pointed a new general, to whom they assigned a 
strong army with orders to subdue Ducetius. This 
general, setting out with his army, came upon 
Ducetius while he was encamped near Nomae ; a 
fierce struggle ensued and many fell on both sides, 
but with diffculty the Syracusans overpowered and 
routed the Siceli, slaying many of them as they 
fled. Of those who survived the battle the larger 
number found safety in the strongholds of the Siceli, 
but a few chose to share the hopes of Ducetius. 
While these things were taking place, the Acra- 
gantini forced the capitulation of the stronghold of 
Motyum, which was held by the Siceli who stayed 


with Ducetius, and then, uniting their troops with 


the Syracusans who had already won the victory, 
they now camped together. As for Ducetius, now 
that he had been completely crushed by his defeat 


359 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


aùròv rv uev karaàeinóvrwv, ræv & èmpov- 
Àcvóvrwv, eis Thv eoydryv ÑÀÂev ånóyvwow, 
92, Téìos è Oewpõv roùs úmodoimovs ġidovs 
uéAovras aùr® ras yeîpas mpoopépew, pOdáoas 
aùroùs Kal vukròs ðaðpàs dpimmevoev eis ràs 
Zupakoúoas. čti è vukròs oŭons maphÀbev eis 
Tv àyopàv tÕv Xupakociwv, kal kabicas èri rv 
wuÕðv ikérns éyévero ts móňews, kat éavrtóv Te 
Kai Tù}v xopav s Ñv kúpos mapéðwke roîs Xvparo- 
2 alois. ToÔ dè nÀANÂovs Õıà TÒ mapdðoov ovppéov- 
Tos eis Tọv dyopáv, ot pèv àpxovres ovvýyayov 
ékkàņoiav kal mpoébykav Povàùv mepi toô Aovke- 
3 riou Ti pù mpáttTew, čvot pèv ov TÔv õņnunyo- 
pev eiwhórawv ovveßoúievov koàdbew ós moépiov 
kal mepi trÕv papryuévwv TV mpoońkovoav èri- 
beõvat Tiuwpiav’ oi Sè xapıéorarot TÕv mpeoßv- 
répwv mapiðvres) dmepaivovro oúbew tòv ikérny, 
kal Tv TUXNV Kal Tv vépeow rôv beðv évrpéne- 
aba eù yàp oxone où ri mabewv déis ori 
Aovkérios, dÀàà ri mpénet mpâ$at Lvpakociois: 
dnokTeîvat yàp TÒV MEMTWKÓTA TÑ TÚXN U) mpoo- 
kov, owbew © dua rùv mpòs roùs Îeoùs eùé- 
Perav ral ròv ikérnv déiov elva? tÎs roô Ôńuov 
4 peyañovyias. ó Sè Sğuos orep Tvl pg powh 
aóbew návrolev féa ròv ikérnv. Evpakóoror pèr 
ov droàŭúsavres ts tıpwpiaşs Tòv Aovkérior 
ri eis i Kópðov, xai vraha mpoo- 
Tágavres kataßıoðv ryv ikaviv aùèr® yopnyiav 
ouvanéoTerav. ğ É a 


1 So Hertlein : mapóvres. 2? So Eichstädt: se. 
3 So Eichstädt: ore. t oðv added by Dindorf. 
* ikéry after Aovxériov deleted by Dindorf, 
360 


BOOK XI. 91. 4—92, 4 


and that some of his soldiers were deserting and 
others plotting against him, he had come to the 
depths of despair. 

92. Finally, when Ducetius saw that his remaining 
friends were about to lay hands upon him, he antici- 
pated them by slipping away at night and riding off - 
to Syracuse. And while it was still night he entered 
the market-place of the Syracusans, and seating him- 
self at the altars he became a suppliant of the city, 
placing both his person and the land which he con- 
trolled at the disposition of the Syracusans. When 
the multitude poured into the market-place in amaze- 
ment at the unexpected event, the magistrates called 
a meeting of the Assembly and laid before it the 
question of what should be done with Ducetius. 
Some of those who were accustomed to curry favour 
with the people advised that they should punish him 
as an enemy and inflict on him for his misdeeds the 
appropriate penalty ; but the more fairminded of the 
elder citizens came forward and declared it as their 
opinion that they should spare the suppliant and 
show due regard for Fortune and the wrath of the 
gods. The people should consider, they continued, 
not what punishment Ducetius deserved, but what 
action was proper for the Syracusans ; for to slay the 
victim of Fortune was not fitting, but to maintain 
reverence for the gods as well as to spare the suppliant 
was an act worthy of the magnanimity of the people. 
The people thereupon cried out as with one voice 
from every side to spare the suppliant. The Syra- 
cusans, accordingly, released Ducetius from punish- 
ment and sent him off to Corinth, ordering him to 
spend his life in that city and also giving him sufficient 
means for his support, 


361 


DIODORUS OF SICILY BOOK XI. 92. 5 


e a . 
5 Hpeîs Sè mapóvres eri tòv mponyoŭúpevov vav- Since we are now at the year preceding the cam- 
m 3 pa + b- JEN 5 Eg t 
TOV THS Abyraiwv OTPATELAS EML Kúrpov Kipwvos paign of the Athenians against Cyprus under the 
Ņyovpévov, katra tùův èv apx nmpõleow aùroð 


mepiypdgopev Tivõe tiv BiBov. leadership of Cimon, pursuant to the plan announced 


at the beginning of this Book ! we herewith bring 
1 Cp. chap. 1. 1. it to an end. 


362 863 


BOOK XII 


Tase čveoriv év t Swðekdry TÕv 
Aroĝóopov Bipàwv. 

Tep ris 'Abnvaiwv orparteias érè Kórpov. 

Iep rìs drorráoews røv Meyaptwv mò’ A0yvaiwv, 

Ilep rĝs yevopévys páxs mep Kopúverav ” A0qvaćors 
kai Borwroîs. 

Ilep ris’ AOnvaiwv orpateias mì tùy Eùßoiayv, 

TIóàcuos katà T)v Zixeàiav Èupakoriois mpòs Akpa- 
yavrivovs. 

Krisis xarà rùv Iraàíav Oovpíwv kal orderis mpòs 
dAAÀovs. 

‘Ns Xapúvõas ô Oovpîvos vopolérys aipefels roààðv 
dyalâv ačrıos èyévero TÑ matpıðı, 

‘Qs Záievkos vopoberýoas év Aoxpoîs peyádànyv Sőfav 
TEPLETOTATO. 

‘Ns ’AGyvaior roùs 'Eoriaeis ékBadóvres lõlovs oikh- 
Topas e$émeuypav. 

Iep Tob yevopévov moàéuov Oovpiois mpòs Tapav- 
TÍVOVS. 

Iep trīs yevopévys orádoews év TÅ ‘Poun. 

Hep roù yevopévov modéuov Zapiois mpòs Miànoiovs, 

“Qs Evpakósior erpateúravres émi Ilixyvoùs tùy mów 
karéskayav. 


866 


CONTENTS OF THE TWELFTH BOOK OF 
DIODORUS 


On the campaign of the Athenians against Cyprus 
(chaps. 1-4). 

On the revolt of the Megarians from the Athenians 
(chap. 5). 

On the battle at Coroneia between the Athenians 
and Boeotians (chap. 6). 

On the campaign of the Athenians against Euboea 
(chap. 7). 

The war in Sicily between the Syracusans and the 
Acragantini (chap. 8). 

The founding in Italy of Thurii and its civil strife 
(chaps. 9-11). 

How Charondas, who was chosen lawgiver of 
Thurii, was responsible for many benefits to his 
native city (chaps. 12-19). 

How Zaleucus, the lawgiver in Locri, won for 
himself great fame (chaps. 20-21). 

How the Athenians expelled the Hestiaeans and 
sent there their own colonists (chap. 22). 

On the war between the Thurians and the Tarantini 
(chap. 23). 

On the civil strife in Rome (chaps. 24-26). 

On the war between the Samians and the Milesians 
(chaps. 27-28). 

How the Syracusans campaigned against the 
Picenians and razed their city (chap. 29). 


367 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Ns karà trův 'EAàdõa ovvérrty móħepos ô kàņðes 
Kopıirĝiaxós. 

‘Qs xarà rÅv Iradiav Tò Tv Kauravôv éÂvos svvéory. 

Navpayia Kopivbiwv mpòs Keprvpaiovs. 

'Aróoracıs Ilotriðaias kat Xaàkiéwv amò `A Oryvaiwv, 

Iep ris yevopévys otpareias 'AOnvaiwv érè rors IIo- 
TÂA TAS. 

Ilep Tùs yevopévys ordoews v Toîs Bovpiois. 

“Qs Mérwv ó ’AOyvaios mpôrTos £éÂnke rv èvvearar- 
sexaernpiða. 

‘Qs rhv év ’Iradig ‘Hpáràciav Tapavrtivoi éKTiSav. 

‘Qs émi rĝs “Popns Zrópios Maihios êmibépevos Tvpuv- 
viði àvypéðn. 

Iep roù IMeħorovvyoiakoð kànOévros modépov. 

Iep rĝs yevopévys pdyxys Borwroîs mpòs IT Àarareîs, 

‘Qs ris MeÂwvns modiopkovpévns rò `AĵOnvaiwv 
Bpasiðas ó Erapridrys åpioreúras ¿ðoğdo 0n. 

‘Qs 'Abnvatot orpareúravres mì Aoxpoùs róédiv 
Opóviov éĝeróplyoav. 

‘Qs AiyiviTar irè’ Afnralwv dvaoraĝévres tàs kaou- 
pévas Quféas katýrnoav. 

‘Qs Aakeðaruóvioi orpateúravTes eis Tijv `ÅTTIKÌIV TAS 
KTýoes katéplerpav. 


Erparela  AOnvaiwv evrépa mì rors Ioriðardras. 


368 


CONTENTS OF THE TWELFTH BOOK 


How the Corinthian War, as it is called, broke out 
in Greece (chap. 30). 

How the nation of the Campani was formed in 
Italy (chap. 31). 

The naval battle between the Corinthians and the 
Cercyraeans (chaps. 31-33). 

The revolt of Potidaea and the Chalcidians from 
the Athenians (chap. 34). 

On the campaign of the Athenians against the 
Potidaeans (chap. 84). 

On the civil strife which arose in Thurii (chap. 35). 

How Meton of Athens was the first to expound the 
nineteen-year cycle (chap. 36). 

How the Tarantini founded the city of Heracleia 
in Italy (chap. 36). 

How in Rome Spurius Maelius attempted to 
seize the supreme power and was put to death 
(chap. 37). 

On the Peloponnesian War, as it is called (chaps. 
38-41). 

OK the battle between the Boeotians and the 
Plataeans (chap. 42). 

How, when Methonê was being besieged by the 
Athenians, Brasidas the Spartan won distinction and 
fame (chap. 43). 

How the Athenians campaigned against the 
Locrians and pillaged the city of Thronium (chap. 44). 

How the Aeginetans, who had been expelled by 
the Athenians, colonized Thyreae, as it is called 
(chap. 44). 

How the Lacedaemonians sent an army into Attica 
and destroyed the properties (chap. 45). 

The second campaign of the Athenians against the 
Potidaeans (chap. 46). 


3869 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Erpareia Aaxeõarpoviwv els ° Akapvaviav kaÌ vavpayıa 
mpòs A Onvalovs. 

Erpareía Piráàkov pèv eis Maxeõoviav, Aakeĝarpoviwv 
Sè eis TÀÅv ° ATTiKýV. 

Iep Tis Acovrivav mper feias eis tàs °AGývas kal Tis 
T'opyíov To mper Beúravros ĝervórýTos év Toîs Aóyors. 

Ilep Tob yevopévov mohéuov Aeovrivois mpòs Zupa- 
KOVTÍOUS. 

’Anróortasışs Aerßiwv drò 'Aĝyvaiwv kal Màaraiðv 
åàwris kal karaskaph ord Aakeõaiuoviwv. 

Eráois Kepkupaíwv mpòs dAAýàovs. 

‘Qs `AOyvaîor Noyu vór mepimeróvres Todoùs 
dméßaňov tôv roMiróv. 

Qs Aakeðaipóvior ‘Hpákàcerav év tý Tpayivie mów 
EkTirav. 

‘Qs ’AGyvaïor rohàoùs rÔv 'Apßpakiwrõv dveñóvres 
Hpýpvrav tv róňv. 

Iep rôv Aakeðapoviwv rõv év T Epaktypig výr 
aiypaióTwv yevopévwv. 

Iep tis IHorrovpiov els ròv viðv yevupévns êmiTi 
pýrews čveka tis Merroraġías, 

Iep Tob yevopévov rohépov Aakearpoviois ka?’ Aby- 
valors rèp rôv Meyapéwv. 

Ióàepos Aakeðarpovioirs kal `‘AOnvaiois rèp Xah- 
kiðéwv. 

Máxy karà trùv Borwwriav ’Aĝyvaiors mpòs Borwroús. 

Erpareía A Onvalwv rpòs roùs év rh Aéoßy pvyáðas. 

"Ekrroris AnÀiwv órd A fyvaiwv. 


370 


CONTENTS OF THE TWELFTH BOOK 


The campaign of the Lacedaemonians against 
Acarnania and the naval battle with the Athenians 
(chaps. 47-48). 

The campaign of Sitalces against Macedonia, and 
of the Lacedaemonians against Attica (chaps. 50-51). 

On the embassy from Leontini to Athens and 
the powerful oratory of Gorgias their ambassador 
(chap. 53). 

On the war between the Leontines and the Syra- 
cusans (chap. 54). l 

The revolt of the Lesbians from the Athenians and 
the seizure and destruction of Plataea by the Lace- 
daemonians (chaps. 55-56). 

The civil strife among the Cercyraeans (chap. 57). 

How the Athenians were seized by a pestilential 
disease and lost many of their citizens (chap. 58). 

How the Lacedaemonians founded Heracleia, a 
city in Trachis (chap. 59). 

How the Athenians slew many of the Ambraciotes 
and laid waste their city (chap. 60). 

On the Lacedaemonians who were made prisoners 
on the island of Sphacteria (chaps. 61-63). 

On the punishment inflicted by Postumius on his 
son because he left his place in the ranks (chap. 64). 

On the war between the Lacedaemonians and 
Athenians over the Megarians (chap. 66). 

The war between the Lacedaemonians and Athe- 
nians over the Chalcidians (chaps. 67-68). 

The battle in Boeotia between the Athenians and 
the Boeotians (chaps. 69-70). 

The campaign of the Athenians against the Lesbian 
exiles (chap. 72). 

The expulsion of the Delians by the Athenians 
(chap. 73). 


371 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


“Aàwrs Topórys kal karaskaġh rò A byvalwv. 

‘Qs ’Aĝyvaluv kal Aakeõarpoviwv iiq rvvheuévwv 
cvppayiav daryààdorpiwbnoayv ai ormai módes àr 
aŭTÕr. 

‘Qs Aýàot karýyðncav ird ’Abyvalwv els Tùv ra- 
rpiôa. 

‘Qs Aaxeðaruóvio: mpòs Mavriveîs kaè’ Apyeiovs érohé- 
prav. 

Bvčavríiwv kat Kaàynòðoviwv orpareia eis rhv Bibvviav. 

Ilep rôv airiðv Š äs rì Zupakovras érrpárevoav 
Aby vaio.. 


372 


CONTENTS OF THE TWELFTH BOOK 


The capture and destruction of Toronê by the 
Athenians (chap. 73). ! 

How, after the Athenians and Lacedaemonians 
had concluded an alliance between them, the rest of 
the cities were alienated from them (chaps. 74-76). 

How the Delians were restored by the Athenians 
to their native state (chap. 77). 

How the Lacedaemonians waged war upon the 
Mantineans and Argives (chaps. 78-79). 

The campaign of the Byzantians and Calchedonians 
against Bithynia (chap. 82). 

On the reasons why the Athenians launched a cam- 
paign against Syracuse (chaps. 83-84). 


373 


BIBAO? AQAEKATH 


1. Aixaiws äv Tis åmopýoee Tov voðv èmorýoas 
TÑ karà ròv avbpænwov Biov dvwpadia’ oŭre yàp 
TÕv vopubopévwuv dyaððv oùðèv dAóràņpov evpí- 
akerat Õeðouévov Tois dvôpæmois oðte TÖV kakôv 
aùroreàės dvev tiwòs eùypnorias. Toúrov Šè tràs 
anoðeites eééorat Àaupdvew èmorýoavras Tùv 
Ôidvorav Taîs npoyeyevypévais npdčeci, kal pá- 
2 Mora raîs peyiorais. h yàp Eépéov roô Iepoðv 
Baciàéws émi rhv ‘EMdòa orpareia ŝià rò péyebos 
TÕv Õuvápewv Tòv péyiorov enéornoe hóßov Toîs 
"Eààņow, òs äv órnèp avõparoðiooð uedàóvrwv 
modeneîv, KaL MPOKATAÕEÕOVÀWUEVWV TÖV KATÀ TÙV 
? 7 F! ld ld r 
oiav yvðwv nóňeuv mdávres Únéàaßov kal 
A EÀÀnvið À réÀaf i 
ràs kard Tùv ‘EMdõa rÅs ópoias róxys nmeipdoe- 
3 ofar. To è moàéuov mapà Tyv mpooðokiav Tò 
Téàos ÀaßBóvros mapdõðočov, où uóvov rv rwðúývwv 
aneàvlnoav oi mv ‘Edda raroikoôvres, dÀÀà 
Kal òóğav peydàņv karekrýoavro, kal Toosaúrns 
eùnopias enàņnpoby nâoa mós ‘Eris Gore 
návras Îavudoat tùv eis roùvavriov peraßoàýv. 
4dnò Tovrwv yàp TÕv ypóvwv eml ÈT) TEVTÚKOVTA 
moààùv èmidooi éNaßev h EMàs mpòs rhv eùõar- 
povíav. èv Toùrois yàp ToîÎs ypõvois al re Téyvat 
Sià Tyv eùmopiav nòfýðnoav, kal tóre uéyioroi 
374 


BOOK XII 


1. À man may justly feel perplexed when he stops 
to consider the inconsistency that is to be found in 
the life of mankind; for no thing which we consider 
to be good is ever found to have been given to human 
beings unadulterated, nor is there any evil in an 
absolute form without some admixture of advantage. 
Proofs of this will be obtained if we give thought to 
the events of the past, especially to those of out- 
standing importance. For instance, the campaign of 
Xerxes, the king of the Persians, against Greece 
aroused the greatest fear among the Greeks by reason 
of the immensity of his armaments, since the war they 
were entering might well decide their slavery, and 
since the Greek cities of Asia had already been en- 
slaved, all men assumed that those of Greece would 
also suffer a similar fate. But the war, contrary to 
expectation, came to an amazing end, and not only 
were the peoples of Greece freed of the dangers 
threatening them, but they also won for themselves 
great glory, and every city of Hellas enjoyed such 
an abundant prosperity that all men were filled with 
wonder at the complete reversal of their fortune. 
For from this time over the next fifty years Greece 
made great advance in prosperity. In these years, 
for example, plenty brought increase to the arts, 
and the greatest artists of whom we have record, 


375 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


prnpoveðovrar Teyvirar yeyovévai, v ori Deiias 
ó dyaàpartomorós: ópoíws Šè kai TÀ kaTà Tùv mar- 
Seiav mì moù mpoéßny, rat pidooopia rpoeriuyn 
kal propik) mapà nâsi èv "Eàno, páora Sè 

5 ’Abyvaiois. piàóooßot èv yàp oi mepit ròv Ew- 
kpårņ kal IAdrwva kal `Apiororéànv, púropes &è 
Iepicàñs ral Ioorpárys kal oi toúrov paĝnrat 
dpoiws è kai dvõpes êri orparnyig Staßeßonuévor, 
Miàtidôns, Oepuorokàñs, Apioreisns, Kipwv, Mv- 
pæwviðņs kal érepoti màeioves, mepè ðv pakpòv äv 
ei ypagew. 

2. Máora õè ’Abyvaîor rf re õófy kal åvõpeig 
mporópavres õwvopdolyoav kab’ dànv oyesòv rÀ 
oikovuévyv: ènmi rocoĝto yàp Tùy ýyepovíav nüén- 
cav, dore àvev Aareðaruoviwv kal Ieiorovvnoiwv 
iôlq ueydàas õvváueis Iepoiàs kal karà yiv ral 
katà darrav karyywvicavro, kal Tùy mepißónrov 
Iepoðôv jyepoviay émi rocoĝrov rarewwoav, dore 
åvaykáoat mácaşs tràs Kkarà Thv `Aclav móàes 

2 éàcevlepõoar rarà ovvlýras. AA\à mepl uèv Tov- 
Tav dkpißéorTepov Tà Kat pépos åveypdjapev èv 
õvot PiBàois, TavTý Te kal TÑ mpò Tavrys” vvl 
Sè émi ràs nmpokeyévas mpáfeis Tpefpópeða, mpo- 

3 Õropioavres Toùs oikelovs ti ypa xpóvovs. év 
pèv oðv Tf mpò taúrys BiBàw riv åpxňv àrò 
ris Béptov orpareias momoápevot SiýAbopev Tàs 
kowàs mpáčeis mi ròv mpoqyoúpevov éviavròv rís 
’Abnvaiwv ortpareias èm Kúnpov Kíipwvos ýyov- 
Lévov: èv raúry è drò rìs `Abyvaiwv orpareiag 
3876 


BOOK XII. 1. 4—2. 3 


including the sculptor Pheidias, flourished at that 
time ; and there was likewise great advance in educa- 
tion, and philosophy and oratory had a high place of 
honour among all Greeks, and especially the Atheni- 
ans. For the philosophers were Socrates and Plato 
and Aristotle, and the orators were Pericles * and 
Isocrates and his pupils; and there were likewise 
men who have become renowned for generalship, 
Miltiades, Themistocles, Aristeides, Cimon, Myro- 
nides, and others more than these, regarding whom 
it would be a long task to write. 

2. First place belonged to the Athenians, who had 
advanced so far in both fame and prowess that their 
name was known throughout practically the entire 
inhabited world ; for they increased their leadership 
to such a degree that, by their own resources and 
without the aid of Lacedaemonians or Peloponnesians, 
they overcame great Persian armaments both on 
land and on sea, and humbled the famed leadership 
of the Persians to such an extent that they forced 
them by the terms of a treaty to liberate all the cities 
of Asia. But of these matters we have given a 
detailed and fairly precise account in two Books, this 
and the preceding, and we shall turn now to the events 
next in order, after we have first set the time-limits of 
this section. Now in the preceding Book we began 
with the campaign of Xerxes and presented a uni- 
versal history down to the year before the campaign 
of the Athenians against Cyprus under the command 
of Cimon ?; and in this Book we shall commence 
with the campaign of the Athenians against Cyprus 


1 Cp. chap. 40; but only Pericles and the generals named 
below belong in this period. 
2 The years 480-451 B.C, 


377 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


emi Kúrpov momodpevoi Šiétiuev ws èni ròv 
ynpiolévra móàcpov rò ’AÎnvaíww mpòs Evpa- 
koclovs. 

3. Er’ äpxovros yàp ° Abúývnow Eùbvõńýpov “Pw-~ 
paîot èv rdárovs katéorņnoav Aeúkiov Koŭvriov 
Kiıxivvârov xat Máprkov Páßiov Oùıßovàavóv. èm 
è roúrwv °Abnvaioi Sianerodeunkóres úrèp Alyv- 
nriwv npòs [époas, kal ràs vas dndoas åmtoàw- 
Àeróres év ti Àeyopévy Mpoocwrirð: vjow, Bpayòv 
xpõvov Šıaùıróvres čyvwoav mdv nmoàepeiv roîs 
Iépoais úrèp trÕv karà ryv 'Aoiav ‘EMývwv. 
kataprticavres è oróàov tTpiýpwv ĝiakociwv, kal 
atparņyòv éàdpevor Kipwva rov Miàridõov, mpoo- 
éraġay mÀeîv émi Kúrpov kal ĝiamodepeiv rots 

2 Tlépoais. ó è Kiuwv dvañaßv tòv oróàov ke- 
koounpévov dvõpðv re dperaîs ral yopņyiais Sapı- 
Àéow énÀevoev eis rhv Kúrpov. Kar èkelivous &è 
Toùs rarpoùs TÕv [epoikðv Suvváupewv orparhyovv 
’Apráßaģčos xat Meydßvčos. `Aprdßatos? èv rv 
e rA y Ey A + Pr + E x” % 
ýyepoviav xwv év Ti Kúrpy SréTpipev, Ëxwv 
Tpýpes Tpiakocias, Meyáßvtos 8è mept rv Kie- 
Kkiav éortparoréðeve, mekàs ëywv Ôuvdueis, Êv ð 

3 apiðpòs v Tpidrovra pupidðwv. ó è Kipwv 
kararàeúoas eis rùv Kúrpov kal Îaarrokparôv 
Kirov uèv ral Mdpiov égeroMóprnoe, kai tois 
kparņleîoi hidavbpónws mpoonvéyðn. perà &è 
tara èk Kikias rat Powikns npoopepopévow 
Tpýpwv tů vow, Kipwv èravayðeis kal módepov 
ovykpoúoas moas èv rôv veðv raréðvoev, éra- 
Tòv è oùv aùroîs rots avðpdoıv ele, ràs Sè Àorràs 

4 péxpi mis Powirys karediwġev. oi uèv ov Tépoar 
o Úroàeihheicais vavel karévyov eis thv yîv, 
T 


BOOK XII. 2. 3—3. 4 


and continue as far as the war which the Athenians 
voted to undertake against the Syracusans.? 

3. When Euthydemus ? was archon at Athens, the 
Romans elected as consuls Lucius Quinctius Cincin- 
natus and Marcus Fabius Vibulanus. In this year 
the Athenians, who had been at war with the Persians 
on behalf of the Egyptians and had lost all their ships 
at the island which is known as Prosopitis, after a 
short time resolved to make war again upon the 
Persians on behalf of the Greeks in Asia Minor. And 
fitting out a fleet of two hundred triremes, they chose 
Cimon, the son of Miltiades, to be general and com- 
manded him to sail to Cyprus to make war on the 
Persians. And Cimon, taking the fleet which had 
been furnished with excellent crews and abundant 
supplies, sailed to Cyprus. At that time the generals 
of the Persian armaments were Artabazus and Mega- 
byzus. Artabazus held the supreme command * and 
was tarrying in Cyprus with three hundred triremes, 
and Megabyzus was encamped in Cilicia with the land 
forces, which numbered three hundred thousand men. 
Cimon, when he arrived in Cyprus and was master of 
the sea, reduced by siege Citium and Marium, treat- 
ing the conquered in humane fashion. But after 
this, when triremes from Cilicia and Phoenicia bore 
down upon the island, Cimon, putting out to sea 
against them and forcing battle upon them, sank 
many of the ships, captured one hundred together 
with their crews, and pursued the remainder as far 
as Phoenicia. Now the Persians with the ships that 
were left sought refuge on the land in the region 


ł The years 450—416 B.C. 2 Euthynus, 7.4. iv. 1. 22a. 
3 Cp. Book 11. 77. t Probably only of the fleet. 


1 kal Meyáßvțos. *Apráßačos added by Stephanus. 


379 


450 B.Q 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


kał? öv rónov v Meydßutos èorparoresevkòs 
petà ris meġis' õvvduews: ot Sè `Abyvaîor mpoo- 
mÀcúoavres kal tos otparubras èkfißdoavres 
ovviijav Láxyv, kab’ Ñv ` Avafıkparns pèv ô repos 
Tõv orparnyðv Àaunpõs dywviodpevos pwikôs 
katéoTpepe Tòv iov, oi Sè dAor kparýoavres r) 
páxn kal moods dveàdvres émavñàbov els tàs 
vaðs. perà òè rara ’`Abnyaîor mdv årérmÀcevoav 
eis Tv Kúrpov. 

Tara uèv ov èmpáyðņn karà Tò mpôrov ëros 
ToÛ Toàéuov. 

4 Er pxovros 8 ’Abúvyor Ileiéws ‘Pwuaor 
pev katéorņnoav úmarovs Mapkrov Oùaàépiov Aa- 
kroðkav kal &rópiov Oùepyiviov Tpirkoorov. èri 
è roúrav Kipwv ó trôv 'Abyvaiaw orparnyòs 
Ouàarrokparðv éyepoðro Tàs karà ryv Kúrpov 
módes. év è r Zadapiîn Ilepowñs fpovpâs 
oŭons agioàóyov, kal Beàðv kal õmÀwv mavroða- 
náv, ér è girov kal rs ĞÀNsS mapacrevis 
yepovons Ts módews, ëkpwe ovppépew TaúTyv 
eknoNopkioat. oŭrw yàp Úreàdppave páňora 
Tis Te Kúrpov Táons pgõiws Kkupieðoew Kal Toùs 
Iépoas kaTamiýčeoðat, Bonbeîv pèr Tois Zada- 
pwiois uù Svvapévovs cià ro ladarrokpareîv Toùs 
Abnvaiovs, eykaraùınóvras è roðs ovupdyovs 
kataġpornbýoeolar, kalódov è Tov óàov róňcpov 
kpibýocola Tås Kúnrpov mdons Biq xepwbeions 
Õnmep kal ovvéßy yevécðai. oi pèv yap '`Abnvaîor 
ovoTnoápevot moNopkiay mpòs ti Zadauivı kaf’ 
huépav npoopoñàs eroioðvro, oi È èv ri móe 
OTPATLÕTAL, EXOVTES Bén Kal mapackevýv, pgĝíws 
ano tÕv TeyÕv \púvovro Toùs nmoMopkoðvras. 
380 


[X 


(o 


BOOK XII. 3. 4—. 3 


where Megabyzus lay encamped with the land force, 
And the Athenians, sailing up and disembarking the 
soldiers, joined battle, in the course of which Anaxi- 
crates, the other general, who had fought brilliantly, 
ended his life heroically ; but the rest were victorious 
in the battle and after slaying many returned to the 
ships. After this the Athenians sailed back again 
to Cyprus. 

Such, then, were the events of the first year of the 
war. 


4. When Pedieus was archon in Athens, the 449 s.a 


Romans elected as consuls Marcus Valerius Lactuca 
and Spurius Verginius Tricostus. In this year Cimon, 
the general of the Athenians, being master of the 
sea, subdued the cities of Cyprus. And since a large 
Persian garrison was there in Salamis and the city 
was filled with missiles and arms of every description, 
and of grain and supplies of every other kind, he 
decided that it would be to his advantage to reduce 
it by siege. For Cimon reasoned that this would be 
the easiest way for him not only to become master 
of all Cyprus but also to confound the Persians, since 
their being unable to come to the aid of the Sala- 
minians, because the Athenians were masters of the 
sea, and their having left their allies in the lurch would 
cause them to be despised, and that, in a word, the 
entire war would be decided if all Cyprus were re- 
duced by arms. And that is what actually happened, 
The Athenians began the siege of Salamis and were 
making daily assaults, but the soldiers in the city, 
supplied as they were with missiles and matériel, were 
with ease warding off the besiegers from the walls. 


1 So Dindorf: mepoiĝs- 
381 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


4° Aprafépéns Sè ó Paoieùs mvbópevos Tà mepi riw 
Kúrpov ¿ñarróuarta, kai Povàevodpevos perà trôv 


$ ~ Pe 5 
piw mepi Tod modépov, ékpiwve ovupépew eiphvnv 
# 


ovvbłéolar mps roùs “Eànvas. ëypape Troiwvuwv toîs 
mept Kúnpov ýyeuóci ral carpárnais è$ ols äv 
5 õúvwvrai ovdúoaocbar mpòs roùs “EdÀnvas. Sıórep 
oi mepl ròv `Apráfatov kal Meyáßvtov ëmeppav 
eis tràs “Abúvas mpeoßevràs roùs Sradekouévovs 
nepil ovdúoews. úrakovodvrwv òè rõv Abnvaiwv 
Kal meppávrwv mpéoßeis aùrokpáropas, ðv ńýyero 
Kadías ó ‘Irrovikov, èyévovro ouvbikat mepi ris 
eiphvns Toîs °Abnvaiois Kal Toîs ovupdáyois mpos 
roùs Ilépoas, ðv dore Tà kepda Tara’ aùrovd- 
povs civar tàs karà Thv °Aolav ‘EdAnviðas róàes 
åndoas, Toùs è rôv llepoðv oatpáras uù kara- 
Baivew èni Qdàatrtav karwrtépw Tprðv huepõv dðóv, 
unè vav uakrpàv nàeîv évròs Qacýðos kal 
Kvavéwv: raĝra è roô Baoiàéws kal rv oTparn- 
yôv èmredovvrav, pù ortpateúew °Abnvalovs eis 
erv xopav, fs Baoideùs? dpyet. ovvredeobecâv 
Sè rõv onovõðv ’Abyvaîor tàs Õuváues adnýyayov 
ek ris Kúrpov, \aurpàv uèv vieny vevknróres, 
empaveordras è ovvlýkas meroimpévoi. ovvéßny 
òè kal ròv Kipawa nepi rv Kúrpov iarpißovra 
vóow TeÀevroaL. 
5. Er dpyovros è 'Abúvyor Didíorov ‘Po- 
paloi karéoryoav úndrovs Tirov ‘Pwpihov Oùarı- 
kavòv kal T'diov Oùeroúpiov Kiywprov, °Hàeîor Sè 


1 '’Apraćépćņs after Bagıħcùs deleted by Vogel. 


1 A city of Lycia on the Pamphylian Gulf. 
a At the entrance to the Black Sea at Byzantium. 


382 


BOOK XII. 4. 4—5. 1 


Artaxerxes the king, however, when he learned of 
the reverses his forces had suffered at Cyprus, took 
counsel on the war with his friends and decided that 
it was to his advantage to conclude a peace with the 
Greeks. Accordingly he dispatched to the generals 
in Cyprus and to the satraps the written terms on 
which they were permitted to come to a settlement 
with the Greeks. Consequently Artabazus and 
Megabyzus sent ambassadors to Athens to discuss 
a settlement. The Athenians were favourable and 
dispatched ambassadors plenipotentiary, the leader 
of whom was Callias the son of Hipponicus ; and so 
the Athenians and their allies concluded with the 
Persians a treaty of peace, the principal terms of 
which run as follows : All the Greeks cities of Asia 
are to live under laws of their own making; the 
satraps of the Persians are not to come nearer to the 
sea than a three days’ journey and no Persian war- 
ship is to sail inside of Phaselis 1 or the Cyanean 
Rocks ? ; and if these terms are observed by the king 
and his generals, the Athenians are not to send 
troops into the territory over which the king is ruler.? 
After the treaty had been solemnly concluded, the 
Athenians withdrew their armaments from Cyprus, 
having won a brilliant victory and concluded most 
noteworthy terms of peace. Andit so happened that 
Cimon died of an illness during his stay in Cyprus. 
5. When Philiscus was archon in Athens, the 
Romans elected as consuls Titus Romilius Vatica- 
nus and Gaius Veturius Cichorius ; and the Eleians 
2 There was a cessation of hostilities at this time between 
Athens and Persia; but the specific terms of the treaty, as 
they are stated here and in fourth-century orators, are 


clearly false. See Walker in Camb. Ane. Hist. 5, pp. 87-88, 
469-471. 


383 


448 B.C 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


y , 2 ? h] a ? 2 
yyayov `Oàvumdða rpirnv mpos raîs yðoýkovra, 
2 kab’ Ñv évika ordðiov Kpioaww ‘Iuepaîos. èri Sè 
Troúrwv Meyapeîs èv dréorņnoav aro ’Alnvaiwy, 
Kal Tpos Aareðarpoviovs Srarpeoßevaápevo avu- 
payiav éroiņoav: oi ðè `Alnvaîot mapotvvlévres 
ekéneppav oTpaTuóTas eis TÀ Tõv Meyapéwy 
xöpav, kal ràs kTýoes ĝapráoavTes ToAÀñs wpe- 
Àcias kúpiot karéornoav. Ttv Ò èk Ts Tmóňcws 
Bonbovvrwv tÅ xøpa ovvéory áx), kað ñv oi 
AG “~ 2 Di AY Caj 
hvaîor veýoavres ovveðiwġav Toùs Meyapeîs 
evròs TÕV TEyÕV. 

6. Er àpyovros & ’`Abúvyoi Tiuapyðov ‘Pw- 
patoi èv úrárovs karéorņnoav Xrópiov Taprýov 
A 5 > t la k-n. S b z 
kal Aĝàov 'Aorépiov Dovriviov. èm dè Toúrwv 
Aakeðaruóvior èv eis Tùv `Arriciv êußpadóvres 
énóplyoav Toy xopav, kal TÕv $povpiwv Twa 
Todoprýoavrtes enavhAbov eis thv Iedoróvvnoov, 
lé ~ bd la ki 
Toàuiôns è ó rv 'Abyvaiwv orparnyòs elde 
2 Xupoæverav. röv è Borwrõv ovorpaġévrwv kal 
Toîs mepi rov Toàpiðny éveðpevodvrwv, èyévero 

ia hJ A A [A ’ a 
páx Kaprepà mept Thv Kopúverav, kaf ñv Toà- 
pns pè paxőpevos dvnpéðy, TÂÕv ĝè daww Aby- 
vaiwv ot ÈV kaTekónnoav, ot ðè LÕvTeES eAńýplnoav. 
Tyàaúrys è ovuhopâs yevouévys Tois ° Abnvaiois, 
Jvayrkáolyoav aġeîvai TàS TóÀes amáoas TÀS karŭTà 
Tiv Borwriav aùrovóuovs, iva’ Toùs alypaàorTovs 
amoàdfwow. 

7. Er äpxovros © ’'Abývnor Kadrudyov Pw- 


~ + 
paîoi èv karéorņnoav úrárovs Léérov Koúvriov 


1 So Cobet: eivas or èdv. 


384 


BOOK XII. 5. 1—7. 1 


celebrated the Eighty-third Olympiad, that in which 
Crison of Himera won the “ stadion.” In this year 
the Megarians revolted from the Athenians, and 
dispatching ambassadors to the Lacedaemonians 
they concluded an alliance with them. Irritated at 
this the Athenians sent soldiers into the territory 
of the Megarians, plundering their properties and 
seizing much booty. And when the Megarians issued 
from their city to defend their territory, a battle 
ensued in which the Athenians were victorious and 
chased them back within their walls. 

6. When Timarchides was archon in Athens, the 
Romans elected as consuls Spurius Tarpeius and 
Aulus Asterius Fontinius.* In this year the Lace- 
daemonians invaded Attica and ravaged a large part 
of the countryside, and after laying siege to some 
of the Athenian fortresses they withdrew to the 
Peloponnesus ; and Tolmides, the Athenian general, 
seized Chaeroneia. And when the Boeotians gathered 
their forces and caught Tolmides’ troops in an ambush, 
a violent battle took place at Coroneia, in the course 
of which Tolmides fell fighting and of the remaining 
Athenians some were massacred and others were 
taken alive. The result of a disaster of such magni- 
tude was that the Athenians were compelled to allow 
all the cities throughout Boeotia to live under laws 
of their own making,’ in order to get back their 
captured citizens. 

7. When Callimachus was archon in Athens, the 
Romans elected as consuls Sextus Quinctius .. 


1 This is probably a corruption of Fontinalis. 

2 The Athenians had established democracies in most of 
the cities of Boeotia and the oligarchs had consequently 
withdrawn from them into Thebes, where they mustered 
their forces to fall upon Tolmides. 


385 


447 8.0. 


446 B.6. 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


. . . Tpiyépwov. èri Sè roúrwv rarà thv “Eddôa 
Teranewwpévwv TÖV `Abnvaiwv Šia Thv év Borwrig 
nepi Kopúvear) Ârrav, åġioravro modal tv 
móàewv darò TÕv `Abnvaiwv. pdora è TÕv kat- 
7 ` » 7 aa 
oiwxoúvrwv Trv Eùßorav vewrepigóvrwv, Iepicàñs 
aipebeis orparnyòs èorpdrevoev èm thv Eùßoray 
uerà Ôvváduews déioàðyov, kal Tův pèv mów tÕv 
‘Eorarðv éàdv kara kpáros kwroe rovs ‘Eori- 
A 3 ~ ló hJ > y s 
aeîs èr ris natpiðos, TàS Ò áMas katanàněá- 

pevos hváykace maw neðapyetv `Abnvaiois. 
Erovõas ©’ enoiņoav rpiakovraereîs, KañÀiov kat 
Xápyros ovvbłepévwv rai rhv eiphvny Beßarwodvrwv. 
8. Karà è rv Zikeàiav Bvpakosiois mpòs 
’Akpayavrivovs ovvéorņ módepos ià Toravras 
airiías. Zvpakóoioi karanoàeuýoavres ÀovkéTiov 
Svvdoryy rõv Dikeàðv, kal yevópevov ikérņyv dro- 
Aúoavres rÕv èykànuáraw, dnéðeičav aùT® Tv 
2 Tôv Kopwbiwv mów oiknTýpiov. oros è dàlyov 
xpóvov ueívas v rý Kopivðw tràs ðpoñoyias čAvoe, 
Kal nposmomgdáuevos ypopòv nrò beðv aùr 
Seõóobar rrioar rv Kay Arry êv th Dikeàig, 
KATÉTÀEVOEV EiS TIV VÅOOV pETÆ TWWV OLKNTÓpWV 
duveneàdpovro ĝè kal rv Lireàðv Twves, év ols Ñv 
kal '`Apyaviðns ò rv “Epßiraiwv Suvaoreówv. 
oĝros èv ov mepl ròv oikiouov Tis Kadis Arris 
3 èyivero. `Akpayavrīvot è apa pèv plovoðvres 
roîs Dupakosiois, dpa ẹ eykadolvres arois ôri 
^ovkériov õvra rowòv noàépiov Òiéowoav vev 
tis ‘Akpayavrwvaw yvøópns, móÀcuov kýveykav 
4 Toîs Evparociois. oxiķopévwv bè TrÔv Direùrôv 

1 So Wesseling: Xarpóverav. 
2 8è after Iepucàñs deleted by Reiske. 
386 


BOOK XII. 7. 1—8. 4 


Trigeminus, In this year, since the Athenians had 
been weakened in Greece because of their defeat in 
Boeotia at Coroneia, many cities revolted from them. 
Since the inhabitants of Euboea were taking the lead 
in the revolution, Pericles, who had been chosen 
general, made a campaign against Euboea with a 
strong force, and taking the city of Hestiaca by 
storm he removed the inhabitants from their native 
city ; and the other cities he terrified and forced 
back into obedience to the Athenians. 

A truce! was made for thirty years, Callias and 
Chares negotiating and confirming the peace. 

8. In Sicily a war broke out between the Syra- 
cusans and Acragantini for the following reasons. 
The Syracusans had overcome Ducetius, the ruler of 
the Siceli, cleared him of all charges when he became 
a suppliant, and specified that he should make his 
home in the city of the Corinthians.? But after 
Ducetius had spent a short time in Corinth he broke 
the agreement, and on the plea that the gods had 
given him an oracular reply that he should found a 
city on the Fair Shore? (Call Actê) of Sicily, he sailed 
to the island with a number of colonists ; some Siceli 
were also included, among whom was Archonides, 
the ruler of Herbita. He, then, was busied with 
the colonization of Cal Acté.t But the Acragantini, 
partly because they were envious of the Syracusans 
and partly because they were accusing them of letting 
Ducetius, who was their common enemy, go free 
without consulting them, declared war upon the 
Syracusans. The cities of Sicily were divided, some 

1 Between Athens and Sparta. 


2 Cp. Book 11. 92. 
2 The northern shore. t The city. 


387 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


nódcwv, kal TÔv uèv toîs `Arpayavrivois, TÔ 
Sè roîs Xupakooiois ovorpatevóvrwv, ġOpoioðneav 
map åpporépois Šuvápeis dfrðàoyoi. hidotyuias 

è peyáàns yevopévns Tais módeow, ÓVTEOTpaTOTÉ- 
Sevoav dAAńÀois mepi ròv ‘Iuépav nmorauóv, kal 
yevopévys napardčews évikņoav oi Buparóowo, 
kal rv `Arpayavrivav dvetov Úrèp Toùs yıÀlovs. 
ETÀ òè TrÅv uáxņv ðiarpeoßevoauévwv mepl ovv- 
béosews rÕv `Arpayavrivwv, oi Dupakósioi ovvé- 
bevro Tiv eiphvyv. 

9. Kai rà uèv rarà rùv Dixedlav èv roúrois ñv. 
karà è rv 'Iraàiav ovvéßn krobivai mv tôv 
Oovpiwv mód ðt airias ToraŬras. èv Toîs EuTpo- 
olev ypóvoirs “Edývæv rTiodvræv rarà rhv Ira- 
Aiav nóv Xúßapıv, ovvéßy raúrnv àaßeîv rayeîav 

2 aŭénow ià Thv åperhv TÃS xópas. repévns yàp 
dvà pécov ðvety norauðv, To re Kpdlios kai roð 
Eufdpios, af? of raúrys čruye Týs mpoonņyopias, ot 
KaTowolévTes veuópevoi Tov Kal kapropópov 
xöpav peydàovs ékrýoavro màoúrovs. modos è 
peraððovres TÄS moùTeias rl Tocoôro mpoéßnoav 
wore Öófaı moù npoéyew Tv karà týv `Iraàíav 
oikoúvrwv, moàvavlpwnriq re rocoto Õrýveykav, 
WOTE TYV TÖV yew TOùTÕV Tpidkovra pvpidõas. 

Tevópevos è map aùrots Snuaywyòs Thàvs, ral 
karņyopðv tTtÕv peylorwv dvðpðv, čmee ToùÙs 
Zußapiras dvyaðeðoaı roùs eùropwrárovs rtÕv 
nmoùrÕv nevrakociovs Kal tàs oùoias aùrôv ên- 

3 peoa. rÕv è pvydðwv napeàbóvrwv eis Kpd- 
Twva kal karapvyóvrwv émi Toùs eis Tv dyopàv 
Bwpovs, ó pèv Thàvs ééénempe npeoßevràs mpòs 
roùòs Kporwridras, ols ġv mpoorteraypévov Ñ Toùs 
388 


BOOK XII. 8. 4—9. 3 


of them taking the field with the Acragantini and 
others with the Syracusans, and so large armaments 
were mustered on both sides. Great emulation was 
shown by the cities as they pitched opposing camps 
at the Himera River, and in the conflict which fol- 
lowed the Syracusans were victorious and slew more 
than a thousand Acragantini. After the battle the 
Acragantini sent ambassadors to discuss terms and 
the Syracusans concluded a peace. 

9. These, then, were the events in Sicily. And in 
Italy the city of Thurii came to be founded,! for the 
following reasons. When in former times the Greeks 
had founded Sybaris in Italy, the city had enjoyed a 
rapid growth because of the fertility of the land. For 
lying as the city did between two rivers, the Crathis 
and the Sybaris, from which it derived its name, its 
inhabitants, who tilled an extensive and fruitful 
countryside, came to possess great riches. And since 
they kept granting citizenship to many aliens, they 
increased to such an extent that they were con- 
sidered to be far the first among the inhabitants 
of Italy; indeed they so excelled in population 
that the city possessed three hundred thousand 
citizens. 

Now there arose among the Sybarites a leader of 
the people named Telys,? who brought charges against 
the most influential men and persuaded the Sybarites 
to exile the five hundred wealthiest citizens and con- 
fiscate their estates. And when these exilłes went 
to Croton and took refuge at the altars in the market- 
place, Telys dispatched ambassadors to the Crotoni- 
ates, commanding them either to deliver up the exiles 


1 In 444 s.c., two years later than by Diodorus’ chronology. 
23 In 511 Bc. 


389 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


4 fvydõðas kovar Ñ mócuov mpooðéyecbar. ovv- 
ayleioņns è ékkànciaşs kal mporebeions Bovàĝs, 
nmóTepov pů Toùs ikéras ékðoðvar roîs Dufapirais 
Ñ mõàepov Ýropeîvat mpòs uvarwrTépovs, åmopov- 
Lés Te Ths ovykàńrov kal roð Sńpov, Tò pèv 
mpõTov čppene Taîs yvóuas TÒ màñbos mpòs rÅv 
anóðocw Tv ikerðv à Tòv móàcpov: perà è 
rara Ilubayópov ro diıàooógov ovußovàcúoavros 
oæbew Toùs ikéras, perénecov Taîs yvouas kal 
TÒv nóàepov únèp ris Tv ikerÔðv owrnpias åv- 

5 eíÀovro. orparevodvrwv È èm aùroùs trÔv Ev- 
Bapırðv rTpidrovra pupidow dvreráyðņoav oí 
Kporwviârar éka uvpidor, Mi\wvos roô abànyros 
Ñyovpévou ral Ša Tùv únepßpoàùv ris To od- 
partos pwns mpwTov Tpebapévov Toùs kab’ aóròv 

6 Teraypévovs. © yàp dvp oros, éédris °Oàúu- 
ma vekykòs kal Thv dàkùv dkódovĝov éywv ri 
katà TÒ oôpa púoet, Àéyerar mpòs Tùv uáynv 
dmavrioar kateorepavwpévos uèv Toîs °Oìvumi- 
koîs orepávois Õicokevacuévos Sè eis ‘Hparàéovs 
okeuùv Àcovri kal ponrádàw' alrıov Sè yevõpevov 
rìs vikņys Îavuacbivar mapà roîs moàiras. 

10. Tôrv è Kporemiarðv dià riy pyy Cwypev 
pèv pnõéva Povànbévrwv mávras òè karà Tiv $v- 
yv Toùs úmoneodvras drokTewóvTrwv, ol mTÀelovs 
karekónnoav, Thv 8è mów shpracav kal mavredĝðs 

2 čpņpov éroiņoayv. Üorepov è čTeow KT® mpòs 
Tois mevrýkovra Oerraňol ovvørkiav, kal per 
óàíyov úno Kporwviarôv èééreoov! karà tovs Óro- 

3 kepévovs Kupos? kal perà Bpayò peraorabeioa 

1 mévre čreow Ŭorepov roô Ševrépov ovvoixiouoð after éféreoov 
deleted by Vogel (cp. 11. 90. 4). 

390 


BOOK XII. 9. 4—10. 3 


or to expect war. An assembly of the people was 
convened and deliberation proposed on the question 
whether they should surrender the suppliants to the 
Sybarites or face a war with a superior foe, and the 
Council and people were at a loss what to do. At 
first the sentiments of the masses, from fear of the 
war, leaned toward handing over the suppliants, but 
after this, when Pythagoras the philosopher advised 
that they grant safety to the suppliants, they changed 
their opinions and accepted the war on behalf of the 
safety of the suppliants. When the Sybarites ad- 
vanced against them with three hundred thousand 
men, the Crotoniates opposed them with one hundred 
thousand under the command of Milo the athlete, 
who by reason of his great physical strength was the 
first to put to flight his adversaries. For we are told 
that this man, who had won the prize in Olympia 
six times and whose courage was of the measure of 
his physical body, came to battle wearing his Olympie 
crowns and equipped with the gear of Heracles, lion’s 
skin and club; and he won the admiration of his 
fellow citizens as responsible for their victory. 

10. Since the Crotoniates in their anger would take 
no prisoners but slew all who fell into their hands 
in the flight, the larger number of the Sybarites 
perished ; and they plundered the city of Sybaris 
and laid it entirely waste. Fifty-eight years later * 
Thessalians joined in settling the city, but after a 
little while they were driven out by the Crotoniates, 
in the period we are now discussing. And shortly 
thereafter the city was moved to another site and 


1 In 453 B.c. 


a èn’ àpxovros © 'Abývyoi Kadpáyov ouvwkioðy after ra- 
poùs deleted by Vogel, 
391 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


kJ ld r e 7 kag 
eis ETepov TÖTov npoonyopias ETÉpPaS ČTUXE, KTL- 
m~ hiar [S m 
orv yevouévwv Adáurnwvos kal BevokpiTov ToÕTOV 
Lg 
TOV TpÓTOV. 
e ` ` z , , 3 m f 
Oi yàp TÒ evrTepov eknecóvres êk Tis maTpiðos 
~ 2 pS kd y “EAA ið A 
Evbapirai mpéoßeis Ečmeppav eis Tv áða mps 
> (g > -~ 
Aakreðarpoviovs kal ` AOyvaiovs, déroñvres ovvenri- 
Aaßéolar ts kaĝóðov kai kowwvioar Ts åmor- 
4 kias. Aareðauóvior èv oĝv où npocésyov aùtoîs, 
2 Eas ò b3 Ld ? À l ò 2 A 
Aðnvaior Sè ovurnpáčew enayyeiràduevoi, ðéka vaĝs 
5 A 2 
nÀņnpæcavres anréoreràav Toîs Xvßapirais, &v 
Pay — + ? 
Ņyeîro Adurwv tre kal RevókpiTos: Ekýpvčav ðè 
+ 
kara ràs èv Iedorowýow róde kowororovuevor 
~ 2 Pa 
Tyv aroiciav TÔ Bovàopévy peréyew ris amoikias. 
“~ ps lg 
ö ónakovodvrwv è moiðv kal Àaßóvrwv ypyopòv 
"~ Eai 2 
nmapà roð `Anróàwvos, OTt Òe? kricat nów aùrToùs 
“A ? Pai 
êv roúrw T TóTw, Tov péňovow olkeîv 


: 1 SS , ’ ` Sè Ps zS 
HETpPW VOWP TVOVTES, AUETPL OE pâbav EOOVTES, 


, 3 4 , , py r 
karénàevoav eis rv Iraàiav, kal karavrýoavtes 
, ` z sy 7 oa , a e ` 5 
eis riy Lúßapiw èhrovv tòr? rórov ôv ò Îeòs Åv 
6 TpOOTETOXWS katowev, eúpóvres è oùk åmwbev 
Tis Evpapews Kpývyv Svopakopévnv Oovpiav, 
éxovoav aŭàðv xáàkeov v èkdàouwv ot èyxópior 
péðiuvov, vouigavres elvas roôrov TÒv TóTOV TÒV 
ònàovpevov nò roô beo mepiéßadov teyos, kal 
Krisavres nóv &võpacav dro ris kpývņns Qov- 
7 piov. Tùv è nóÀw Õdópevor karà pèv piros 
m~ A 
ceis Térrapas mÀaTtelas, &v kaoot rhv pèv piav 
‘“Hpdràcarv, rhv è °`Agpodiciav, rhv Sè ’Oìvum- 
lA bI A z hi ` A ld m 
dõa, Týv è Aiovvoráða, karà ðè Tò mÀdTos ÕreÀov 
1 So Schäfer: pérpiov, which Vogel retains. 
3 7òv added by Dindorf. 
892 


BOOK XII. 10. 3-7 


received another name, its founders being Lampon 
and Xenocritus ; the circumstances of its refounding 
were as follows. 

The Sybarites who were driven a second time from 
their native city dispatched ambassadors to Greece, 
to the Lacedaemonians and Athenians, requesting 
that they assist their repatriation and take part in 
the settlement. Now the Lacedaemonians paid no 
attention to them, but the Athenians promised to 
join in the enterprise, and they manned ten ships and 
sent them to the Sybarites under the leadership of 
Lampon and Xenocritus ; they further sent word to 
the several cities of the Peloponnesus, offering a share 
in the colony to anyone who wished to take part in 
it. Many accepted the offer and received an oracular 
response from Apollo that they should found a city 
in the place where there would be 


Water to drink in due measure, but bread to eat 
without measure. 


They put in at Italy and arriving at Sybaris they set 
about hunting the place which the god had ordered 
them to colonize. Having found not far from Sybaris 
a spring called Thuria, which had a bronze pipe which 
the natives of the region called medimnos,! and believ- 
ing this to be the place which the god had pointed 
out, they threw a wall about it, and founding a city 
there they named it Thurium after the spring. They 
divided the city lengthwise by four streets, the first 
of which they named Heracleia, the second Aphro- 
disia, the third Olympias, and the fourth Dionysias, 
and breadthwise they divided it by three streets, of 


3 Medimnos among the Greeks was a measure of grain. 


393 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


els rpeîs màareias, dv ġ pèv &voudoby ‘'Hpga, % 
òè Oovpia, ) è Oovupõva. rToúrwv è rÕv oTevw- 
nv nerìnpwpévwv taîs oikiais ) mós èdaivero 
KaÀAÔs kateskevdobar. 

11. °Odiyov è ypővov ópovońsavres ot Qoúpior 
ordoei peydày mepiérecov oùk dàóyws. oi yàp 
npoündpyovres Lufapîraı tràs pèv dérodoywráras 
àpxàs éavroîs mpooéveuov, tràs È eùredeîs Toîs 
ÜoTepov npocyeypapuévois moàlrais: kal Tàs yv- 
vaîkas emibúew roîs leoîŭs ğovro Sev npæras èv 
Tàs noàiriðas, úortépas è ràs peroyeveorépas* 
npòs è roúrois Tv pèv oúveyyvs TÅ móe yæopav 
kaTekàņpoúxovv éavroîs, Thv Sè móppw keuévyv 
Toîs ênýàvot. yevopévns è ciahopâs ià ràs elpy- 
pévas airias, of npooypahévres ÜoTepov modra 
mÀelovs Kal kpeirtoves vres drnékrTewav oyeðòv 
dravras roùs npoïürápxovraşs Xußapiras kal thv 
Tóùv aùrol karøknoav. mois è oŭons kal 
kaàñs xopas, oikýropas èk ris ‘EMdõos pera- 
mepfpáuevoi ovyvoús, Šieveiuavro Thv TÖÀW kal Tùv 
3 xópav r ions čvepov. oi Sè Õıapévovres Tayù 

màoúTovs peyáovs èkrýoavro, kal mpòs ToÙs 

Kporawidras dıàíav ovvÂépevoi kas èroùrev- 

ovro. ouvgrodpevor è modirevpa nuokpartıkòv 

SreTÀov Toùs ToÀirtas eis Õéka fpvàds, kal TàS Tpos- 

nyopias årdoas? mepiéðnrav èk rõv ébvôv, Tpeîs 

èv áno rv èk Iedorovwvýoov ovvayðévrwv ovo- 
pácavres `Aprdða ral Ayata Kral 'Hàeiav, rås 


to 


1 So Wesseling : tràs olkiaş, 2? So Dindorf: dráoas 


394 


BOOK XII. 10. 71—11. 3 


which the first was named Heroa, the second Thuria, 
and the last Thurina. And since the quarters formed 
by these streets were filled with dwellings, the con- 
struction of the city appeared to be good. 

11. For a short time only did the Thurians live 
together in peace, and then they fell into serious 
civil strife, not without reason. The former Sybarites, 
it appears, were assigning the most important offices 
to themselves and the lower ones to the citizens who 
had been enrolled later ; their wives they also thought 
should enjoy precedence among the citizenesses in 
the offering of sacrifices to the gods, and the wives of 
the later citizens should take second place to them ; 
furthermore, the land lying near the city they were 
portioning out in allotments among themselves, and 
the more distant land to the newcomers. And when 
a division arose for the causes we have mentioned, 
the citizens who had been added to the rolls after 
the others, being more numerous and more powerful, 
put to death practically all of the original Sybarites 
and took upon themselves the colonization of the city. 
Since the countryside was extensive and rich, they 
sent for colonists in large numbers from Greece, and 
to these they assigned parts of the city and gave 
them equal shares of the land. Those who continued 
to live in the city quickly came to possess great 
wealth, and concluding friendship with the Crotoni- 
ates they administered their state in admirable 
fashion. Establishing a democratic form of govern- 
ment, they divided the citizens into ten tribes, to 
cach of which they assigned a name based on the 
nationality of those who constituted it : three tribes 
composed of peoples gathered from the Peloponnesus 
they named the Arcadian, the Achaean, and the 


395 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


isas è arò rv ééwbðev óuocbvôv, Borwriav, 
`Augpixrvoviða, Awpiða, tràs Sè orras TÉTTApAS 
aro rõv Maw yevôv, 'Idõa, 'Abnvaiða, Edfota, 
Nyorðrıv. elÀovro è kal vouobéryv ròv čpiorov 
Tõv èv naeia Îavuatopévwv roùrôv Xapóvõav. 

4 oĝros òè emorefpáuevos tràs åmdvrwv vouobecias 
éteàéćaro Tà kpdriora kal karéraev els Toùs 
vőuovs* ToÀd Õè kal Wia émwonoáuevos eteôpe, 
mept ðv oùk dvoikeióv otv èmuvnobivat mpos 
óphlwow Tv dvayıivwokórrwv. 

12. Ilpôrov èv yàp Toîs unTpviàv èrayopévois 
karà rõv iðiwv rérvwv yke mpõoTuov TÒ u) 
yiveoĝar ovupovàovs TovTovs T matpiðt, vopitwv 
Troù Kraks nepi rv llwy rérvwv Bovàevoa-. 
pévovs kal ovufoúiovs karoùs čoeobar Ti nmartpiðı. 
epn yàp Toùs pèv mpôTov yýuavras kal èmiTvyóv- 
ras ðeîv ecùnuepoðvras katramavew, Toùs è dro- 
Tvyóvraşs T® yáuw kal mdv èv roîs aùroîs 

2 àuapravovras čġpovas ðeî®v úroňaußdveoðar. rovs 
S’ ên) ovkopavrig karayvwolévras mposérače mepi- 
rateîv éorepavwuévovs uvupiky, mws èv nêst Toîs 
moàiras gpaivwvrar TÒ nmpwreîov ris movnpias 
mepirerompévoi. Ò kai Twas èri roúrw TÔ 
eykàýparı karaðıxaobévras rò uéyebos ris úBpews 
oùk éveykóvraş ékovgíws éavroùs èk toô Civ 
peraorioar. oÊ ouvreeobévros èdvyaðeúðny râs 
èk ris móàcews ó ovkopavreîv eiwhws, kal rò 


1 Charondas must be placed in the late Tth and early 
6th centuries s.c. Aristotle (Politics, 2. 12) states that he 
legislated for his native city of Catana and for the other 
Chalcidian cities of Sicily and Italy, and praises the precision 
of his laws. The legal fragments which Diodorus attributes 
to him are taken to be of Neo-Pythagorean origin. 

396 


BOOK XII. 11. 3—12. 2 


Eleian; the same number, gathered from related 
peoples living outside the Peloponnesus, they named 
the Boeotian, Amphictyonian, and Dorian ; and the 
remaining four, constituted from other peoples, the 
Ionian, the Athenian, the Euboean, and the Islander. 
They also chose for their lawgiver the best man 
among such of their citizens as were admired for their 
learning, this being Charondas.* He, after examin- 
ing the legislations of all peoples, singled out the best 
principles and incorporated them in his laws; and 
he also worked out many principles which were his 
own discovery, and these it is not foreign to our 
purpose to mention for the edification of our readers. 

12. First of all, in the case of men who brought 
home a stepmother over their children he ordained 
as their punishment that they should have no part 
in counselling their fatherland, since he believed that 
men who planned so badly with respect to their own 
children would likewise be bad counsellors for their 
fatherland. For, he said, whoever had been for- 
tunate in their first marriages should rest satisfied 
with their good lot, whereas whoever had been 
unfortunate in marriage and then made the same 
mistake a second time should be regarded as men 
without sense. Men who had been found guilty of 
false accusation should, he decreed, wear wherever 
they went a wreath of tamarisk, in order that they 
might show to all their fellow citizens that they had 
won the highest prize for wickedness. As a conse- 
quence certain men who had been judged guilty of 
this charge, being unable to bear their great disgrace, 
voluntarily removed themselves from life. When this 
took place, every man who had made a practice of 
false accusation was banished from the city, and the 


397 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


moàlrevpa uakápiov elye Biov ris rowaúrys kakias 
anmnààaypévov. 

"Eypaye Sè ô Xapwvõas kal mepl Tis kakopuàias 
vóuov ėźņàaypévov rai roîs ààois vopobérais 
mapewpapévov. úmoàaßàv yap tToùs ayaboùs åv- 
pas viore cià Tùv mpos roùs movnpoùs hiàiav kal 
ovvýðerav ciaorpéġeoðar rà ğ0N mpòs kakiav, kat 
Tùy davàórnra kabánep Àoyurhyv vóoov mwéne- 
oba ròv Bior rv dvðpõrnwv kal vooomowiv tàs 
Yuxas rôv aplorwv: karávtns yàp ý Tpos TÒ xeîpov 
óðós, pgõiav ëyovoa rv óðorropiav: Õıòð Krai TrÕv 
Lerpiwv modol tois Hbeow, movos Hovas 
Seàcaobévres, eis èmrnòevoes yepioras mept- 
wkedav: ravryv obv TÅv Siahhopav dvaoreîàa: Bov- 
Àóuevos ò vopolérys ámnyðpevoe T TvV movypõv 
diàiq re kal ovvnbeig yphoachar, kal ikas êroinoe 
kakopiàias, Kal mpooripois peydàois dmérpepe 
Toùs dpapráveiww péň\ovTtas. 

"Eypape Sè kal črepov vóuov noù’ Toúrov kpeír- 
Tova kal roîs maàarorépois aùrob vopobérais ŅueEàN- 
uévov: èvopobérņoe yàp trv nmoùrõv rebs vies? 
mavras pavðávev ypáupara, xopņyoðons Tís 
móàcws Toùs poboùs roîs cDaordàois. úréÀaße 
yàp Toùs åmőpovs roîs Biois, iði uù) Õvvauévovs 
Sðóvar moboús, droorephoechðar rv radlorwv 
emirnõevpdTov. 

13. Tv yàp ypapparıxiv nmapà tràs ğÀàas 

1 So Hertlein : åméypape or énéypape. 


3 moàù Hertlein : darò. 
? yies omitted by P, Vogel. 


398 


BOOK XII. 12. 2—13. 1 


government enjoyed a blessed life of freedom from 
this evil. 

Charondas also wrote a unique law on evil associa- 
tion, which had been overlooked by all other law- 
givers. He took it for granted that the characters 
of good men are in some cases perverted to evil by 
reason of their friendship and intimacy with bad 
persons,! and that badness, like a pestilent disease, 
sweeps over the life of mankind and infects the souls 
of the most upright ; for the road to the worse slopes 
downward and so provides an easier way to take ; 
and this is the reason why many men of fairly good 
character, ensnared by deceptive pleasures, get 
stranded upon very bad habits. Wishing, therefore, 
to remove this source of corruption, the lawgiver 
forbade the indulgence in friendship and intimacy 
with unprincipled persons, provided actions at law 
against evil association, and by means of severe 
penalties diverted from their course those who were 
about to err in this manner. 

Charondas also wrote another law which is far 
superior to the one just mentioned and had also been 
overlooked by lawgivers before his time. He framed 
the law that all the sons of citizens should learn to 
read and write, the city providing the salaries of the 
teachers ; for he assumed that men of no means and 
unable to provide the fees from their own resources 
would be cut off from the noblest pursuits. 

13. In fact the lawgiver rated reading and writing 


1 Cp. Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes, 599-600 : 
èv navri mpayet & čo’ ópàias kaks 
kaklov oŬĝév, KAPTOS OÙ KOOTÉOS. 
(“ In every issue naught is more evil than evil partnership 


—the fruit thereof must have no garnering.” Tr. by Smyth 
in L.C.L.) 


399 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


pabýoes mpoérpiwev ó vopolérys, kal udìa mpos- 
nkóvrws: tà yàp raúrys rà mÀeîora ral yono- 
pórara rÕv mpòs ròv piov èmreàcîohar, pýġovs, 
emoroàds, cialýkas, vópovs, TAa Tà tôv ßiov 
2 páňora émavophoðvra. ris yàp äv rov èykøpiov 
õıdloiro* ris rv ypaupádrwv pabýoews; ià yàp 
ToúTrwv póvwv ot èv? Tereàeurnkóres roîs ôo. 
Õiauvnuoveúovrat, ol è uakpàv Toîs Tómois Šte- 
OTÕTES TOÎS mÀeToTOV dTmÉXoVOW ÖS mÀàņoiov mape- 
orÔoı Ùd TÕV yeypauuévwv OMA DSL TaÎS TE kKaATÀ 
móňepov ovvôýrais év čOveow Ñ Baoiieðot mpòs 
ðauoviv rv ópoàdoyrðv ý à Tv ypappáTwv 
dodàecia Peßaroráryv čyet mior kaðódov è tràs 
xapıeordras rÕv ppovipwv dvôpôv droġdoeis Kal 
Bev yxpnopoús, ër è dıdocopiav kal mâcav 
mabeiav óv Type? kat roîŭs èmiywopévois del 
3 mapaĝlðwow cis åmavra ròv alva. iò kal roô 
Lèv biv riv púow airiav óroànrréov, roô 8è kaìôs 
tiv riv êk Tv ypappdrwv ovyreuévyv nmabeiav. 
óbev ws peydiwv twðv dyabððv drocrTepovuévovs 
Toùs dypapudárovs ÕwphlóoaTo Ti vopobecig rary 
kal Õnposias êmpeicias te kal ardvys ÑElwoe, 
4 kal rocoîrov únepepdàero roùs mpórepov vopo- 
Berýoavras ņuociw moh® Tods vosoðvras rv 
lôrwrõv dro iarpõðv Bepareveoðar, &ob’ oi èv rà 
cúuara bepareias hélwoav, ð è tàs puyàs ràs 
Úm dmaðevoias évoyovuévas ebepárevoe, kårel- 
1 Boissevain adds đvev after ŝtdlorro. 
2 pèv added by Bekker. 


1 One wonders whether Diodorus, as he wrote these words, 
was recalling the inscription “ Healing-place of the Soul,” 
which, he told us, stood on the library of the Egyptian 
Pharaoh Osymandyas (Book 1. 49. 3). 


400 


BOOK XII. 13. 14 


above every other kind of learning, and with right 
good reason ; for it is by means of them that most 
of the affairs of life and such as are most useful are 
concluded, like votes, letters, covenants, laws, and 
all other things which make the greatest contribu- 
tion to orderly life. What man, indeed, could com- 
pose a worthy laudation of the knowledge of letters ? 
For it is by such knowledge alone that the dead are 
carried in the memory of the living and that men 
widely separated in space hold converse through 
written communication with those who are at the 
furthest distance from them, as if they were at their 
side ; and in the case of covenants in time of war 
between states or kings the firmest guarantee that 
such agreements will abide is provided by the un- 
mistakable character of writing. Indeed, speaking 
generally, it is writing alone which preserves the 
cleverest sayings of men of wisdom and the oracles 
of the gods, as well as philosophy and all knowledge, 
and is constantly handing them down to succeeding 
generations for the ages to come. Consequently, 
while it is true that nature is the cause of life, the 
cause of the good life is the education which is based 
upon reading and writing. And so Charondas, believ- 
ing as he did that the illiterate were being deprived 
of certain great advantages, by his legislation 
corrected this wrong and judged them to be deserv- 
ing of concern and expense on the part of the state ; 
and he so far excelled former lawgivers who had 
required that private citizens when ill should enjoy 
the service of physicians at state expense that, 
whereas those legislators judged men’s bodies to be 
worthy of healing, he gave healing to the souls which 
were in distress through want of education,! and 


401 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


væv èv r&v larpõv eùyóueða unõénore ypeiav 
exe, Toîs è ris mabeias Saokdàors embvpot- 
Lev únavra ròv ypóvov ovvõiarpißew. 

14. 'Appórepa è rà mpoepnpéva moddol rv 
nmomrõv r? éupéTpov norýpaTtos pepapruphkact 
Tv èv kakojuàlav èv roîoðe, 


kg ? e m~ b4 Eag 3’ 2 

ôoTtis © ópAÔv Ñõerar kakoîs dvýp, 
> b4 LA 

OÙDTÖNOT POTTA, YVWOOkWV TL 

roroĝrós éorw otonep hòerar uvv 


hi b3 4 ~ a" LA 
ròv è mepl TÄS uqTpviâs rebévra vóuov" èv roúrots, 


ròv vopobéryv hasiv Xapwvõav év mvi 
vopolecig rá T àa ral ravr? àéyew' 

ò nuci aŭroĵ unTpviav èreodywv 

LÚT eùðokiueiTrw? pire pereyérw Àdyov 
TOpPÒ TOÎS MOÀLTALS, ÖS ÈNEÍTAKTOV KAKÒV 
KAT TÕV ÉAVTOÔ TMPAYLÁTWV TETOPIODÉVOS. 
eir ènérvyes ydp, noí, yhuas TÒ mpórepov, 
eùn pepõrv karáravoov, EiT” oùk eTETUXES, 
Lavrov TÒ meîpart evrépas dafe máùw. 


A A > ’ e 4 ? A 3 A Z 
raîs yàp dànbeiais ó Õis êv Tois aùroîs mpdypacıv 
2 úpaprávwv čġpwv äv aiws voole. xal 
Piýpovos ro kwpyõioypdpov ypáħovros® roùs 


2? vóuov added by Kock. 
2 So Bentley : raôra. 
3 So Herwerden ; ečŝorelohun 
é So Bentley : reipas. 
402 


BOOK XII. 13. 4—14. 2 


whereas it is our prayer that we may never have need 
of those physicians, it is our heart’s desire that all 
our time may be spent in the company of teachers 
of knowledge. 

14. To both the matters we have mentioned above 
many poets have borne witness in verse; to the law 
on evil association as follows + : 


The mau who takes delight in converse with 
The base, I never ask his kind, aware 
He’s just like those with whom he likes to be ; 


to the law he proclaimed on a stepmother as follows ? 3 


Charondas, giver of laws, so men relate, 

In legal code says many things, but this 

Above all else : Let him who on his offspring 

A second mother foists be held without 

Esteem nor count among his countrymen 

For aught, since it’s a bane that he hath brought 
From alien source upon his own affairs. 

For if, he says to him, you fortunate were 
When wedded first, forbear when you're well off, 
And if your luck was bad, a madman’s act 

It surely is to try a second wife. 


For in truth the man who errs twice in the same 
matter may justly be considered a fool. And Phile- 
mon, the writer of comedy, when introducing men 


ł Euripides, Phoenis (frag. 812, Nauck). The passage in 
fuller form is quoted by Aeschines, Timarchus, 152. These 
lines are also attributed to Menander, who, Kock thinks 
(Menander, frag. 414), may have quoted them from Euripides. 
2 From an unknown comic poet (frag. Adesp. 110, Kock). 


š Capps suggests pòs after ypágovros, Meineke rovs. 
403 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


’ z 4 2 m 
moÀdkis vavtriÀÀopévovs Kal guvenóvros TÔ 
vó 

z , 3o 2720 2 0 , , 

relaúpar oùkéT el? TEÉTMÀEUKÉ TLS, 
> >, > + la 
QAN el ménàevke òis, 


Tò maparàńoiov dv tis anopaivorro u) Bavudew 
el ris yeydunkev, AAN el Õis yeydunke': kpeîrrov 
yàp eivai Õis éavròv Baddrry nmapaßadeiv Ñ yu- 
3 vaiki. pÉyLOTAL YAP kal YAÀETNØTATAL OTÁTELS év 
Taîs oikias  ywovrar Ôa unrpviàs rérvois mpòs 
raTépas, kal ù rara moal kal mapdvopot 

mpaéeis èv Tots Bedrpois Tpayyõofvrar. 
15. ʻO & oğv Xapõvõðas rai čTepóv Twa vópov 
anoĉoxfjs dtioúpevov čypape, TÒV mept TS TÔVv 
óppavðv ġvàakîs. obros Ò eé emmoàĝs pev 
cwpovpevos oùðèv haiverat mepirròv ëyew oùðè 
aroðoyhs déiov, avalewpovuevos è kat per åkpi- 
Beias éberabópevos peyáiny EXEL OTovòýv TE kal 
2 óav. ëypae yàp TÕv pèv ôppavikõv xPpáTwV 
EmiTponevew Tos dayxorTeîs ToÙs amò TAaTpOS, Tpé- 
peabar è ToÙsS òppavoùs Tapà Toîs avyyevéot Toîs 
ano paTpós. aùróbev pèv oĝv ò  VÓpOS oîros oùðev 
ópârTar mepiéywv oohòv Ù nepirróv, éteračóuevos ĝè 
karà Bálovs eùpiorerat Siraiws æv déros énaivaw. 
Enrovpévns yàp TS airíos ôr Ñv &AAÀoLS pèv 
TV olav, érépois 8È TÙV TÖV òppavõv Tpodùv 
éniorevoev, ékaiverai Ts ènivow Toî vopobéTov 
3 mepirrý’ ot pèv yap anrò unrpòs ovyyeveîs où 
npooýkovtes TH kÀņpovopig TÔv oppavõv oùk èm- 
Bovàeúcovow, ot © drò toô raTtpòs oikeïot êmpov- 

1 So Capps, elróvros Nółw Kock : einóvros vóu. 
2 So Dindorf: oùkx émel. 


404 


BOOK XII. 14. 2—15. 3 


who repeatedly sail the seas, after commending the 
law, says 1: 


Amazement holds me, no longer if a man 
Has gone to sea, but if he’s done it twice. 


Similarly one may say that one is not amazed if a 
man has married, but if he has married a second time ; 
for it is better to expose oneself twice to the sea than 
toa woman. Indeed the greatest and most grievous 
quarrels in homes between children and fathers are 
caused by stepmothers, and this fact is the cause of 
many lawless acts which are portrayed in tragic 
scenes upon the stage. 

15. Charondas also wrote another law which merits 
approbation—that which deals with the protection 
of orphans. On the surface this law appears to con- 
tain nothing unusual or worthy of approbation, but 
when it is scrutinized more closely and examined 
with care, it indicates not only earnest study but 
also a high claim to regard. For his law provided 
that the property of orphans should be managed by 
the next of kin on the father’s side, but that th 
orphans should be reared by their relatives on the 
mother’s side. Now at first glance a man sees nothing 
wise or outstanding in this law, but when it is ex- 
plored deeply it is found to be justly worthy of praise. 
For if the reason is sought out why he entrusted the 
property of orphans to one group and the rearing of 
them to another, the lawgiver is seen to have shown 
an unusual kind of ingenuity. That is, the relatives 
on the mother’s side will not plot to take the lives 
of the orphans, since they have no share in their 
inheritance, and the kin on the father’s side do not 


1 Frag. 183 (Kock). 
405 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Aceña pèv où Õúvavraı ià TO uù) moreveohart ToÔ 
owpaTos, Ts Ò oùcias eis ékeivovs kabnkovons, 
eav oi oppavol teàeuvrjowow Ñ Sà võoov ù} Twa 
äààyv mepioraow, akpipéorepov olkovouýoovo 
Tà xpýpara ©s iðiaşs tràs êk ris Túyņns êàmiðas 
êxovTes. 

16. “Erepov è člne võpov rarà tv Muróvrwv 
TÅv èv noàéuw ráčw Ñ Tò oúvoàov uù àvañaßóvrwv 
tà óna únèp ris nmarplðos. tv yàp äAwv 
vopolerðv karà TÕv Tooúrwv Teleótrwv Odvarov 
TÒ mpóoriuov, oðros mpocérače Toùs ToLoŬTovs èv 
Tti dyopå è$ huépas rpeîs rkabĵoðbar èv èohio 

2 yuvarxeiars. Ò Ôe vópos oros dua pèv piàavâpw- 
mórTepős dort Tv Tmapà Toîs Aois dua è Acn- 
Oótrws TÔ peyébe ts dtuias drmorpéret Toùs 
óuoiovs ToŬrTois Tijs åvavðpías’ kperrrov ydp eorw 
anobaveõv Ñ) roravrys Ùßpews èv T) maTpiðı me~- 
palfvar: dua è kal roùs apaprávovras ovk pávi- 
oe, Aà r móde Tpòs TAS  _Todeuikàs xpeías 
erhpo ós? Sroplwsopévovs TÅ ða ris vppews 
kodot kat oneúoovras? éTépois årôpayaðýpaoıw 
etañeîpar Tiv npoyeyevnuévny aioxúvny. 

3 Aà sè TiS åTmoTopias TÔvV vópwv Sréowoe Toùs 
vóuovs ó vouolérys. mpocérače yàp k mavròs 
TpóTov meibeola TÔ vópw, kàv Î, mavTedðs kakôs 
yeypappévos: Stophoôv 8è ovvexópnoe Tòv xpeiav 

4 čxovra Stophhoews. TÒ pèv yàp ýrrâoðo úno 
vopobérov xkañòv elvat Úreàdupave, rò è úrò 
bwrov mavreàðs Arorov, kal e ém TÔ ovp- 


1 èrýpno’ œs Capps: èrýpnoe. 
2 Vogel is the only editor who prefers omeúôovras of PAFL. 


406 


BOOK XII. 15. 3—16. 4 


have the opportunity to plot against their lives, since 
they are not entrusted with the care of their persons ; 
furthermore, since they inherit the property if the 
orphans die of disease or some other circumstance, 
they will administer the estate with greater care, 
believing that they hold as their own what are hopes 
based upon an act of Fortune. 

16. Charondas also wrote a law against men who 
had left their post in war or had refused to take up 
arms at all in defence of their fatherland. Other 
lawmakers had made death the punishment of such 
men, but Charondas ordered that they should sit for 
three days in the market-place dressed in women’s 
clothes. And this law is not only more humane than 
those of other peoples but it also imperceptibly, 
by the severity of the disgrace it inflicts, diverts 
others of like mind from cowardice ; for it is better 
to die than to experience such a gross indignity 
in one’s fatherland. Moreover, he did not do away 
with the guilty men but preserved them for the 
state against the needs of wartime, believing that 
they would make amends, by reason of the punish- 
ment caused by that disgrace, and would be eager 
to wipe out their former shame by bolder deeds of 
bravery. 

The lawgiver also preserved the laws he made by 
means of their severity. That is, he commanded that 
under every circumstance obedience should be ren- 
dered to the law even if it had been altogether 
wrongly conceived ; but he allowed any law to be 
corrected, if it needed correction. For he took the 
position that although it was right enough that a man 
should be overruled by a lawgiver, to be overruled 
by one in private station was quite preposterous, 


407 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Qépovri yiverar. kal páňora Siò ToÎ TOLOŬTOU 
Tpónov Toùs èv ToS Sixaornpios TÔv Tapavevo- 
unkótwv npopáoes Kai Sravoias åvrì rv pyrôv 
elodyovras kwÀvoe TaS iias eúpnorñoyiars 

5 karañóew Tv TÔv vópwv úmepoxýy di kal TWAS 
TÔV TOLAÚTAS KATNYOPÍAS METONMEVWV TPOS TOUS 
Sıkaoràs roùs ŝixdgovras mepi Tis TÕv mapa- 
vevounKóTwv Tuwpias einet? õri owbew avaykatov 
Ñ rov vópov ù TÒV àvõpa. , , 

17. Tòv X ov Xapavõav paoi mapaoğóTaTov 
vevopoberykévar mept TS Sroplwoews Tôõv vóõpav. 
ópôvra yàp aùròv év raîs mÀeloros TóÀco z TÒ 
mAÑlos TÔv èmyepovvTwv èravoploðv Toùs vópovs 
Avuawopévovs uev TAS npoŭnapxovoas vopoleolas, 
els ordoeis ÕÈ TÀ nAýIN mpoayopévovs, iòióv Ti kal 

2 navreňĝðs éénàdaypévov vopolerhoar? mpocérage 
yàp TÒv Povàópevov Sroplðoai twa vónov, őrav 
morra Thv mepi TîS Srophóoews ovppov iav, Tòv 
avroð rpáynàov eis Ppóxov èyriðévan, rat póvei 
äypi äv örov Tiv kpiow o Shuos mept o8 Siop- 
Bovuévov vópov moonTat, KAV HEV Ñ EKKI oio 
npooðéénrai ròv ČoTepov ypapópevov, ånoñdeo ar 
rov eionynoápevov, àv be äxupov morjonta Tv 
Sióphwow, mapayphya Ovýorew Úno To Ppóxov 

3 odġiyyópevov. TOraÚTIS õe kaTà TÙY Stóp wow 
ris vopobecias oŬons, kat TOÔ póßov Toùs vewrté- 
povs vopobéras roàábovrtos, oùðeis êróňpa Tepi 
vóőpwv ðoplwsews poviy rpoteobor év mavti òè 
7® perà raðra xpóvw mapà Tots Oouvpiois Tpets 

i zà added py Steplanus. tv . . . ÕikaoTtàs oyeðıáľovros 
mepi . . . elnev Madvig. 3 So Stephanus : é&ropobérnoe. 


408 


BOOK XII. 16. 4—-17. 3 


even if that serves the general interest. And it was 
especially by this means that he prevented men who 
present in jury-courts the pretences and cunning 
devices of those who have violated the laws in place 
of the literal terms of the laws from destroying by 
inventive sophistries their supremacy. As a conse- 
quence, we are told, to certain men who had offered 
such arguments before the jurors who were passing 
on the punishment of men who had violated the 
law, he said, “ You must save either the law or 
the man,” 

17. But the most amazing legislation of Charondas, 
we are told, was that which related to the revision 
of the laws. Observing that in most states the multi- 
tude of men who kept endeavouring to revise the 
laws led continually to the vitiation of the previously 
existing body of the laws and incited the masses to 
civil strife, he wrote a law which was peculiar and 
altogether unique. He commanded, namely, that 
the man who proposed to revise any law should put 
his neck in a noose at the time he made his proposal 
of a revision, and remain in that position until the 
people had reached a decision on the revision of the 
law, and if the Assembly approved the revised law, 
the introducer was to be freed of the noose, but if 
the proposal of revision did not carry, the noose was 
to be drawn and the man die on the spot. Such 
being the legislation relating to revision, fear re- 
strained subsequent lawmakers and not a man dared 
to utter a word about revising laws ; and in all sub- 
sequent time history records but three men who 


1 Such a law is also attested for Locris; cp. Bonner- 
Smith, Administration of Justice from Homer to Aristotle, 
1, p. 75. 


409 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


e : e Ps ` ` n 
ot ndvres ioropoðvrar iophłwral Stà rò* Twas 
dvaykaias mepiordoeis ml Tv únèp tis Siopho- 
cews ovußovàlav mapayevéoĝbar? 

ld A Y Ir la Ed hi 3 f 
4 Nópov yàp õvros, ddv ris Tiwos òphañpov èrróin, 
dvrekkőnreolai ròv ekelvov, érepőðġladuós Tis èk- 
` A 3 ` y ~ e m~ 
Kkoneis ròv òpÂauðv ral orepnheis óàns ris 
Öpdoews TÔ TÒv va dvrekkekóhla ròv õpdsavra 
éàarrov Únéaße mpõotriov krisar tvpàócavra 
yàp éva TÕV MOùUTÕV, €l TÒ KATÀ VLOV TpóOTIjLOV 
ó mpdčas úropévot, pů Terevyévar Tis tons ocvpo- 
pâs: Sirarov ov eiva ròv érepóßbadpov rův pac 
2 2 3 t ? lg AI kJ 
dġeňóuevov dpporépovs èkkónrecħðar roùs pha- 
Lovs, el pée Tùv ionv åvaðéyeoĵar Tıpwpiav. 
5 ð kal mepadiyi yevópevov ròv érepóģðaňpov 
ånorouoa Àčyov év êkkànoig ciabéohar mepi ris 
lias ovupopâs, ua pèv roîs modirais dmoðupõ- 
pevov Tùv ilav dtvyíav, pa è ovußovicðovra 
Toîs mÀàýleot Srophlwcach ðv vóuov: TÉÀ è 

îs màheoi Sieopfwcachar ròv vóuov: réàos è 
õóvra ròv Tpáynàov eis Ppóyov kal émiruyóvra rå 
ovußovàlą, åkvpðcat èv ròv órápyovra vópov, 

"~ Sè hI ô 2 A ~ A 
BeBarðoar è rov Sophwbévra, kat Siadvyeiv ròv 
toô Bpóxov Odvarov. 

18. Aevrepos è ĉrwphłwln võpos ó ððods dov- 
ciav T) yuvuki dmoàðew Tòv dvõpa kal ovvoikeîy 
A SÀ m ` 2 n r la 
& àv Poúàntar. rõv yàp npoßeßnkótrwv Ti hrig 
Tis, čxwv yvvaîka vewrépav kal karadeipheis, 
ovveßovàeve rois Qovpiois Seopa Tòv vópov kal 
mpoocypáļar Tův karaùıroðoav dvõpa cvvoiceiv ® 


1 foropoôvrarı (Wurm) ĉophfwral (Reiske) 7ò (added by Old- 
father) : eonyoðvrar Seophwbivar Sid Twas. 
2 emi Tùy.. . mapayevéobða: deleted by Vogel. 


410 


BOOK XII. 17. 3—18. 1 


proposed revision among the Thurians, and these 
appeared because circumstances arose which rendered 
proposals of revision imperative. 

Thus, there was a law that if a man put out the 
eye of another, he should have his own eye put out, 
and a man with but one eye, having had that eye 
put out and thus lost his entire sight, claimed that 
the offender, by the loss in requital of but one eye, 
had paid a less penalty; for, he maintained, if a 
man who had blinded a fellow citizen paid only the 
penalty fixed by the law, he would not have suffered 
the same loss ; it would be just, therefore, that the 
man who had destroyed the entire sight of a man 
with but one eye should have both his eyes put out, 
if he were to receive a like punishment. Conse- 
quently the man with one eye, taking the matter 
strongly to heart, made bold to raise in the Assembly 
the case of the loss he had suffered, at the same time 
both lamenting bitterly over his personal misfortune 
to his fellow citizens and suggesting to the commons 
that they revise the law ; and in the end, putting 
his neck in a noose, he won his proposal, set at 
naught the existing law, and had the revision 
approved, and he escaped the death by the noose 
as well. 

18. A second law, which gave a wife the right to 
divorce her husband and marry whomever she chose, 
was also revised. A certain man, who was well 
advanced in years and had a wife who was younger 
than he and had left him, proposed to the Thurians 
that they revise the law by the added provision that 
the wife who leaves a husband may marry whomever 


8 7 (Reiske) ròv éva (Cobet) dvrexkeróġða: (Madvig): 7ò 
pèr åvrerkópatr 


411 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


“A 
äv Poúànra KÀ vewTépw TOÔ mporépov: duoíws 
òè kav avp ekpdàņn yuvaîka, pù) yape aAÀnv 

2 vewTépav TaŬTNs Tis ekpànbeions. eboroyýoas © 
&v rh ovppovàig kal dkvpösas TÒv TpőTepov vópov 
Srépvye TOv êk TOÔ Ppóyov rivõuvov: ris Sè yuvar- 
kòs rwàvleions vewTépw ovvoikioar, nmáÀw čynue 
TÒv dmoùvlévra. 

3. Fpiros Sè vóuos Scwphöby ó mepi rôv èmeihpwv, 
ó kal mapà Zóňwvi reiuevos. èkéìeve yàp r 
Emuúpw emôidteolar ròv ëyyiora yévovs, ġo- 
aúrws Òe kal Tv enrikàņnpov ènbikdteobar TÔ 
ayxioTeT, Îr dvdykņ ovvoixev Ù} mevrakocias 
ékrioa Öpaypàs eis mpoixòs Àóyov TÅ meviypå 

4 êmudýpo. oppav) yáp rış eùyevis ènirànpos, 
åmopovpévn TAVTEAÔS TÕr kara tov Blov xal Sià 
TÙ meviav où Svvapérn ovvoicioa, karépvyev èri 
Tòv Sfuov, kai perà ŝarpõwv érbepévn Thv éavris 
epnpiav Te kal kaTappórņow, mpòs è ToÚToLS 
ónoypaapév TÀ Sióplwov Tod vóuov, ore åvri 
TIS EkTioews rÕv mevrakociwv paypðv ypápo 
cvvoieÎy Kar dváyrny Ttòv àyxiora yévovs r 
êmbwaobeion emwànpw toô Sè Súpov Sià röv 
Ecov Pnprauévov õioplâca ròv võpov, ý pèr 
ophav) TÒv êK ToÔ Bpõxov kívõvvov éčéġvuyev, d © 
dyxioreùs movotos öv vaykádoðy yua yvvaîka 
Treviypav émirànpov Õvev Tpoikés. 

19. Aeinerar © uiv eimetv órèp Tis To Xapõv- 
õov Tedevrhs, kab’ Ñv Dióv re ral mapdõoćov ağrô 
ouvéßny. èri yàp Tùy xópav èčiòv perà fipistov 

1 tô added by Dindorf. 


1 See Plutarch, Solon, 20. 
412 


BOOK XIIL, 18. 1—19. I 


she chooses, provided the man is not younger than 
her former husband ; and that likewise, if a man 
sends his wife away he may not marry a woman 
younger than the wife whom he had sent away. The 
elderly man won his proposal and set at naught the 
former law, also escaping the peril of the noose which 
threatened him; and his wife, who had thus been 
prevented from living with a younger husband, 
married again the man she had left. 

A third law to be revised had to do with heiresses 
and is also found in the legislation of Solon.* Char- 
ondas ordered that the next of kin be assigned in 
marriage to an heiress and that likewise an heiress 
be assigned in marriage to her nearest relative, who 
was required to marry her or, if she were poor, to 
contribute five hundred drachmas as a dowry of the 
penniless heiress. And a certain orphan who was 
an heiress, of good birth but altogether without 
means of support and so unable by reason of her 
poverty to find a husband, turned to the people for 
aid, explaining to them with tears how helpless and 
scorned she was; and she went on to outline the 
revision of the law whereby, in place of the payment 
of five hundred drachmas, it should specify that the 
next of kin be required to marry the heiress who had 
been assigned to him. The people took pity on her 
and voted for the revision of the law, and thus the 
orphan escaped the peril which threatened her from 
the noose, while the nearest of kin, who was wealthy, 
was compelled to take to wife a penniless heiress 
without a dowry. 

19. It remains for us to speak of the death of 
Charondas, in connection with which a peculiar and 
unexpected thing happened to him. He had set out 


413 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Sià roùs Aņnords, kal karà Thv èndvoðov èkkàņolas 
TuvEoTWONS kat Tapaxis èv rois nÀýleci, mposéorn 

2 roàvnpayuovðv Tà katà Tùv ordow. vevouobern- 
kös Ò Ñv unôéva pe? ônìov ékkàņoidtew, kal 
EemÀalópevos ótt Tò idos mapétwortai, mapéðwkev 
èxylpoîs trow apopuùv karņnyopias. ©v évòs elróv- 
ros Karadéàvkas trov Wðiov vóuov, Mà AC, elrev, 
dààà kúpiov morýow' kal omacápevos TÒ Érhiðiov 
éavròv anéopačev. čvor Šè rôv ovyypaġéwv Tùv 
npâéw raúryy nepiriéaci Aioràe? TO Lvpakosiwv 
vouolérTy. 

3 “Hues è aprovvrws rà mept Xapovåav ròv vo- 
poléryv Šeànàvlóres Bpayéa Bovàóueða kai mepi 
Zaeúkov To vouolérov edbeiv id Te Tv óuoiav 
mpoaipeow Toĝ Plov kal Tò yeyovévar roùs ăvòpas 
év móàeow aorvyeirootw. 

20. Zdàevkos Towuv Ñv Tò yévos er ris Iraàlas 
Aokpós, ávůp eùyevůs kai karà maÑeiav Tehavpa- 
ouévos, paðnrs è Iubayópov roô fıosóġov. 
oûros noÀñs anoðoyis Tvyydvwv èv TÅ maTpið 
vopolérns ńpéðņ, kal Kkaraßaàóuevos e£ àpyñs 
kawy vopobeciav Ñpéaro mpõrov mepi trÔv èr- 

2 ovpaviwv heðv. eùlòs yap êv TÔ Tmpooruiw Tis ÖÀNsS 
vooleocias čġy ðeîv roùs karoixofvras èv ri móet 
návrwv nmpõTov únoaßeiv ral meneiohat Beoùs 
civa, kal raîs ĝiavoiais emokoroûvras! Tòv oùpa- 
vòv kai Tùv ĵiakóounow kal tráčw kpívew où Tú- 
xns oùò avôponwv elvat rañra? karackevdopara, 


1 So Stephanus : émakoneîv. 2 So Dindorf: raîra rá. 


1 See Book 13. 33. 
4l4 


BOOK XII. 19. 1—20. 2 


to the country carrying a dagger because of the 
robbers, and on his return the Assembly was in 
session and the commons in an uproar, whereupon he 
approached it because he was curious about the 
matter in dispute. But he had made a law that no 
man should enter the Assembly carrying a weapon, 
and since he had forgotten he was carrying the dagger 
at his side, he provided certain of his enemies with 
an occasion to bring an accusation against him. And 
when one of them said, “ You have annulled your 
own law,” he replied, “ Not so, by Zeus, I will uphold 
it,” and drawing the dagger he slew himself. Some 
historians, however, attribute this act to Diocles, the 
lawgiver of the Syracusans.! 

But now that we have discoursed at sufficient 
length upon Charondas the lawmaker, we wish to 
speak briefly also of the lawmaker Zaleucus, since 
the two men not only followed similar principles of 
life but were also natives of neighbouring cities. 

20. Now Zaleucus was by birth a Locrian of Italy,? 
a man of noble family, admired for his education, and 
a pupil of the philosopher Pythagoras. Having been 
accorded high favour in his native city, he was chosen 
lawmaker and committed to writing a thoroughly 
novel system of law, making his beginning, first of all, 
with the gods of the heavens. For at the outset in the 
introduction to his legislation as a whole he declared 
it to be necessary that the inhabitants of the city 
should first of all assume as an article of their creed 
that gods exist, and that, as their minds survey the 
heavens and its orderly scheme and arrangement, they 
should judge that these creations are not the result of 
Chance or the work of men’s hands ; that they should 


2 As distinguished from the two Locri in Greece. 
415 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


oéßeobai re rods leos, s ndvræwv râv év TÂ biw 
kaàðv kal dyabôv alriovs vras roîs åvôpórots, 
éxew õè kal Thv puxyhv kabapàv náons karias, ós 
rõv leðv où yupóvrrav raîs rôv novnpôv Îvoiais 
Te kai Šandvais, dÀAÀà raîs rôv dyaĝłðv dvôpõv 

3 ôxaiais re xal kaìaîs èmiryôevoeoi. Sià Sè roô 
Tpoorpiov npokaìeodpevos Tods noàiras eis eùo- 
Beray rat Sixarosúvyv, ènéleve mpoorádrrwv KN- 
õéva TÕv noùrÂv èylÌpòv åraráňdarrov exew, dAN 
oŭrw Tùv éxOpav dvadapßdvew ós ÑÉovra nádw 
eis oóàvow kal giàlav: ròv Sè napà raôra morovra 
Srañappdveoðat mapà roîs moàirais àvýuepov kal 
dypiov Tùv puxýv. Toùs è äpxovras maperehevero 
uÀ civar abbdôes unõè Úrepnávovs, pè rpivew 
npòs ëxpav Ñ plav. èv è roîs karà pépos 
vopolerýpac ToàÀà map’ éavroô npocefeðpe pdàa 
TopÂsS kat nEpTTÂS. 

21. Tv yàp dov åárdávrwv åápapravovoðv 
yvvuxâv dpyvpiràs Enuias reraxórwv oros ido- 
TEXvVw TposTiup Ts dkoàacias aùrôv Swwpho- 
caro. ëypape yap oðrw' yuvawci èħevhépa pù 
mÀeiw Qkodovbeiv mâs Beparawiðos àv BÀ pebón, 
NOÈ Eérévar vurròs èk rìs móňews eè u) poryevo- 
pévyy, pnôè nepiribeoðoar ypvoia unë? èobĝra 
mapvpagpév àv pù éraipa ĝ, unè ròv čvõpa 
fopeiv Sarrúóňiov óróypvoov unè iudriov loomàń- 

2 oov, àv pÀ érapeúntrai Ñ poiyevnrar. Siò kal 
pgõiws rais rv npooripwv aioypaîs úrečapéoeow 


1 So Stephanus : vopolerýcas. 
416 


BOOK XJI. 20. 2--21. 2 


revere the gods as tke cause of all that is noble and 
good in the life of mankind ; and that they should 
keep the soul pure from every kind of evil, in the 
belief that the gods take no pleasure in either the 
sacrifices or costly gifts of the wicked but in the just 
and honourable practices of good men. And after 
inviting the citizens in this introduction to reverence 
and justice, he appended the further command that 
they should consider no one of their fellow citizens 
as an enemy with whom there can be no reconcilia- 
tion, but that the quarrel be entered into with the 
thought that they will again come to agreement and 
friendship; and that the one who acts otherwise 
should be considered by his fellow citizens to be 
savage and untamed of soul. Also the magistrates 
were urged by him not to be wilful or arrogant, and 
not to render judgement out of enmity or friendship. 
And among his several ordinances a number were 
added of his own devising, which showed exception- 
ally great wisdom. 

21. To cite examples, whereas everywhere else 
wayward wives were required to pay fines, Zaleucus 
stopped their licentious behaviour by a cunningly 
devised punishment. That is, he made the following 
laws : a free-born woman may not be accompanied 
by more than one female slave, unless she is drunk ; 
she may not leave the city during the night, unless 
she is planning to commit adultery; she may not 
wear gold jewelry or a garment with a purple border, 
unless she is a courtesan ; and a husband may not wear 
a gold-studded ring or a cloak of Milesian 1 fashion 
unless he is bent upon prostitution or adultery. Con- 
sequently, by the elimination, with its shameful 


1 Miletus was noted for the luxurious life of its inhabitants. 
417 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


drérpee Ts Pàaßepâs Tpupis kal åkoñaaías TV 
emiryõevuárwv: oùðels yàp eßovderTo TÀ aioypàv 
ároàaciav ópooyýoas karayéìaoros év roîs moi- 
3 rais elvari. ToÀÀd è kal Aa TÕv ovufodaiwv ral 
TÔv dMwv TÕv karà Tòv Blov dupioßnrTovpévwv 
kaàðs évopoléryoe, mepi v uiv parpòv äv ein 
ypádħew kat ts únmokeuévņs ioTopias dvoikeov' 
Siórep èm Tà ouvexĵ toîs mpoepyuévois àvafßá- 
ki 
copev Tov Àóyov. 

22. Er äpxovros yàp ’ Abúvyot Avoipayiðov 
‘Pwpaîor pv úrndárovs karéornoav Tirov Mevýviov 
kal Ióràov Dýoriov Karerwàivov. émi ðè Toúrwv 
Sradevyovres TÒv èv ti ordoe kivõvvov Duvßapîrar 
mepi ròv Tpdevra morapòv karørqoav. ral ypõvov 

t ld Eg ? e A a ? + 
pé twa Õiépewav, éneb? drò Bperriwv èkpànbév- 

2 res åvņnpéðņoav. rarà è rv ‘Edda `Ayvaîo 
tiv Eùßoirav avarryodpevoi kat roùs ‘Eoriaeîs 
? m SÀ ? Àó O7 ? 7 > 3 A 
èk Tis módews êkfadóvres iðiav droikiav eis aùÙrùv 
? t + m + 4 
etémewfpav Ilepicàéovs orparņnyoðvros, yiÀlovs ðè 
oikýropas ekmépfpavres TÚV Te TÓÀAV Kal TÅV 
xopav kaTekàņpovynoav. 

23. Er àpyovros © 'Abúvyoı Ilpafıréàovs 
OÀ A A Ea ld 4 a ? Ò ld 

vumàs pev ġyIN Terdpry mpos Taîs dyõoýkovra., 

3 A LETA ld 7 e A ? hi ~ 
kał Ñv vika ordðiov Kpiocwv ‘Iuepaios, êv Sè ti 
e TA 7 Y t LA Å 
Põóun éka ävõpes kareordðnoav vouoypágoi, 
Ióràos Kàs ‘Pyydavós, Tiros Mwúkos, 
Erópios Overovpios, Tdios `Ioúios, Táios Zovà- 
mikios, Iórùos Eýoros, ‘Pwuúdos, Erópios 


1 The preceding legislation of Zaleucus has been cited ag 
418 


BOOK XII. 21. 2—23. 1 


implications, of the penalties he easily turned men 
aside from harmful luxury and wanton living ; for no 
man wished to incur the sneers of his fellow citizens 
by acknowledging the disgraceful licentiousness. He 
wrote many other excellent laws, such as those on 
contracts and other relations of life which are tlhe 
cause of strife. But it would be a long task for us to 
recount them and foreign to the plan of our history, 
and so we shall resume our account at the point where 
we digressed from the course of our narrative. 

22. When Lysimachides was archon in Athens, the 
Romans elected as consuls Titus Menenius and 
Publius Sestius Capitolinus. In this year the Sybar- 
ites who were fleeing from the danger threatening 
them in the civil strife made their home on the Traïs 
River. Here they remained for a time, but later they 
were driven out by the Brettii and destroyed. And 
in Greece the Athenians, regaining control of Euboea 
and driving the Hestiaeans from their city, dis- 
patched, under Pericles as commander, a colony of 
their own citizens to it and sending forth a thousand 
colonists they portioned out both the city and country- 
side in allotments. 

23. When Praxiteles was archon in Athens, the 
Eighty-fourth Olympiad was celebrated, that in 
which Crison of Himera won the *“‘ stadion,” and in 
Rome the following ten men ? were elected to draft 
laws : Publius Clodius Regillanus, Titus Minucius, 
Spurius Veturius, Gaius Julius, Gaius Sulpicius, 
Publius Sestius, Romulus (Romilius), Spurius Pos- 
an example of “ imperfect ” laws, that is, those which lack 
any penal sanction other than the offender’s sense of shame 
or the infamy attaching to him (cp. S. Pufendorf, De jure 


naturae et gentium, 1. 6. 14). 
2 The famous Decemvirate. 


419 


445 B.C. 


444 B.C 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Ilooroúuios Kaßivios. oroi roùs vóuovs ovveré- 
2 Àecav, émi Õè roúrwv Qoŭpior pèv Šiarodepoðvres 
mpòs Tapavrívouvs tràs dàMńàwv yæpas èrdóphovv 
kal kaŭtà yiv kal karà Bádarrav, kal moàààs pèv 
kpas uáyas kai dkpoßoňùopoùs èrorvýoavrto, éig- 
oyov ðe mpâév oùðepiav gvveréàecav. 

24. Emr dpyovros © 'Abývnoı Avoaviov ‘Pw- 
paño ndàw ðéka àvõpas vopobéras edovro, *Ar- 
mov Kàdðiov, Mdprov Kopvýiov, Aeúriov Mwú- 
kiov, Idáiov Lépyiov, Kówrov Ilórov* Máviov 

2 ‘Pafoàńov, Erópiov Oùeroúpiov. oror Šè rToòs 
vóovs oùk ôvvýðnoav ouvredéoai. els © èÉ aù- 
rõv epaobeis eùyevoðs maphévov meviypôâs, Tò uèv 
TpõTov XPýpaCL Srapheîpos Thv kópņv èneßdàero, 
ws Ò où nposeîyev aùr&, éranéoTede ovkopávryv 

3 êr aùrýv, npoordéas yew eis Ŝovàelav. roô şè 
ovkohdvrov pýoavros iíav aúroô elvai Šoúànv kal 
mpòs ròv ğpxovra karaorýoavros ovàaywyov- 
Lény, npocayayàv karnyópnoev ws Soúàns. To 
òè Õiakoúoavros rs karņnyopias kat Tùv kópnv 
eyxeipioavros, êmiÀaßóuevos ó ovkoßávrys ánñyev 
ws idiay Soúànv. 

4 “O dè marp tis maphévov mapòv ral ŝewonra- 


2? Poetilius in Livy, 3. 35, 41 and Dionysius, 11. 23. 
2 So Wurm, Bezzel: ðovìaywyeîv, deleted by Vogel. 


1 The sources do not agree on the names. Here Publius 
Clodius should be Appius Claudius; and Diodorus also 
omits the names of A. Manlius Vulso and P. Curiatius. 

2 The Laws of the Twelve Tables, the first Roman laws 
to be put in writing. Fhe common Roman tradition was 
that two of the laws were passed under the second Decemvi- 
rate ; but Diodorus (chap. 26. 1) states that they were added 


420 


BOOK XII. 23. 1—24. 4 


tumius Calvinius.! These men drew up the laws.’ 
This year the Thurians and the Tarantini kept up 
continuous warfare and ravaged each other’s territory 
both by land and by sea. They engaged in many 
light battles and skirmishes, but accomplished no 
deed worthy of mention. 

24. When Lysanias was archon in Athens, the 
Romans again chose ten men as lawmakers : Appius 
Clodius, Marcus Cornelius, Lucius Minucius, Gaius 
Sergius, Quintus Publius, Manius Rabuleius, and 
Spurius Veturius.? These men, however, were not 
able to complete the codification of the laws. One * 
of them had conceived a passion for a maiden who 
was penniless but of good family, and at first he 
tried to seduce the girl by means of money ; and 
when she would have nothing to do with him, he 
sent an agent to her home with orders to lead her into 
slavery. The agent, claiming that she was his own 
slave, brought her, serving in that capacity, before 
the magistrate, in whose court Appius charged her 
with being his slave. And when the magistrates had 
listened to the charge and handed the girl over to 
him, the agent led her off as his own slave. 

The maiden’s father, who had been present at the 
scene and had complained bitterly of the injustice 


under the consuls Horatius and Valerius, and this seems 
more likely (see Beloch, Römische Geschichte, p. 245). The 
correct dates of the Decemvirates are 451 and 450 B.C., 
and of the consuls Horatius and Valerius, 449. 

3 These are only seven names, anà the last, Spurius 
Veturius, is not found in other lists; Clodius should be 
Claudius. 

4 Appius Claudius (Livy, 3. 44). 

5 Verginia. The following story ranks among the most 
famous of Roman tradition. The classic account is in Livy, 
3. 44 ff. 


421 


448 B.Q 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Ov, ws oùðeis arð rpoceîye, maparopevópevos 
KATA TÚXNV TAP KPEOTHALOV, úpTáCaAS TV Tapa- 
kepévyv èni trs cavlðos koria, raúry nardéas 
Tv Îvyarépa ánékrtewev, iva p) TÑs Bpews Àdfny 
meîpav, aùròs Ò èk ris nóňews érnyòhoas arnAle 
mpos TÒ orparóneðov TÒ év TÔ °` Aàyðw kadovuévw 

5 róre úndapxov. rara$vyùv ðè èri rò nànlos kal 
pera ðakpõwv TV kaf’ aúròr' ovupopav amayyei- 
àas, dravras yayev cis éÀeov kal ToàÀàùv ovp- 
naberav. ndvrwv È èmponbew rois Yrvynróow 
óppnodvrwv, perà TÕv ÔnÀwv vukTòs eis rhv ‘Po- 
uyv cicénecov. oÔrToi èv obv rareàdfovro Àódov 
Tòv ovopačópevov ` Aovevrivov. 

25. "Apa © huépa yvwoleions TS TÖV eTpaTw- 
TÔv puoorovypias ot pèv éka vopoypdpor Bonbosv- 
Tes TÔ cvvápxovre ovvijyov mooùs tÕv véwv, 
os ĝa rv oraw kpiðyoópevov peyaàns © èp- 
necovons pÀoTulaS oi XApPtÉOTATOL TÖV TOùTÖÕV, 
mpoopúpevor TÒ péyelos roô kwõúvov, Sienrpeoßev- 
gavTo mpòs duoorépovs mepi ovàúcews, kal perà 
nofs onmovõfjs éðéovro Aéat ris oTdoews kal 
uÀ neppadceiv riv marpa peyádàois ovupopais. 

2 réìos è newbévrov drndvrwv ópoňoyias ¿hevro 
mpòs dààńàovs, Ŭore éka aipeioĝðar Õyudpyovs 
peyioras čyovras éfovolas TÔV kKaTÀ TÙV TÓW 
apxóvrwæv, kal Toúrovs úrápyew otovet púňakas Tis 
rv moùrðv éňevlepias: rv è rar evavrov 


2? So Eichstädt: xar aùróv. 


1 This is probably a defective translation of decemviri 
collegae auxilium ferentes (see Klimke, Diodor und die röm. 
Annalistik, p. T). 

2? Diodorus had forgotten that he had already acknow- 
422 


BOOK XII. 24. 4—25. 2 


he had suffered, since no attention had been paid 
to him, passed, as it happened, a butcher’s shop, and 
snatching up the cleaver lying on the block, he struck 
his daughter with it and killed her, to prevent her 
experiencing the violation which awaited her ; then 
he rushed out of the city and made his way to the 
army which was encamped at the time on Mount 
Algidus, as it is called. There he laid his case before 
the common soldiers, denounced with tears the mis- 
fortune that had befallen him, and won their com- 
plete pity and great sympathy. The entire body 
sallied forth to bring help to the unfortunates and 
burst into Rome during the night fully armed. There 
they seized the hill known as the Aventine. 

25. When with the day the hatred of the soldiers 
toward the evil which had been done became known, 
the ten lawmakers, rallying to the aid of their fellow 
magistrate,! collected a body of young men, with the 
intention of settling the issue by a test of arms. 
Since a great spirit of contention now threatened 
the state, the most respectable citizens, foreseeing 
the greatness of the danger, acted as ambassadors 
between both parties to reach an agreement and 
begged them with great earnestness to cease from 
the civil discord and not plunge their fatherland into 
such serious distress. In the end all were won over 
and a mutual agreement was reached as follows : 
that ten tribunes should be elected who should wield 
the highest authority among the magistrates of the 
state and should act as guardians of the freedom of 
the citizens?; and that of the annual consuls one 


ledged the existence of tribunes under the year 466 (Book. 11. 
68. 8). It may be, however, that in this year the patricians 
first recognized in law the tribunate or some of its powers. 


423 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ywouévwv ndtwv tòv uèv va èk TÔv narpikiwv 
aipeîchar, kal Tòv éva ndvrws dnò roô nmàńlovs 
kabioraobaı, ovoias oðons TÖ Õýuw kal åuġo- 
Tépovs Toùs Úrmárovs k roô mÀýðovs aipeîobai. 

3 ToîTo Ò ënpaćav TANEWÕTAL OMEÚDOVTES TÙY TÖV 
matpiıkiwv Ùnmepoyýv' ot yàp ävðpes oroi Šid Te 
Tùv eùyéverav Kal TÒ péyebos Tis èk Tv Tmpoyóvwv 
aùroîs mapakoàovhoúons Šóéns Øge Twes Kúpioi 
Tis móews ómñpyov. év ÔÈ raîs óuoňoyiais mpoo- 
ékero Toîs paoi ðņudpyois ròv vavróv, åvri- 
kabordvar máùw Šņnuápyovs Toùs řoovs Ù roôro 
uù npáfavras ČÕvras karakavðñvar àv ĝè of 
Siuapxor PÌ ovupovôor mpòs dANýàovs, Kúpior 
elvai TÒv dvà péoov reipevov À) kwàveobar? Tùv 
pèw oĝv èv ‘Popy ordow Toraúrys ovààúcews 
Tuyeîv ovvéßn. 

26. Em äpxovros È 'Abývnor Aipiov ‘Po- 
paño: raréornoav nárovs Máprov? ‘Opdriov kal 
Aevkiov Oùadépiov Tovpmwov. ènmi Sè roúrwv, èv 
r ‘Poun ris vopobecias Sà ryv ordow ovv- 
TEÀÉoTOU yevouévys, ot ÚmaTot ovveréÀecav aùrýv' 
Tõv yàp Kkadovuévaw Šwõeka mwárkwv oi uèv 
éka avvereàéoðnoav, roùs © Úroderrouévovs úo 
dvéypaļav ot Ŭraroi. kal reňeobeions ris ôro- 
keuévys vopolecias, raúrņv eis wðera xaàkoûs 
mivakas yapáavres oi Ünmarot mporýňwoav roîs 

1 Kópor. . , xwàóeoĝa is clearly defective ; xópiov elvat rò 


suggested by Madvig, xwàuéoĝðwv by Vogel. 
2 Mdpxov (Livy, 3. 55): Káyxov. 


* Diodorus is the only authority for this law, which prob- 
424 


BOOK XII. 25. 2—26. 1 


should be chosen from the patricians and one, with- 
out exception, should be taken from the plebeians, 
the people having the power to choose even both 
consuls from the plebeians. This they did in their 
desire to weaken the supremacy of the patricians ; 
for the patricians, by reason both of their noble birth 
and of the great fame that came down to them from 
their ancestors, were lords, one might say, of the state. 
It was furthermore stipulated in the agreement that 
when tribunes had served their year of office they 
should see that an equal number of tribunes were 
appointed in their place, and that if they failed to do 
this they should be burned alive 1; also, in case the 
tribunes could not agree among themselves, the will 
of the interceding tribune must not be prevented.? 
Such then, we find, was the conclusion of the civil 
discord in Rome. 

26. When Diphilus was archon in Athens, the 
Romans elected as consuls Marcus Horatius and 
Lucius Valerius Turpinus. In Rome during this year, 
since the legislation remained unfinished because of 
the civil discord, the consuls brought it to conclusion ; 
that is, of the Twelve Tables, as they are called, ten 
had been drawn up, and the consuls wrote into law 
the two remaining. After the legislation they had 
undertaken had been concluded, the consuls engraved 
the laws on twelve bronze tablets and affixed them 


ably derives from the story of the burning to death of nine 
tribunes (Valerius Maximus, 6. 3. 2 ; Dio Cassius, frag. 22). 

2 Soňme-such a provision as this may be hidden in ròv dvå 
pécov Kxeipevov. Sce Eduard Meyer, “* Untersuchungen über 
Diodors römische Geschichte,” Rhein. Museum, 37 (1882), 
610-627, especially pp. 618 ff., where he discusses the de- 
fective tradition which Diodorus has followed in the legisla- 
tion described above. 


425 


442 B.O 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


npo ToÔ Povdevryplov róre rerévois updos. ý 
Òe ypapeîoa vopolecia, Ppaxéws kal anepirrws 
ovykeévy, õréuewe Davuağouévy péypi rÕv kaf 
ýuâs kupõv. 

2 Toúrwv è mparrouévwv tà mÀeîora tÔv Kartà 
TÀùV oikouuévyy éðvõv ev hovyig Ónipye, mávrwv 
oxeðòðv eipývyy ayóvrwv. ot pèv yàp Ilépoar õirràs 
gvvðýras eÎxov mpòs Toùs “Ednvas, tràs uèv mpòs 
Abqvaiovs kal Toùs cvupáĶovs aùrõrv, év afs sav 
ai kaTà Tùy Agiav ‘EMyriôes móàeis aùróvopor, 
Tpos è Toùs Aareðaroviovs ÜorTepov èypáhnoav, 
ev alis troùvavriov Ñv yeypauuévov úmykóovs elvat 
roîs Ilépoais ràs karà tùv °`Aciav “EAAnviðas 
módcis. dpolws è kal rois “EAŅo: mps AMńàovs 
ÛTPXEV Eip ýV, ovvTeberuéevwv TÕv °`Abnvalwv rai 

3rõv Aakeðapoviwv omovõàs Tpiakovraereîs. d- 
poiws Õè kal Tà kaŭtà rùv Diceàlav eipnvuciv elye 
karáoraow, Kapynõoviwv pèv meromuévwv ovvðý- 
kas mtpòs T'éàwva, aùrôv ðè Tv karà Tv Xikeàlav 
módewv ‘Envia tùv hyepoviav Evpakociois 
ovykeywpnkviðrv, kal TÕv Åkpayavrivwv peTà Tùv 
NrTav Tv yevouévyv mepi ròv ‘Iuépav norapòv 

4 ovňeàupévwv mpòs roùs Xvupakociovs. Ñoúyate 
ôè kat Tà KaTÀ TÙY 'Iradiav éðvy ral Keàriýv, črt 
ò , IBnpiav kai TV dAÀnv oyeðòv dracav olkov- 
pévņnv. órep noe) puèv kal àla pvýuns 
mpâéis oùðeuia ovvereàéoln karà rTtoúrovs rToùş 


id 3 £ ` 7 
xpóvovs, eipńvn Sè uia ovvereàéobn, kal mavnyúpeis 
~ y ~ 
kai dyðves kai Jev voiar ral TăAa rà mpòs 
, , Fe i 
eùðaruoviav dvikovra mapà nêcw èneróàatev. 
27 Er Ed 8 A8 2 $ e 
- "Er äpxovros ývnor Tiuoràéovs ‘Pw- 
Eai + A 
patot pév karéornoav úndrovs Aapivov ‘Eppiviov 
426 


BOOK XII. 26. 1—27. 1 


to the Rostra before the Senate-house. And the 
legislation as it was drawn up, since it is couched in 
such brief and pithy language, has continued to be 
admired by men down to our own day. 

While the events we have described were taking 
place, the greater number of the nations of the in- 
habited world were quiet, practically all of them 
being at peace. For the Persians had two treaties 
with the Greeks, one with the Athenians and their 
allies according to which the Greek cities of Asia 
were to live under laws of their own making, and 
they also concluded one later with the Lacedae- 
monians, in which exactly the opposite terms had 
been incorporated, whereby the Greek cities of Asia 
were to be subject to the Persians. Likewise, the 
Greeks were at peace with one another, the Atheni- 
ans and Lacedaemonians having concluded a truce 
of thirty years. Affairs likewise in Sicily also were 
in a peaceful state, since the Carthaginians had made 
a treaty with Gelon, the Greek cities of Sicily had 
voluntarily conceded the hegemony to the Syra- 
cusans, and the Acragantini, after their defeat at 
the river Himera, had come to terms with the Syra- 
cusans. There was quiet also among the peoples of 
Italy and Celticê, as well as over Iberia and almost 
all the rest of the inhabited world. Consequently no 
deed of arms worthy of mention was aecomplished in 
this period, a single peace prevailed, and festive 
gatherings, games, sacrificial festivals of the gods, 
and everything else which accompanies a life of 
felicity prevailed among all mankind. 

27. When Timocles was archon in Athens, the 
Romans elected as consuls Lar Herminius and Titus 


1 This is the treaty given in chap. 4. 5. 
427 


41B 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


kal Tirov Erepriviov Lrpoúkropa. èml Sè troúrwv 
Zdpioi èv mpòs Miànoiovs mepi Ipirývns? dupo- 
BnrtTýoavres eis módepov karéorņnoav, ópðvres ĝè 
Toùòs `Abnvaiovs raîs eùvoiais rahépovras? mpòs 
Miàqoiovs, dréornoav ár aùrôv. oi Sè IMepicàéa 
mpoyeipioduevor otparnyðv ééénepbjav ènt roùs 

2 Zauiovs čyovra Tprýpers TerTrapákovra. ortos Šè 
mÀeúoas èn? rv Dapov, maperceàbav Sè kal TS 
nmóews Èykpar)s yevópevos karéorņoe Šņuorpa- 
Tiav ev aùrĝ. mpačáuevos Šè mapà TÖV Xaulwv 
oyõońkovra rádavra, ral roùs toovs óuńpovs maî- 
as Aafa, roúrovs uèv mapéðwke troñs Anpuviois, 
aùròs Ò èv òàiyas huépais ämavra ovvTeTeÀeks 
enaviAbev eis tràs °Abývas. 

3 Ev òè rÅ Dduw orásews yevopévns, kat TÔv pèv 
aipovuévwv TÌ Önpokpariav, rÕv ðè Bovdopévwv 
Tv dpiorokpariav elvat, Tapay) TOAN) TV TOÀw 
êneîye. rv © évavriovudvwv TÅ Önpokparia 
õafávrwv eis rùv °Aciav kal mopevlévrwv eis 
Bdpõeis mpòs Iiocoóðvny ròv rôrv Ilepoôðv carpá- 
nny nepil Ponbeias, ò èv Iiosoúbyns Ewrev aù- 
Tols arpatuórTas éntrakoolovs, eÀnmibwv ris Zdpov 
Stà Toúrov kuprevoew, ot 8è duor perà rÔv ĝo- 
Oévrwv aùroîs orparwrõv vukTòs TmÀeúcavres els 
Tyv Ddápov éàalóv Tre Tův mów mapeoeàbóvres, 
Trv moùrÂv ovvepyovvrwv, pglws T’ èkpdryoav 
TS Bduov, kai Toùs dvrinmpárrovras aùroîs èč- 
éBadov ér rĝs módews roùs © duýpovs érràéjavres 
ek Ts Ańuvov kal Tà kard thv Dapov doġaod- 
evor, pavepôs éavroùs dréðetav modeulovs Tois 

4 °Abnvaiois. oi Sè ráùw Mepiràéa mpoyerpiodjrevor 


1 So Canter (cp. 'Fhuc. 1. 115): epis. 
428 


BOOK XII. 27. 14 


Stertinius Structor. In this year the Samians went 
to war with the Milesians because of a quarrel over 
Prienê, and when they saw that the Athenians were 
favouring the Milesians, they revolted from the 
Athenians, who thereupon chose Pericles as general 
and dispatched him with forty ships against the 
Samians. And sailing forth against Samos, Pericles 
got into the city and mastered it, and then estab- 
lished a democracy in it. He exacted of the Samians 
eighty talents and took an equal number! of their 
young men as hostages, whom he put in the keeping 
of the Lemnians ; then, after having finished every- 
thing in a few days, he returned to Athens., 

But civil discord arose in Samos, one party pre- 
ferring the democracy and the other wanting an 
aristocracy, and the city was in utter tumult. The 
opponents of the democracy crossed over to Asia, 
and went on to Sardis to get aid from Pissuthnes, 
the Persian satrap. Pissuthnes gave them seven 
hundred soldiers, hoping that in this way he would 
get the mastery of the island, and the Samians, sail- 
ing to Samos by night with the soldiers which had 
been given them, slipped unnoticed into the city 
with the aid of the citizens, seized the island without 
difficulty, and expelled from the city those who op- 
posed them. Then, after they had stolen and carried 
off the hostages from Lemnos and had made every- 
thing secure in Samos, they publicly declared them- 
selves to be enemies of the Athenians. The Atheni- 


1 Thucydides (1. 115) says fifty. 


£ Kallenberg suggests Sagdepóvrws ánokàivavras. 
3 re after èri deleted by Dindorf. 


429 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


oTparnyòv cbéneppav èm roùs Zapiovs perà veðv 
eSýrovra, erà òè rabh’ ó uèv IHepixàñs vav- 
paxýoas mpòs éßðouýkovra Tpiýpes evikyoe rToùs 
Zapiovs, LeTanmewpáuevos Sè napa Xiwv rai 
Muriànvaiwv vaðs elkoot mévTe perà TovTwv 
Enoùópryoe tùv Eduov. perà Bé twas ýuépas 
Hepixàñs pèv karaàımov uépos Tis Ôvvráuews èri 
Tis Todoprias dvélevéev, dnavrjowv taîs Dor- 
Pai i e ås ot Ilépoat roîs Zaplois foav 

28. Oi è Edot Sià TYV avdtevéw To Hepi- 
kàéovs vopibovres Ëyew karpòv emirýðeov els èni- 
Oeo Tals drodeàeiuuévais vavoiv, èrérÀevoav en’! 
aùrás, Kal virýoavres TÑ vavuayiq ppovýuaros 
énÀnpoðvro. ó sè Iepikàñs ároúoas rv rôv 
Diwv Ñrrav, eùlùs únéotpepe kal oróìov déiódo- 
yov ipowe, Bovàóuevos els reos ovvrpõfpat Tòv 
Tôv evavriwv aTóħov. Tayù Ò drooredvræv 
Abyvaiww uèv étýrovra tpińpeis, Xiwv Sè kal 
Mvuriànvaiwv Tpidrovra, Leydànv éywv Šúvapıv 
ouveoTýoaTto Tv moMopkiav kal karà yiv kal 
karTà dádarrav, guvexeîs moroúuevos rpooßoàds. 
3 kaTeoKkevage òè Kal unyavàs mpõros tTÔv Tmpò 

aúroĵ Tos re ðvopaouévovs kpioùs kal yeàdvas, 

Apréuwvos tro Kìatopevlov karaorevéoavros. 

cvepyðs ðè moMoprýoas týv nóv kal rafe unya- 

vaîs karapañdv TÀ TEiXN kúptos yévero Tis Ddpov. 

koħáoas òè Toùs airiovs émpdéaro roùs Zauiovs 
Tàs eis Tùv ToMopriav yeyevnuévas Šardvas, Tiun- 
4 oáuevos aùtàs Tadávrwv Diarociwv. mapeilÀero Òè 

kat Tas vañs aùrõv kal Tà Telyn KaTéokape, kal 


N 


Ra 1 So Hertlein: es. 


BOOK XII. 27. 4—28. 4 


ans again chose Pericles as general and dispatched 
him against the Samians with sixty ships. Thereupon 
Pericles fought a naval battle against seventy triremes 
of the Samians and defeated them ; and then, sum- 
moning twenty-five ships from the Chians and Myti- 
lenaeans, together with them he laid siege to the 
city of Samos. But a few days later Pericles left a 
part of his force to continue the siege and set out to 
sea to meet the Phoenician ships which the Persians 
had dispatched to the aid of the Samians. 

28. The Samians, believing that because of the 
departure of Pericles they had a suitable opportunity 
to attack the ships that had been left behind, sailed 
against them, and having won the battle they were 
puffed up with pride. But when Pericles received 
word of the defeat of his forces, he at once turned 
back and gathered an imposing fleet, since he desired 
to destroy once and for all the fleet of the enemy. 
The Athenians rapidly dispatched sixty triremes and 
the Chians and Mytilenaeans thirty, and with this 
great armament Pericles renewed the siege both 
by land and by sea, making continuous assaults. 
He built also siege machines, being the first of 
all men to do so,! such as those called “ rams ”? and 
“ tortoises,” Artemon of Clazomenae having built 
them; and by pushing the siege with energy and 
throwing down the walls by means of the siege 
machines he gained the mastery of Samos. After 
punishing the ringleaders of the revolt he exacted 
of the Samians the expenses incurred in the siege of 
the city, fixing the penalty at two hundred talents. 
He also took from them their ships and razed their 


1 The Assyrians had siege machinery several centuries 
earlier than this. 
431 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Thv npokpariav karaorýoas èrmaviÀbev els TÀv 
naTplõa. 
` Abnvalos sè kat Aakeðarpoviois HÉXpt ToúTwv 
n na at TpiakovraeTeis onovõal Siéuewav 
~ A $ ? 
n Tara èv ênpáyðn kar roûrov ròv èn- 
29. Er äpxovros & 'Abývyoi Mvupiylðov ‘Pow- 
paño Lèv karéorņnoav rárovs Aeúriov ’Ioúňov 
kat Máprov Teyáviov, 'Hàeîor © ğyayov ’ Ovu- 
móða méuTTNY npòs taîs òyoðońkovra, kab’ Ñv 
evika Kpiocwv ‘Ipepaîos rò deúrepov. nl Sè roù- 
Twv karà Thv Xixeàlav Aovkérios uèv ó yeyovðs 
Trv Lixeùkõv róňcwv hyepav tv rôv Kada- 
krivwv nartpiða karéornoe, kal modÀoùs els aùrhv 
oikiwv oikýropas dvrenoiýoaro uèv ris tôv 
Zikeàðv yepovias, pesoňaßnbeis Sè vóow röv 
2 iov karéorpefpe. YXupakóoioi Sè náoas tràs tv 
Zicedôv móàes Úmņkóovs Tomoápevor TÀNY TS 
òvopačopévns Tpwarins, čyvwoav èni raúryv otpa- 
Teve: opóðpa yàp núónrrevov roùs Tpwarlovs 
avriàýpeolai tris rôv duoeðvôv Pireôv Ñyeuo- 
vías. ý è nös aŭ moods kal peyáovs 
dvõpas eÎyev, del Tò mpwreîov ésynkuîa rôv Dike- 
Aôv nócav Ñv yàp ýyeuóvov ý nóùs aŬry 
3 màńpns uéya ppovoúvrwv èr åvôpeig. Siò kal 
rdáoas ras Õuváperis aðpoísavres ék rv Xvparov- 
cõv kal TÖV ovpudywv móňewv orpárevoav èr’ 
aùrýv. oi ô&è Tpwdriot ovpuáyav pèv ĝoav épy- 
pot òà TÒ ràs Aas módes únakovew Zvpako- 


432 


BOOK XII. 28. 4—29. 3 


walls ; then he restored the democracy and returned 
to his country. 

As for the Athenians and Lacedaemonians, the 
thirty-year truce between them remained unshaken 
to this time. 

These, then, were the events of this year. 


29. When Myrichides was archon in Athens, the 440 »a 


Romans elected as consuls Lucius Julius and Marcus 
Geganius, and the Eleians celebrated the Eighty-fifth 
Olympiad, that in which Crison of Himera won the 
“ stadion ” for the second time.! In Sicily, in this 
year, Ducetius, the former leader of the cities of the 
Siceli, founded the native city of the Calactians,? and 
when he had established many colonists there, he 
laid claim to the leadership of the Siceli, but his 
attempt was cut short by illness and his life was 
ended. The Syracusans had made subject to them 
all the cities of the Siceli with the exception of 
Trinaciê, as it is called, and against it they decided 
to send an army ; for they were deeply apprehensive 
lest the Trinacians should make a bid for the leader- 
ship of the Siceli, who were their kinsmen. There 
were many great men in this city, since it had always 
occupied the chief position among the cities of the 
Siceli ; for it was full of military leaders who took an 
immense pride in their own manly spirit. Conse- 
quently the Syracusans marched against it after hav- 
ing mustered all their own armaments and those of 
their allied states. The Trinacians were without 
allies, since all the other cities were subject to the 


1 For the third time ; cp. chaps. 5 and 23. 

2 The inhabitants of Calê Actê; cp. chap. 8. 2 supra. 
aaa a a aaa 
1 7ò Vogel: ĝè. 

433 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


cios, péyav ô®™ åyðva ouveorýoavro. ékóuws 
yàp eyraprepoĝvres roîs ðewoîs ral modoùs àv- 
eàðvres, )pwarkðs payópevoi návTes karéorpeav ròv 

4 Biov. ópolws è kal tTÕv mpeoßurépwv ot màelovs 
éavroùs ér TOÔ iv peréorņoav, oùy Úropeivavres 
Tàs êk Tijs dÀwdoews ÙPpeis. oi Sè Evparóoiot Toùs 
mpórepov aNTTÝTOVS yeyovőras vikýoavres èm- 

avÂÔS, Tv pev mów eéavðparoðioduevoi kar- 
éorapav, TOv è Aadúpwv Tà kpáriora àméoTerav 
cis Aeàġods yapıorýpia TA leĝ. 

30. Er’ &pxovros © 'Abúvyot Tàavkiðov ‘Pw- 
paoi karéorņnoav úrárovs Tirov Kovrov ral 
'Aypinnmav Doúpiov. mè è roúraw Xvuparóowo 
tà Tàs mpoepnuévas eònpepias ékaròv pèv Tpi- 
pes èvavnnyýoavro, ròv è rôv imréwv àpibpov 
êroiņnoav Öiràdorov: mepeàbnoav Sè kal rås 
necis Õuvduews, kal ypnuáTwv mapaokevàs èro- 
oðvro, pópovs áðporépovs rToîs ýroreraypévois 
Zikedois émiribévres. rara Ò’ émparrov ĝiavoov- 
Levot nâoav Pikeàiav èk ToÔ kar ðàlyov kata- 
krýoaola. 

2 "Apa ðè rovrois npartropévois rarà rhv “Edàdõa 
ovvéßn ròv Kopiwðiakòv rànbévra móňcuov åpyùv 
àaßeîv ià roravras tiwàs airias. 'Emðáuvo kar- 
orkoûvres mept ròv `Aðpiav, dmoikoi È’ únápyov- 
Tres Keprvpaiwv kal Kopvbiwwv, éoraciaosav apòs 
dńàovs. Tis È émparovons pepiðos pvyaðev- 
oúoņs moàÀoùs TÕv AvTunTpaTTóvrww, oi pvydðes 
dĝpoiobévres Kal mapaaßóvres roùs IMvpioùs 
Enàevoav kowi per aùrõv eml ryv 'Erbauvov. 

1 $ added by Reiske, Madvig. 
2 So Hertlein: êri 


434 


BOOK XII. 29. 3—30. 2 


Syracusans, but they none the less offered a strong 
resistance. They held out valiantly against the perils 
they encountered and slew great numbers, and they 
all ended their lives fighting heroically. In like 
manner even the majority of the older men removed 
themselves from life, being unwilling to endure the 
despite they would suffer at the capture of their city. 
And the Syracusans, after conquering in brilliant 
fashion men who had never before been subdued, sold 
the inhabitants into slavery and utterly destroyed the 
city, and the choicest of the booty they sent to 
Delphi as a thank-offering to the god. 

30. When Glaucides was archon in Athens, the 
Romans elected as consuls Titus Quinctius and 
Agrippa Furius. During this year the Syracusans, 
because of the successes we have described, built one 
hundred triremes and doubled the number of their 
cavalry ; they also developed their infantry forces 
and made financial preparations by laying heavier 
tributes upon the Siceli who were now subject to 
them. This they were doing with the intention of 
subduing all Sicily little by little. 

While these events were taking place it came 
about in Greece that the Corinthian War, as it is 
called, began for the following causes. Civil strife 
broke out among the Epidamnians who dwell upon 
the Adriatic Sea and are colonists of the Cercyraeans 
and Corinthians.? The successful group sent into exile 
large numbers of their opponents, but the exiles 
gathered into one body, associated the Illyrians with 
themselves, and sailed together with them against 


1 The correct date is 435 B.c. 
2 The Epidamnians were in fact colonists of Cercyra, which 
was a colony of Corinth. 


435 


439 B.Q 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


3 orpaTevodvrav è Tv Bappápuw nmodàñ Svuvápe, 
kal Tùv èv yæpav karaoyóvrav, Tv è mów 
moopkovvrwv, ot pèv Emôduvior, kaf’ éavroùs 
où övres aiópayor, npéoßeis čmepjav eis Képrv- 
pav, dġioîvres roùs Kepkrvupalovs ovyyeveîs övras 
Bonboar. où mposeyóvræv © aùrâv, èrpeoßeú- 
gavro npòs Kopivbiovs mepl ocvupayias, kal uóvnv 
ekeiwrny ènorvýocavro unTpórto\w' dua è kat cvv- 

4 oíkovs rovro. oi è Kopvbior roùs pèv Emsa- 
pviovs èñeobvres, roùs dè Keprvpalovs puoovres Sià 
TÒ uóvovs TÖV AToikwV U) néuTew Tà KkaTeibio- 
péva iepea TÅ unTporóàe, čkpiwav Bonbev roîs 
° Emðauviors. Siómep ånmoirovs re èférempav els 
riv Erapvov kal orparwras ikavoùs dpovpioa 

5 Tiv mów. ènml ĝè rovrois ot Kepkrupaîot mapoćvv- 
QévTesS ÖTÉOTELÀAV TEVTÝKOVTA TPÝPELS KaL OTpaTN- 
yòv ér aùrôv. oros è mpooràeúoas ri móde 
mpocérarre Toùs èv huyáðas rkaraðéyeohar èri 
Sè roùs dpovpoùs Kopivðiovs mpéoßeis aréoreiiav 
déioðvres Šıkaorypiw kpbivar mepi Ts amowcias, 
LÀ nmoàépy., rv è Kopwbiwv où mpooeyóvræv 
aùroîs, ovykaréßnoav eis móàeuov dugórepoi, kaè 
vavrikàs Övvdueişs dloàóyovşs kareokeðačov kal 
gvupáyovs mpoceňaußavovro. ó pèv ov Kopw- 
biaròs dvopaobeis módepos ovvéory ià ràs Trpo- 
epnpévas alrias. 

6 ‘Powpaîor è mpòs Oùodovokovs iaroepoðvres 
TÒ èv npôrTov àkpoßoħopoùs kal pukpàs páyas 
436 


BOOK XII. 30. 3-6 


Epidamnus. Since the barbarians ' had taken the 
field with a large army, had seized the countryside, 
and were investing the city, the Epidamnians, who 
of themselves were not equal to them in battle, 
dispatched ambassadors to Cercyra, asking the 
Cercyraeans on the grounds of kinship to come to 
their aid. When the Cercyraeans paid no attention 
to the request, they sent ambassadors to seek an 
alliance with the Corinthians and declared Corinth 
to be their single mother-city ; at the same time they 
asked for colonists. And the Corinthians, partly out 
of pity for the Epidamnians and partly out of hatred 
for the Cercyraeans, since they alone of the colonists 
who had gone from Corinth would not send the cus- 
tomary sacrificial animals to the mother-city, decided 
to go to the aid of the Epidamnians. Consequently 
they sent to Epidamnus both colonists and soldiers 
in sufficient numbers to garrison the city. At this 
the Cercyraeans became irritated and sent out a 
squadron of fifty triremes under the command of a 
general. He, sailing up to the city, issued orders 
to receive back the exiles, while they dispatched 
ambassadors to the guards from Corinth demanding 
that the question of the origin of the colony be de- 
cided by a court of arbiters, not by war. When 
the Corinthians made no answer to this proposal, 
both sides decided upon war, and they set about 
fitting out great naval armaments and gathering 
allies. And so the Corinthian War, as it has 
been called, broke out for the reasons we have 
narrated. 

The Romans were at war with the Volscians ? and 
at first they engaged only in skirmishes and unim- 


! The Illyrians. 3 Cp. Livy, 3. 66. 


437 


DIODORUS OFT SICILY 


avveréìovv, perà è rara naparáéet peyáňn 
výoavres Toùs màelovs TÔv moàeuiwv karéropav, 

31. Er äpxovros & ’Abúývnot Qeoðópov Pw- 
paot èv karéorņoav vndrovs Máprov Tevókiov 
kal 'Aypinnav Koúpriov Xiwva, émi Sè roúvrwv 
karà pev Thv Irañiav rò čbvos rôv Kapravâôv 
ovuvéoTn, kal taŭúrņs čTuye Tis mpooņyopias àtò 
TIS dperfjs TOÔ mÀņoiov keruévov meðlov. 

Karà òè rv ’Aciav ot roô Kiupepiov Boorépov 
Baoiàcúoavres, vopacðbévres Sè 'Apyaravarriðat, 
Ñpéav ër Šúo mpòs toîs rerrapárovra' Šıeðéćaro 
òè Tv apxùv Lráprakos, kal Ñpéev ëry émrtá. 

2 Karà ðe rv ‘EMdõa Kopivhðior mpòs Keprv- 
palovs iaroàeuoðvres Kal mapackevacápevot vav- 
Tixàs Õuvdpes, cvveorýoavro vavpayiav. ot pèv 
ov Kopivhiot čyovres vas éßðouýkovra raňðs 
eénprupévas enénàcevoav roîs modelo’ oi Sè 
Keprvpaĉo _Tprýpeow òyõońrovra dvriraybévres 
eviknoav tÑ vavpaxıg, kat rhv ‘Eriapvov èr- 
moMopkýoavres? rovs èv Aous aiypaÀWTovs àT- 
éktewav, roùs è Kopivhiovs ýoavres eis pvàarùv 

3 mapéðocav. perà è rv vavuayiav oi èv Ko- 
pivbioi karanràayévres karéràevoav eis Iledoróv- 
vyoov, oi è Kepkupaîot Baňarrorparoðvres ris 
KaT’ ékeivous Toùs Tómovs Îaňárrys ènénÀcov 
Toîs Kopvbiwv ovupáyois kal rův xópav aùrôv 
êróplovv. 

32. To © êviavoiov ypõvov Šeàðóvros ’Abńvņo: 
Lèv Ñpxev Eùbvpévns, èv ‘Poun ¥ åvri rôv drárwv 
xiiapyot kareorálnoav tpeîs, AÀos Leurmpavos, 
Aeúrkios ’Ariios, Tiros Kotvrios. èri 8è toúórwv 


2 So Dindorf: moMoprýoavres. 
438 


BOOK XII. 30. 6-——32. 1 


portant engagements, but later they conquered them 
in a great pitched battle and slew the larger number 
of the enemy. 

31. When Theodorus was archon in Athens, the 
Romans elected as consuls Marcus Genucius and 
Agrippa Curtius Chilo. In Italy, during this year, 
the nation of the Campani was formed, deriving their 
name from the fertility of the plain about them. 

In Asia the dynasty of the Cimmerian Bosporus, 
whose kings were known as the Archaeanactidae, 
ruled for forty-two years; and the successor to 
the kingship was Spartacus, who reigned seven 
years.? 

In Greece the Corinthians were at war witl the 
Cercyraeans, and after preparing naval armaments 
they made ready for a battle at sea. Now the Cor- 
inthians with seventy excellently equipped ships 
sailed against their enemy ; but the Cercyraeans 
opposed them with eighty triremes and won the 
battle, and then they forced the surrender of Epi- 
damnus and put to death all the captives except the 
Corinthians, whom they cast in chains and imprisoned. 
After the sea battle the Corinthians withdrew in dis- 
may to the Peloponnesus, and the Cercyraeans, who 
were now masters of the sea in those regions, made 
frequent descents upon the allies of the Corinthians, 
ravaging their lands. 

32. At the end of the year the archon in Athens 
was Euthymenes, and in Rome instead of consuls 
three military tribunes were elected, Aulus Sem- 
pronius, Lucius Atilius, and Titus Quinctius. During 

1 Campania is probably derived from the Latin word 
campus (“ plain ”). 

2 The capital of this kingdom was Panticapaeum, on the 
present Straits of Kertch. 


439 


438 B.O. 


437 B.O. 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


Kopivðior èv hrrypévoi ti vavpayig vavnnyhoa- 
2 olar oróàov dgiooywrTepov ëkpiwav. f Stórep ànv 
Toddy mapaokevacáuevoi kal vavnnyoùs èk rv 
nõàcwv poboúpevor perà nois hioripias kar- 
corevatov Tprýpes kal õnàa kal Bén navroðard, 
kal Kaĝóñov nácas Tàs eis TÒV móÀepov mapaskevàs 
ýroipağov, kai qàş pèv êk kataßoñs Tprńpeis 
évavrnyoðvrto, tàs è merovykvias éhepdrevov, À- 
3 Àas Ôè mapà TÕv ovppáywv perenréunovro. rò Ò 
maparàńoiov kal rv Kepkupaiwv morwoúvræwv kal 
Tais pidotiuioas oùk arounravopévav, havepòs 
Îr ó móňcpos aðënow peyáànv àņnpópevos. 
, Apa bè TOoVToLS mpatropévois *Abnvaîot ovv- 
oroav Aupinow, kol TÔ oixrnTópwv oðs pèv èr 
tv norv karé\cčav, os © èk tÂÔv oúveyyvs 
ġpovpiwv. 

33. Em čpxovros È *'Abúvnori Avoidyov? ‘Pow- 
pañor pèv únraTovs karéornoav Tirov Kovrov ka 
Máprov Teyáviov Maxepîvov, ’ Hàeîor È iyayov 
Oìvumdõa EkTNv npòs rais dyðońkovra, kab’ fy 
evika ordðiov Oeórouros Qerrañds. erl Sè rovrwwv 
Keprvpaãor pèv muvlavópevor TÕV Tapaoskevaģto- 
pévwv èn aùroùs Svvduewv Tò nAÑlos, ånméore- 
Àav Tpos Aĝnvaiovs npéoßes aéioñvres aùroîs 

2 Ponbhoat. Tò Ò’ aùrò kal Kopivbiwv momodvrwv 
kat ovvayheions ékkàņolas, Srýkovoe Tv BA 
ohewv ó öñuos, kal è&pmpicsato ovppayeiv Keprv- 
paiois. Šo Kal mapayppa pèv ekénemhav tprýpeis 
KATNPTOpÉVAS déka, perà È rara mÀelovs én- 

3 nyyeidavro méppew, êav Ñ ypela. ot Sè Kopivhoi 
Tis rÕv 'Abnvaiwv ovpuayias dnorvydvres, evevý- 
1 ôè added by Vogel. 


m 2 So Wesseling: Navorudyov. 


BOOK XII. 32. 1—33. 3 


this year the Corinthians, who had suffered defeat 
in the sea-battle, decided to build a more imposing 
fleet. Consequently, having procured a great amount 
of timber and hiring shipbuilders from other cities, 
they set about with great eagerness building triremes 
and fabricating arms and missiles of every description; 
and, speaking generally, they were making ready all 
the equipment needed for the war and, in particular, 
triremes, of which they were building some from their 
keels, repairing others which had been damaged, and 
requisitioning still others from their allies. And since 
the Cercyraeans were doing the same thing and were 
not being outdone in eagerness, it was clear that 
the war was going to increase greatly in intensity. 

While these events were taking place the Athenians 
founded the colony of Amphipolis, selecting the co- 
lonists in part from their own citizens and in part 
from garrisons in the neighbourhood. 

33. When Lysimachus was archon in Athens, the 
Romans elected as consuls Titus Quinctius and 
Marcus Geganius Macerinus, and the Eleians cele- 
brated the Eighty-sixth Olympiad, that in which 
Theopompus the Thessalian won the “ stadion.” In 
this year the Cercyraeans, learning of the great scale 
of the armaments which were being prepared against 
them, dispatched ambassadors to the Athenians ask- 
ing their aid. Since the Corinthians did the same 
thing, an Assembly was convened, and the Athenian 
people after listening to the ambassadors voted to 
form an alliance with the Cercyraeans. Consequently 
they dispatched at once ten fully equipped triremes 
and promised that they would send more later if 
necessary. The Corinthians, after their failure to 
conclude an alliance with the Athenians, manned 


44l 


436 a.a 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


kovra pèv aùrol Tprýpes ènìńpwcav, napà è tôv 
avupáyav éčýkovra mpooeàdßovro. čëyovres oğv 
VaŬS kKaATNPTuévas ÉKATÒV TEVTÁKOVTA, KaL OTpa- 
Tyoùs éÀópevor ToÙùs yapieorárovs, åvýyðnņoav èm 
TV Képkupav, xekpixóres Štà ráyovs vavpayíoat. 
oi òè Keprupatot mvvÂavópevor Tov Tv moieplwv 
4 aródov HÀ pakpàv anéxewv, ávravýxðnoav Tpýpeoiw 
ékaròv elkoor gùv taîs rÂv ’Aĝnvaíww. yevopéwns 
ôè vavpayias ioyvpâs, TÒ pèv npôrTov ênekpdrTovv 
oi Kopivðbioi, perà Sè rara rõv ’Abyvaiwv èm- 
pavérrwv dais cikoci vavoiv, ås åneordÀkecav 
év r Öevrépa cvupayig, cuvéßn viñoat roòs 
Keprvpaiovs. Ti 8 úarepaigq návrwv rÔv Kep- 
kupaiwv emimàevodvrav obk àvýyðņcav oi Ko- 
prbio. 
„34. Em pxovrtos Ko ’Abivnow ’Avrioyiôov 
Pwpaãor kaTéornoav ÝrmáTovs Mapxov Ddßıov ra 
Hóorovuov Aipoúriov Oùderov. èm òè rovrwv, 
Abqvaiwv pèv ovvqyamopévwv Toîs Kepkupaiois 
kat Ts KaTÀ TYV vavpayiav vikns aiTiwv yevo- 
pévwav, aens elyov mpos aŭroùòs oi Kopivhor. 
2 ÙóTep apýveolar onevðovres ToÙS ’Abnvaiovs, àn- 
éornoav ám’ aùrõv nów Horðaarv, oĉsav éavrôv 
ãnoov. ópolws ðè roúrois kal IMepõikkas ó rôv 
Maxreðóvwv Paoideús, áñoTpiws Õrareipevos nmpòs 
'Alnvaiovs, ETege TOÙS Xadkðets anoorávras 
Abyvaiwv Tàs pêv éni Baddrry móàcs ekAneîv, eis 
piov sè cvvoicioh ivar Tv ôvopačopévnv “Oàvvbov. 
3o è Alnvaîor mhv ànóoraow trôv Iorbarar®ðv 
åkovsavres éfénejjav tpiákovra vas kal mpoo- 


1 This refers to the vote of the Athenian Assembly just 
above to “ send more later if necessary.” 


442 


BOOK XII. 33. 3—34. 3 


by themselves ninety triremes and received in addi- 
tion sixty from their alies. With, therefore, one 
hundred and fifty fully equipped triremes and after 
selecting their most accomplished generals, they 
put to sea against Cercyra, having decided to join 
battle at once. And when the Cercyraeans learned 
that the enemy’s fleet was not far of, they put out 
to sea against them with one hundred and twenty 
triremes including the Athenian. A sharp battle 
took place, and at the outset the Corinthians had 
the upper hand; but later, when the Athenians 
came on the scene with twenty additional ships 
which they had sent in accordance with the second 
alliance,! it turned out that the Cercyraeans were 
victorious. And on the next day, when the Cer- 
cyraeans sailed against them in full force for battle, 
the Corinthians did not put out. 


34. When Antiochides was archon in Athens, the 435 b.a 


Romans elected as consuls Marcus Fabius and Pos- 
tumus Aebutius Ulecus.? In this year, since the 
Athenians had fought at the side of the Cercyraeans 
and been responsible for their victory in the sea- 
battle, the Corinthians were incensed at them. 
Being eager, therefore, to retaliate upon the Atheni- 
ans, they incited the city of Potidaea, which was one 
of their own colonies, to revolt from the Athenians. 
And in like manner Peridiccas, the king of the Mace- 
donians, who was also at odds with the Athenians, 
persuaded the Chalcidians, who had revolted from 
the Athenians, to abandon their cities on the sea and 
unite in forming a single city known as Olynthus. 
When the Athenians heard of the revolt of the 
Potidaeans, they dispatched thirty ships with orders 


2 Ulecus is a corruption of Alba or Elva. 
443 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


éraĝav TÚV TE xüpav rÕv åheorykórwv \eņàarĵoa 
Kal T)V mów mophioa. oi 8è mepphévres kara- 
mÀeúoavres eis rhv Mareôovliav karà tràs èvroàds 
To Öýuov, cuveorýoavro moMopkiav ris Hor- 
4 aias. vla ù rôv Kopwbiwv Bonðyodvrwv rois 
ToMoprovpévors Sioyidiors orparıórais, XoyiAlovs 
kal ó Òñuos Tõv ’Abnvaiwv éérempe. yevouévns 
Sè udxns mepi ròv icðpòv ròv mànoiov ris Ilaà- 
ànviwv, kai TÔv `Abyvaiwv veyodvrwv ral mÀelovs 
Tv Tpakociwv dveàóvræwv, oi Ioriðairârai ovv- 
5 ekàcioðyoav eis moMopkiav. dpa Sè rToúrois 
npatTopévois ékTioav ot 'Abyvaîor nóv év rå 
Hporovriðı Thv ôvopatouévyy `Aoraróy? i 
Karà è rýr Iraàíav ‘Pwpaîor méppavres år- 
oikovs eis ”Apòea Tv yópav karekàņpovyņoav. 
35. Em’ &pyovros & *Alúvnoi Kpáryros? ‘Pw- 
paoi karéornoav nárovs Kówrov Ďoúpiov Ďoñ- 
cov’ kat Mdviov Iaripiov Kpáosov. ènmi 8è roúrwv 
karà TAY 'Traàiav ot roùs @ovplovs oikoûvres, 
ék ToMÔv móàcwv ouveoTykóTes, éoraciaķov mpòs 
dàÀàovs, molas nmóàews dnoikous Se? kaheîobar 
roùs Oovpiovs kal tiva rriornv ŝlkarov dvopáte- 
2 obar. ol TE yàp 'Abyvañor ris drowias taúrns 
Iupoßýrovw, dropawópevot màciorovs oikýropas 
c3 Aðyvâv eànàvlévar, črt © ai karà ròv Ieo- 
móvvnoov módes, oùK oàiyovs mapeoyypévat nap 
aŭrõv eis Tùv rriow rõv Oovpiwv, T)v êmypadhv 
TS amoicias éavroîs éëpnoav eiv mpoosdmreobar. 


1 So Niese (see Meritt, Athenian Tribute Lists, 412, n. 1): 


Aéravov. 


7 So Böckh: Xdpyros. ? So Rhodoman : ġéoov. 


črn è (om. A, črn & al Wesseling) xarà r. T. (ot Te 


d44 


BOOK ZII. 34. 3—35. 2 


to ravage the territory of the rebels and to sack 
their city ; and the expedition landed in Macedonia, 
as the Athenian people had ordered them to do, and 
undertook the siege of Potidaea. Thereupon the 
Corinthians came to the help of the besieged with 
two thousand soldiers and the Athenian people also 
sent two thousand. In the battle which took place 
on the isthmus near Pallenê the Athenians were 
victorious and slew over three hundred of the enemy, 
and the Potidaeans were entirely beleaguered. And 
while these events were taking place, the Athenians 
founded in the Propontis a city which was given the 
name of Astacus. 

In Italy the Romans sent colonists to Ardea and 
portioned out the land in allotments. 

35. When Crates was archon in Athens, the Romans 
elected as consuls Quintus Furius Fusus and Manius 
Papirius Crassus. This year in Italy the inhabitants 
of Thurii, who had been gathered together from many 
cities, divided into factions over the question from 
what city the Thurians should say they came as 
colonists and what man should justly be called the 
founder of the city. The situation was that the 
Athenians were laying claim to this colony on the 
grounds, as they alleged, that the majority of its 
colonists had come from Athens ; and, besides, the 
cities of the Peloponnesus, which had provided from 
their people not a few to the founding of Thurii, 
maintained that the colonization of the city should 


1 See chap. 11. 


Tleàorovwvýoro: P for ëri 8. x. r. TI.) móres oùe dàíyovs (dàtyas 
FMP) mapeoxyykérar (mapeoxnuéva Dindorf) MSS. Here, 
as frequently, Vogel follows P too readily against other 
MSS. 


445 


434 B.O 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


3 òpoiws Öè kai moMðv dyalððv dvôpôv kekoww- 
vykótrwv Tůs dmowias kai moàs xypelas map- 
eoxnpévwv, mods Ñv ó Àdyos, ékdoTov ris Tuis 
Taúrns oneúðovros Tuyeŭv. TéÀos è rv Qovpiwv 
meppávrwv eis Aeàġoùs Toùs énepwrýoovras tiva 
XP) Tis móews oikioriv dyopeðew, ô Îeòs čypy- 
cev aŭrov Õeîv kriorņy vopiteoĝhðai. Toúrw TÔ 
Tpóræ Àvleions ris åupioßnrýoews ròv ’Aróňiw 
kriory trv Oovpiwv dréðeičav, kal Tò màñlos 
Tis, aTáoews årodvõèv eis Tv npoïnmápyovoav 
ÖUÓVOLAV ATOKATÉOTN. 

4 Kara ðè rv ‘EMdõa Apyiðauos ó rôv Aare- 
aruoviwv Paoideùs éredeúrnoev dpfas ërņ rer- 
Tapákovra úo, Tův è dpx)v iaðefáuevos Ayıs 
eBacidevoev črn eikoot énmTd. 

36. Er äpxovros © °’ Abúvnow ’Apeóðovs Pw- 
paño karéornoav úrárovs Tirov Mevývov xal 
Ipókàov Teydveov Marepõivov. èm 8è rtoúrwv 
Èrdpraxos pèv ó Boorópov Baciňeùs èreeúrnoev 
dpéas ërņ entá, ðeðefaro Sè riv dpxhv Xédevkos 
kal éBacidevoev ëTn Terrapádrovrta. 

2 Ev òè rais 'Abúvais Mérwv ó Tlavoaviov pèv 
viðs, Õeðofaguévos è év dorpodoyig, eEédðyre rÀv 
Svopatouévny vveararðekaernpiða, TÙV PXŇV Tor- 
noduevos àanò uyvòs ev 'Alrvais oripopopiðvos 
Tpiokarðekárys. èv è roîs eipnpévois čreci Tà 
üorpa Tùv dnokardoraow mowîrat kal kabdrep 


7 Archidamus died in 426 s.c. This error on the part of 
Diodorus is all the more surprising since he states that 
Archidamus led an army into Boeotia in 429 (chap. 47. 1) 
and invaded Attica in 426 (chap. 52. 1). 


446 


BOOK XII. 35. 3—36. 2 


be ascribed to them. Likewise, since many able men 
had shared in the founding of the colony and had 
rendered many services, there was much discussion 
on the matter, since each one of them was eager to 
have this honour fall to him. In the end the Thurians 
sent a delegation to Delphi to inquire what man they 
should call the founder of their city, and the god 
replied that he himself should be considered to be 
its founder. After the dispute had been settled in 
this manner, they declared Apollo to have been the 
founder of Thurii, and the people, being now freed 
from the civil discord, returned to the state of har- 
mony which they had previously enjoyed. 

In Greece Archidamus, the king of the Lacedae- 
monians, died after a reign of forty-two years, and 
Agis succeeded to the throne and was king for twenty- 
five years.! 

36. When Apseudes was archon in Athens, the 
Romans elected as consuls Titus Menenius and 
Proculus Geganius Macerinus. During this year 
Spartacus, the king of the Bosporus, died after a 
reign of seven years, and Seleucus succeeded to the 
throne and was king for forty years. 

In Athens Meton, the son of Pausanias, who had 
won fame for his study of the stars, revealed to the 
public his nineteen-year cycle} as it is called, the 
beginning of which he fixed on the thirteenth day of 
the Athenian month of Scirophorion. In this number 
of years the stars accomplish their return to the same 
place in the heavens and conclude, as it were, the 

2 The Straits of Kertch; the kingdom included all the 
territory about the Sea of Azof. 

3 According to Philochorus (Schol. to Aristophanes, Av. 


997) what Meton set up was a sundial, on the wall of the 
PDVX. 


44T 


433 BA 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


êvavroð riwos peydàov ròv dvakuvkÀàopòv Àap- 
Pdver' Siò kai tiwes aùròv Mérwvos évavròv vo- 

3 pátovoi. ore? dè ð dvùp oros èv Ti mpopphoet kal 
npoypaph rary Îavpaorõs emTerevyévat’ Tà yàp 
darpa TÚV Te kivyow kal TàS êmionpacias moreîrat 
cvupovws TÀ ypa cò uéxpie TÔv kab’ pâs 
xpóvav oi màcoroi rv ‘EMývov ypõpevoe ri 
évveakatdekaeTnpiðı où SiapeVðovrar rhs dùnbeias. 

4 Karà ôè rùv 'Iraàav Tapavrivoi toùs ùv Bîpw 
kadoupévny oikoôvras peroikisavres èk Tis ma- 
Tpos Kait lðiovs mpochévres oikýropas, čkTicav 
nóv Tv òvopa%ouévnv “Hpdràciav. 

37. Em åpxovros © 'Abývnor IMvboðopov ‘Pw- 
paño èv úndrovs karéornoav Tirov Koivriov ral 
Nirrov Mevýriov, °Hàeîor © yayov  Oìvumdsa 
épõóunv mpos raîŭs dyðońýkovra, kað? ğv èvika 
ordðov Dwdpwv Aprpakwrns. emi SÈ Toúrwv 
e ri Poun Erópios Maios êmbéuevos Tupavviðı 
dvņpéðy. ’Alnvator è mepi IHorlðarav vevienróres 
èmpave? uáyn, Kaňlov toô orparnyoð mersóvros 
êv TÑ maparáčer, orparņnyðv repov ečéneppav Dop- 
piíwva. oñros Šè mapañaß®v rò orparóneðov kal 
npooralýpevos TÑ nódei ôv IoriðararÂv ovveyeîs 
npocßoňàs erowîro’ apuvopévov Sè tÂôv évôov 
eùpúoTws eyéveTo modvypóvios moopkía. 

2 Oovkuðiðns è ð `Abyvaîos rv isropiav èv- 


1 Meton certainly was too good an astronomer to haye 
spoken of “ stars.” This Metonic Cycle was designed to 
adjust the lunar year, which all the Greeks used, to the solar 
year. Its scheme called for the intercalation of seven lunar 
months in the nineteen years. Modern computation shows 
that 235 lunations are 6,939 days, 16.5 hours, and 19 sojar 
448 


BOOK XII. 36. 2—37. 2 


circuit of what may be called a Great Year ; conse- 
quently it is called by some the Year of Meton. And 
we find that this man was astonishingly fortunate in 
this prediction which he published ; for the stars 
complete both their movement and the effects they 
produce in accordance with his reckoning. Conse- 
quently, even down to our own day, the larger 
number of the Greeks use the nineteen-year cycle 
and are not cheated of the truth.! 

In Italy the Tarantini removed the inhabitants 
of Siris as it is called, from their native city, and 
adding to them colonists from their own citizens, they 
founded a city which they named Heracleia. 

37. When Pythodorus was archon in Athens, the 
Romans elected as consuls Titus Quinctius and Nittus 
Menenius, and the Eleians celebrated the Eighty- 
seventh Olympiad, that in which Sophron of Ambracia 
won the “stadion.” Jn Rome in this year Spurius 
Maelius was put to death while striving for despotic 
power. And the Athenians, who had won a striking 
victory around Potidaea, dispatched a second general, 
Phormion, in the place of their general Callias who 
lhad fallen on the field. After taking over the com- 
mand of the army Phormion settled down to the siege 
of the city of the Potidaeans, making continuous 
assaults upon it; but the defenders resisted with 
vigour and the siege became a long affair. 

Thucydides, the Athenian, commenced his history 


ears are 6,939 days, 14.5 hours. An inscription from 
Miletus reveals that in 432 B.c. the summer solstice, which 
is the beginning of the solar year, fell on the 13th day of 
the month Scirophorion, the date given by Diodorus for the 
beginning of Meton’s 19-year cycle. See B. D, Meritt, The 
Athenian Calendar in the Fifth Century, p. 88. 
2 On the gulf of Tarentum. 


449 


432 Bo 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


reblev dpéáuevos čypae ròv yevóőpevov móňcuov 
’Abnvaiois mpòs Aakeðaruoviovs rov ovouaobévra 
Heñorovvnoraróv. oôros pev ov ó möàeuos è- 
épewev èri ET, elkoi énta, ò òè Oovruõiðns ë ërn 
úo mpòs Toîs eikoor yéypagev è ev Bidois òrt, s 
Sé Tiwves Õiarpoðow, évvéa. 

38. Emr dpxovros © `Abývnow Eùbvõýuov ‘Pw- 
paño èv avri TÕv Úndrwv Ttpeîs yıÀdpyovs kart- 
éornoav, Máviov AiuAavòr’ Mápeprov, Idiov Iov- 
ov, Aevkiov Koivriov, émi Õe TovTwv ’Abqvaiois 
kal Aakeðarpoviois évéorn móňepos ó rànbeis 
Hedorowvnorarós, PAKpŐTATOS TÕv ioTopypévwv 
modéuwv. ävaykañov Ò eori kal TîS, rokeévns 
isropías oikeîtor? mpoekhéoða tàs airías aùroô. 

2 ’Abnvaãor Tis karà darrav ý ýyenovias åvTexó- 
evot Tà èv Ańàw kowĝ avvqypéva xpýpaTa, Tá- 
Àavrta ayeððv OKTAKIOXÍNA, METHVEYKAV €S TAS 
'Abývas kal  Tapéðwkav pvàárrew Hepikàet. o- 
Tos Ò îy eùyeveiq kal ðóÉn kal Àóyov Beivórnri 
ToÀÙ npoéxwv TÕV TOùTÕV. perà òé Tiva xpóvov 
ávydwkas d ar aùtõv Dig mpos i ixavòv ypnuáTwv 
kat Àdyov dnaroúpevos eis åppworiav evérnedev, où 
Õvvduevos TÖV memoTevuévwv anoðoðvot TÒv åTo- 

3 Àoyiopóv. áðnpovoðvros © avroð „Tepi ToÚTWV, 
'AMapidðns ó áðedpıðods, oppavòs æv, Tpepópevos 
map aùr®, nais ðv rv hùkiav, åpopuñv aùr® 


l kal after Aipuàtavóv deleted by Rhodoman. 
2 7ò after oixeîov deleted by Vogel. 


1 Thucydides wrote a continuous account, and the ancients 
knew of divisions into as many as thirteen Books, 

2? The following “ causes ” are clearly drawn from a violent 
anti-Periclean source, and Diodorus himself appears to wish 


450 


BOOK XII. 37. 32—38. 3 


with this year, giving an account of the war between 
the Athenians and the Lacedaemonians, the war 
which has been called the Peloponnesian. This war 
lasted twenty-seven years, but Thucydides described 
twenty-two years in eight Books or, as others divide 
it, in nine.! 

38. When Euthydemus was archon in Athens, the 
Romans elected in place of consuls three military 
tribunes, Manius Aemilianus Mamercus, Gaius Julius, 
and Lucius Quinctius. In this year there began the 
Peloponnesian War, as it has been called, between 
the Athenians and the Peloponnesians, the longest 
of all the wars which history records ; and it is neces- 
sary and appropriate to the plan of our history to 
set forth at the outset the causes ? of the war. 

While the Athenians were still striving for the 
mastery of the sea, the funds which had been col- 
lected as a common undertaking and placed at Delos, 
amounting to some eight thousand talents,’ they had 
transferred to Athens ¢ and given over to Pericles to 
guard. This man stood far above his fellow citizens 
in birth, renown, and ability as an orator. But after 
some time he had spent a very considerable amount 
of this money for his own purposes, and when he was 
called upon for an accounting he fell ill, since he was 
unable to render the statement of the monies with 
which he had been entrusted. While he was worried 
over the matter, Alcibiades, his nephew, who was 
an orphan and was being reared at the home of 
Pericles, though still a lad showed him a way out 
to disavow them when he states (chap. 41. 1) that he has 
taken them directly from Ephorus. 

3 Given as ten thousand in chaps. 40. 2; 54. 3; Book 13. 


21. 2. 
t In 45t Bc 


451 


431 Ra 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


napéoyero TiS mepi TÕv xpnuátrwv åmoňoyias. 
lewpõv yàp Tòv leîov Avroúpevov emnpÉTnoe Tův 
airiav Ts Àúnņs. roô dè Ilepiràéovs eimóvros rt 
TV mep TrÕv xpnuárwv ámoàoyíav altoúpevos 
nr nôs äv Švvaiunv dmoðoðvaı Tòv Tepl ToÚTwV 
àoyov Toîs moàirais, ò AAàkifpidòns ëdnoe ðe 
aùròv nreîv u) môs anroð® ròv Àðyov, dà rÕs 

4u) dnoð®. Sdnep Iepixàñs droðetdpevos rùv 
toô nados dnódaow élre Òe oê Tpónmov Tovs 
’Abnvaiovs ðúvair’ äv éußañeîv eis péyav móňepov 
oŭTrw yàp pdùora úreàdupave ià riv Tapayyv 
kal Toùs Ts nóews mepionacuoùs kat óßpovs 
ekpeúćeołar ròv arppi Adyov TrÕv ypyuádrwv. 
mpos Sè rary Tv apopuùv ovvéßawer* aùrT® kal 
Traùrópartov ĵida ToaŬTas aiTias. 

39. Tò rs `Alyvâs dyaàpa Debias èv rar- 
cokevae, Ilepicàñs è ó Zarhinrov kabeorauévos 
Ñv êmpueàntýs. TÕv è ovvepyacapévwv TÔ Deiig 
Tivès Šreveylévres? úno rõv éybpõv roô Iepikàéovs 
êkdhioav èm rõv rôv beðv PwpÂv: Sià õèt rò 
mapáðoćov mpockañovuevoi éßacav modà TÕv le- 
pôv ypnpáTwv čyovra Ďeðiav Seite, èmorapévov 
kal ouvvepyoðvros ro èmıpeànro? Ilepixàéovs. 

2 ôiórep ekkàņoias ovveàlovons mepi Toúrwv, ok 
èv èyôpol roð Ilepixàéovs ëmeisav ròv Šĝpov 
ovàapeîv ròv Dediav, kai aùrot roô Ilepixàéovs 
karņyópovv tepoovàiav. mpos Sè roŭrois Avat- 
ayópav Trov ooßioTýv, Šðdokadov õvra Iepiràéovs, 


1 So the MSS. ; gvveßáàer* Hertlein, Vogel. 
23 Added by J. Scaliger. 3 So Dindorf: ròv 7. 9. Bwuév. 
4 So Vogel: ĉa A, ôè misplaced in the other MSS. 


1 The gold and ivory statue in the Parthenon. 
452 


BOOK XII. 38. 3—39. 2 


of making an explanation of the use of the money. 
Seeing how his uncle was troubled he asked him the 
cause of his worry. And when Pericles said, “ I am 
asked for the explanation of the use of the money 
and I am seeking some means whereby I may be 
able to render an accounting of it to the citizens,” 
Alcibiades replied, “ You should be seeking some 
means not how to render but how not to render an 
accounting.” Consequently Pericles, accepting the 
reply of the boy, kept pondering in what way he 
could embroil the Athenians in a great war; for 
that would be the best way, he thought, because 
of the disturbance and distractions and fears which 
would beset the city, for him to escape giving an 
exact accounting of the money. Bearing upon this 
expedient an incident happened to him by mere 
chance for the following causes. 

39. The statue * of Athena was a work of Pheidias, 
and Pericles, the son of Xanthippus, had been ap- 
pointed overseer of the undertaking. But some of 
the assistants of Pheidias, who had been prevailed 
upon by Pericles’ enemies, took seats as suppliants 
at the altars of the gods ; and when they were called 
upon to explain their surprising action, they claimed 
that they would show that Pheidias had possession 
of a large amount of the sacred funds, with the con- 
nivance and assistance of Pericles the overseer. Con- 
sequently, when the Assembly convened to consider 
the affair, the enemies of Pericles persuaded the 
people to arrest Pheidias and lodged a charge against 
Pericles himself of stealing sacred property. Further- 
more, they falsely accused the sophist ? Anaxagoras, 


3 The general name given the teachers of advanced educa- 
tion in the fifth century. 


453 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


ws acefoñvra eis roùs Beoùs svkohávrovv: ovv- 
énàekov ©’ èv raîs karnyopiais kal ŝiaßoàaîs ròv 
Iepixàéa, Sà ròv dôóvov onevðovres Siaßadeiv 
TÅ Tavôpòs Únepoxýv re kal Šóćav. 

“O dè Hepicàñs, eibòs ròv Sğpov èv èv roîs 
moàepixoîs čpyors bavudtovra roùs åyaloùs ävõpas 
brà Tàs karereryovoas ypelas, kaTà Õè Tùv ephvnv 
Toùs aùroùs ovkopavroðvra ĝià Tùv oyoàùv kal 
$óvov, ékpwe ovuépew aúr® Tiv nów eußBadeîv 
eis péyav módepov, nws ypeiav čyovoa rtis Hepi- 
kàéovs àpers kal orparnyias pù npooðéynrtai ràs 
kar’ aùroô ŝiaßoàds, unè’ ëxn cyoàùv Kal xpóvov 
eerabew dkppâs ròv mepi rÕv ypnuárwv \óyov. 
4 "Ovros è ympiouaros mapà roîs ’Abyvaiois 
Meyapéas elpyeoĝar ts Te dyopâs kal rôv Mud- 
vav, ot Meyapeîs karépvyov èm roùs Enapridras. 
ot ôè Aaxeðauóvior meiwobévres roîs Meyapeðow 
anéoreiav mpéoßes ék roô nmpopavesrárov ànò 
TÌS Toî KowoÎ ouveðpiov yvóøuNns mpoorátTrovreş 
Toîs `Afnvaiois dveàcîv rò karà rôv Meyapéwv 
Yyhhopa, pů mebopévwv è aùrôv aneoðvres 
5 moàepýoew aùroîs petrà TÕv ovupáyav. cuvay- 
Qeions ov mepi roúrwv èrkànoias, ó IMepicàñs, 
Seiwórnre Àóyov moàù iadépwav årnávrav rôv 


1 Anaxagoras was one of the most distingnished physical 
philosophers of Greece, who maintained that the universe 
was directed by unchangeable Mind and tried to give a 
natural explanation of eclipses, rainbows, the heavenly 
bodies, of which he said the sun was a mass of blazing metal 
larger than the Peloponnesus, and other phenomena of 
nature. Of course such teaching ran counter to the popular 
polytheism of the day. 


454 


BOOK XII. 39. 2-5 


who was Pericles’ teacher, of impiety against the 
gods !; and they involved Pericles in their accusa- 
tions and malicious charges, since jealousy made 
them eager to discredit the eminence as well as the 
fame of the man.? 

But Pericles, knowing that during the operations of 
war the populace has respect for noble men because 
of their urgent need of them, whereas in times of 
peace they keep bringing false accusations against 
the very same men because they have nothing to do 
and are envious, came to the conclusion that it would 
be to his own advantage to embroil the state in a 
great war, in order that the city, in its need of the 
ability and skill in generalship of Pericles, should pay 
no attention to the accusations being lodged against 
him and would have neither leisure nor time to 
scrutinize carefully the accounting he would render 
of the funds. 

Now when the Athenians voted to exclude the Me- 
garians from both their market and harbours, the 
Megarians turned to the Spartans for aid. And the 
Lacedaemonians, being won over by the Megarians, 
in the most open manner dispatched ambassadors in 
accordance with the decision of the Council of the 
League, ordering the Athenians to rescind the action 
against the Megarians and threatening, if they did 
not accede, to wage war upon them together with the 
forces of their allies. When the Assembly convened 
to consider the matter, Pericles, who far excelled all 


2? It is more than likely that the accusations against these 
two frieuds of Pericles fell some years before the outbreak 
of the war (cp. Adcock in Camb. Ane. Hist. 5, pp. 4117-480). 
At any rate Thucydides’ account of the causes of the war 
makes no mention of either Pheidias or Anaxagoras. 

? The Peloponnesian League. 


455 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


norõv, ëmece roùs 'Abnvalovs u) dvaipev rò 
pýgioua, AàÀdéywv apxhv õovàecias civar rò neibeoha 
mapà rò ovupépov rois Aakeðaruoviwv npooráy- 
Laci. ouveßoúdevev oùv tà drnò tis xøopas kata- 
kopie eis tùy mów kal Îaarrokparoðvras 
draroeueiv rois Lrapridrais. 

40. Ilepi Sè To moàépov meppovriouévws àno- 
\oyiodpevos èénpiðuýoaro pèv tò màÑlos rv 
ovpudywv Ti) móc kal Tv Únepoxhy Tis vavrikjs 
Puvduews, npòs dè roúrois rò mÀñlos rv pera- 
kekopuopévwv èk Aàov ypnuárwr eis tàs °Abúývas, 
å ovvéßawev èk Tv pópwv taîs módeco kowf) ovv- 
2 nôpoîolar: kowvâv © övrwv rõv pvupiwv Taàdvræwv 
anavýwTo mpòs TùV Katackevùův TtÔv mponv- 
àaiwv kal thv Ilorðaias moàopkiav rerpakio- 
xia rdìavra' kat kaf’ kaorov èvavròv èk toô 
pópov rv ovuudyav dveß$épero ráňavra rerpa- 
kóoia éč£ýkovra. ywpis è roúrwv Tá’ Te mouneîa? 
kat rà Mnåikà oka mevrakociwv éa raàdvrwv 
3 drepývaTto, év Te Toîs iepoîs” dmeðeikvvev dvabn- 
Lártwv re nàñlos kal rò rÑs Abnvâs yaua ëyew 
XPVOLOV TEVTÁKOVTA TÁÀAVTA, ÖS MEPLULPETÍ)S OŬONS 
Tis mepi ròv kKóopov kartaokevis’ kal rtaĝra, 
dvaykaia e: karaàdpot ypeia, xpnoapévovs map 
rv lev mdv dnokaraoroew èv eipńvn: tovs 
Te TÕv moùrõv Pious à TÅv noàuypõviov eipvnyv 
modÀùy emiðooiw eiùnpévai mpòs eùðarpoviav. 

Xwpis è rv ypnudrav roúrwav ortparubras 

1 zà Wesseling : 4. 
$ oket after moureĉa deleted by Dindorf. 
3 So Reiske: čpyots. 


456 


BOOK XII. 39. 5—40. 4 


his fellow citizens in skill of oratory, persuaded the 
Athenians not to rescind the action, saying that for 
them to accede to the demands of the Lacedae- 
monians, contrary to their own interests, would be 
the first step toward slavery. Accordingly he advised 
that they bring their possessions from the countryside 
into the city and fight it out with the Spartans by 
means of their command of the sea. 

40. Speaking of the war, Pericles, after defending 
his course in well-considered words, enumerated first 
the multitude of allies Athens possessed and the 
superiority of its naval strength, and then the large 
sum of morey which had been removed from Delos 
to Athens and which had in fact been gathered from 
the tribute into one fund for the common use of the 
cities ; from the ten thousand talents in the common 
fund four thousand had been expended on the build- 
ing of the Propylaea ! and the siege of Potidaea ; 
and each year there was an income from the tribute 
paid by the allies of four hundred and sixty talents. 
Beside this he declared that the vessels employed in 
solemn processions and the booty taken from the 
Medes were worth five hundred talents, and he 
pointed to the multitude of votive offerings in the 
various sanctuaries and to the fact that the fifty 
talents of gold on the statue of Athena for its 
embellishment was so constructed as to be remov- 
able; and he showed that all these, if dire need 
befell them, they could borrow from the gods and 
return to them again when peace came, and that also 
by reason of the long peace the manner of life of the 
citizens had made great strides toward prosperity. 

In addition to these financial resources Pericles 


ł Fhe entrance to the Acropolis. 
457 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 


dmreðeikvvev Ýnmdpyew TÅ móde wpis ovuuáywv 
kai tÕv èv tois fpovpiois övrwv öràiraş èv pv- 
pious kai coxıÀlovs, roùs &’' év roîs gpovpiois 
Õvras kal Toùs peroikovs óndpyew mÀelovs tv 
pvpiwv éntTakioyiÀiwv, TPiýpes Te tàs Tmapovoas 
5 rpiakocias. Toùs Šè Aaxeðaoviovs ypnpáTwv Te 
omaviĝeiw dmeðeikvve kal tTaîs vavrikaîs Švváueoi 
moàù Àcineobar rÕv '`Abnvaiwv. tañra Seàbdv kal 
mapoppýoas Toùs nodiras eis ròv nóňcuov, ëmee 
tò Sğuov p) nmposéyew roîŭs Aareðapoviois, 
rañra è pgõiws ovveréàcce Sià TÅv Õewóryra roô 
6 Àóyov, Òe’ Ñv airiav àvoudoby 'Oàóumos. uéuvy- 
Tar è roúrwv kal `Apioropdvns ó ris åpyaías 
kwpplas TANTS, yeyovðs karà Thv roô Iep- 
kàéovs hAciav, v totoe roîs Terpauérpors,! 


+ 5 

Õ Unepvires yewpyoi, Tá Tis Ëuviérw 

e7 

pipart, el Povàcoh droôoar thv nws åm- 
ÚÀETO. 
A A ~ 

mpõta pèv yàp avris pye Deðias npdéas 
KAKÖS, 

’ 

celra Iepicàéns popnôeis pù perdoxy tûs túxns, 

» A A m 

éppadv omwbipa pmrpòv Meyapixoð ymhioua- 
Tos 

LJ ~ 

efepóonoev Tocoñrov móňeov oTe TÔ kanvô 

LA y Ee k 

návras “EňMnvas ðakpûoar, tovs T éke? rovs r 

evôdôe: 
1 So Canter : yeypappévois. 
458 


BOOK XII. 40. 4-6 


pointed out that, omitting the allies and garrisons, 
the city had available twelve thousand hoplites, the 
garrisons and metics amounted to more than seven- 
teen thousand, and the triremes available to three 
hundred. He also pointed out that the Lacedae- 
monians were both lacking in money and far behind 
the Athenians in naval armaments. After he had 
recounted these facts and incited the citizens to 
war, he persuaded the people to pay no attention 
to the Lacedaemonians. This he accomplished 
readily by reason of his great ability as an orator, 
which is the reason he has been called “ The Olym- 
pian.” Mention has been made of this even by 
Aristophanes, the poet of the Old Comedy, who 
lived in the period of Pericles, in the following tetra- 
meters ? : 


O ye farmers, wretched creatures, 
listen now and understand, 
lf you fain would learn the reason 
why it was Peace left the land. 
Pheidias began the mischief, 
having come to grief and shame, 
Pericles was next in order, 
fearing he might share the blame, 
By his Megara-enactment 
lighting first a little lame, 
Such a bitter smoke ascended 
while the flames of war he blew, 
That from every eye in Hellas 
everywhere the tears it drew. 


1 Peace, 603-606, 609-611 (in imitation of Archilochus). 
The translation is that of Rogers in the L.C.L., slightly 
changed where the Greek of Diodorus varies from the 
accepted text and because of the missing lines. 


459 


DIODORUS OF SICILY 
kal máw év dÀdois! 


Hepixàéns oðàðumos 
y 
jorpanrtev, éßpóvra, ovverúka rův ‘EMása. 


Eörods © ó nomrhs 
Hebo ris ênekdligev èrl roîs yeldeow 
oŭtws ekýàet kal uóvos rÔv pnrópwv 
TÒ kévrpov éykarédeme rois čkpowpévois. 


ł Eros ó momris after dors transferred t ird li 
below by Wesseling. : E 


BOOK XII. 40. 6 


And again in another place + : 


The Olympian Pericles 
Thundered and lightened and confounded Hellas. 


And Eupolis the poet wrote ° : 


One might say Persuasion rested 

On his lips ; such charm he’d bring, 
And alone of all the speakers 

In his list’ners left his sting. 


1 Acharnians, 531-532. 

2 Frag. 94, 11. 5-7 (Kock). Eupolis was a contemporary 
of Aristophanes and one of the most brilliant writers of the 
Old Comedy. 


481 


A PARTIAL INDEX OF PROPER 
NAMES! 


ABYDUS, 129 

Acanthus, 135 

Acestorides, 257 

Achaeans, 127 

Achaemenes, 315 f. 

Achradinê, 301 f., 315, 319 

Acilius, Sp., 305 

Acragantini, 177, 189 f., 261, 359, 
387 f., 427 

Acragas, 99, 259 f., 301 

Adeimantus, 233 

Admetus, 269 

Adrastus, 39 f. 

Aebutius, L., Albas, 329 

Aebutius, Postumus, Ulecus, 443 

Aegina, 197, 215, 307 f. 

Aeginetans, 171, 307 f., 327 

Aemilianus, Manius, Mamercus, 
451 


Aemilius, L., Mamercus, 225, 257, i 


293 
Aemilius, T., Mamercus, 305, 315 
Aenianians, 127 
Aeolians, 131, 221 f. 
Aequi, 233 
Acschylus, 197 
Aesop, 39 
Aethaleia, 351 f. 
Actma, 197, 253, 321, 359 
Agamemnon, 49 
Agathocles, 227 
Agis, 447 
Atcaeus, 19 
Alcibiades, 451 f. 
Algidus, Mt., 423 
Alps, 111 
Amasis, 75 
Ameinias, 197 


Ammonium, 75 
Amphipolis, 309, 441 
Anacharsis, 11, 35 f. 
Anaxagoras, 453 
Anaxilas, 249 f., 297, 323 
Antidotus, 359 
Antiochides, 443 

Apelles, 353 

Aphetae, 155 

Apollo, 161, 195 
Apseudes, 447 

Arcadia, 49 
Archacanactidae, 439 
Archedemides 307 
Archidamus, %49, 289 f., 447 
Archonides, 387 
Archytas, 65 


| Ardea, 445 


Areopagus, Council of, 327 
Ares, 287 


| Argives, 129, 293 I. 


Argolis, 293 

Argos, 259, 265, 269 

Aristeides, 203- 207, 211, 
239 f., 247 f., 377 

Aristogeiton, 5, 79 Ê. 

Ariston, 345 

Aristophanes, 459 

Aristotle, 377 

Artabanus, 305 f, 

Artabazus, 207-211, 241, 319, 325, 
379, 383 

Artaphernes, 95 

Artaxerxes; 17, 305, 809 f., 315 f., 


235, 


Artemisium, 13t, 155 
Artemon, 431 
Asopus River, 203 £. 


1 A complete Index will appear in the last volume, 


462 


A PARTIAL INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 


Aspandas, 31 

Assyrians, 29 

Astacus, 445 

Asterius, Aulus, Fontinius, 385 
Astibaras, 31 

Astyages, 29 i. 

Astylus, 121 

Athena, 163, 245 

Athena Pronaea, 161 
Athenians, 27- 46i, passim 
Athos, 125, 129 
Atilius, L., 439 

Attica, 163, 201 

Atys, 39 f. 

Aventine, 423 


Babylon, 83 f. 

Berenicê, 101 

Bias, 21, 33 f., 39 

Bion, 329 

Boeotia, 161, 201 f. 

Boeotians, 93, 125, 335-341, 385 
Boicon, 359 

Byzantium, 241 


Calactians, 433 

Calliades, 121 

Callias, 101, 341, 383, 387 

Callimachus, 61 

Cambyses, 31, 75 f. 

Campani, 439 

Caria, 281 

Carians, 95, 131 

Carthage, 83, 175, 187, 193 

Carthaginians, 123, 175-193 pas- 
sim, 225 f., 253, 299, 427 

Cassius, Spurius, 121, 225 

Castor, 31 

Catana, 253, 297, 301, 321 

Catanians, 253 

Cecryphaleia, 327 

Cenchreae, 167 

Cephallenia, 343 

Cercyraeans, 163, 435-443 

Chaeroneia, 385 

Chalcidians, 93, 443 

Chares, 259, 387 

Charondas, 397-415 

Chenae, 11 

Chians, 131, 431 

Chilon, 11 f., 15 f. 

Cilicia, 281, 319 

Cilicians, 131, 173, 319 

Cimolia, 331 


Cimon, 101 f., 
363, ’ 377-383 

Cirrha, 23 

Cissians, 141 

Cithaeron, 203 

Citium, 379 

Claudius, Appius, 297 

Cleinias, 57 

Cleomenes, 331 

Clodius, Appius, 421 

Clodius, C; Regillus, 345 

Coans, 13i 

Conon, 315 

Corinth, 195 

Corinthians, 209, 327 f., 435-445 

Cornelius, C., Lentulus, ’257 

Cornelius, Eh Curitinus, 345 

Cornelius, M., 421 

Cornelius, Servius, Tricostus, 197 

Coroneia, 385 f. 

Crates, 445 

Crathis River, 357, 389 

Cremera, 261 

Crison, 385, 419, 433 

Croesus, 5 f, 17t., 33-47 

Croton, 71, $i, 357 

Crotoniates, 251, 389 f. 

Cumae, 257 

Cumaeans, 257 

Curtius, Agrippa, Chilo, 439 

Cyanean Rocks, 131, 383 

Cyaxares, 29 f. 

Cylon, 73 

Cymê, 197 

Cyprians, 131, 173, 319 

Cyprus, 239, 281 i., 379-383 

Cyrenaeans, 77 

Cyrenê, 323 

Cyrnus, 353 

Cyrus, T 29 f., 33, 41-47, 75 


Damaretê, 193 

Damareteion, 193 

Damon, 57 f. 

Dandes, 259 

Darius, ’83 f., 123 f., 273, 305, 315 
Datis, 97, 125 

Deinomenes, 9 

Delos, 215, 249, 451 

Delphi, 45, 161, 195, 211, 245 
Delphians, 161 

Demades, 67 

Demaratus, 137 f. 

Demeter, 197 

Demorion, 279 


279-285 passim, 345, 


463 


A PARTIAL INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 


Dio, 99, 111 

Diocles, 415 

Dionysius, 99 

Dionysius tle Elder, 57, 303 

Diphilus, 425 

Dolopians, 127 

Dorians, 131, 161, 253, 331 

Dorieus, 83 

Doriscus, 129 f. 

Draco, 23 

Dromocleides, 253 

Ducetius, 321, 329, 353, 357 f. 
387, 433 

Duillius, M., 305 


Ecbatana, 221 

Edones, 2309 

Egesta, 345 

Egyptians, 131, 311, 315 f., 323 f. 

Eïon, 281 

Eleians, 121, 259, 263, 383, 433, 
441, 449 

Elis, 263 

Elpinicë, 101 

Epaminondas, 73 

Ephialtes, 328 

Epidamnians, 13, 435-439 

Epidaurians, 327 

Epipolae, 315 

Eretria, 241 

Eretrians, 97 

Erythrae, 208 

Eteocleg, 71 

Euboea, 155, 163, 387 

Euphorbus, 61 

Eupolis, 461 

Euripides, 15, 71 

Euripus, 159 

Eurybatus, 43 

Eur iedes, 133, 155, 165-169, 

Eurymedon River, 283 

Euthippus, 319 

Euthydemus, 379, 451 

Euthymenes, 439 


Fabii, 263 

Fabius, Caeso, 225, 249, 257 
Fabius, M., 255, 443 

Fabius, M., Vibulanus, 233, 379 
Fabius, Q., 323 

Fabius, Q., Silvanus, 197 
Fabius, Q., Vibulanus, 315, 345 
Fair Shore, 387 

Furius, Agrippa, 435 


464 


Furius, L., Mediolanus, 289 
Furius, P., Fifron, 295 

Furius, Q., Fusus, 445 

Furius, Spurius, Mediolanus, 327 
Furius, Spurius, Menellacus, 249 


Geganius, M., 433 

Geganius, M., Macerinus, 441 

Geganius, Proculus, Macerinus, 

4' 

Gela, 97, 301 

Geloans, 323 

Gelon, 99, 103, 179-251, 297 f., 
313 f., 427 

Genucius, M., 439 

Geraneia, Mt., 333 

Glaucides, 435 

Gongylus, 241 

Gytheium, 343 


Halieis, 327 

Halys, 41 

Hamilcar, 175, 181, 187 £ 

Harmodius, 5 

Harpagus, 47 

Hecatacus, 95 

Helots, 289-293, 345 

Hera, 101, 293 

Heracleia, 83, 449 

Heracieium, 171 

Heracles, 109, 255 

Herbita, 387 

Herminius, Lar, 427 

Hermon, 85 

Hermus, 43 

Herodotus, 29, 93, 223 

Hestiaea, 387 

EHetoemaridas, 255 f. 

Hieron, 225 f., 251 f., 257, 295-301 
passim, 321 

Himera, 177, 189, 251, 261, 301 

Himerans, 147 i., 187, 251 f. 

Hipparchus, 79 y 

Hippias, 79 

Hippocrates, 97 

Hipponicus, 383 

Histiaeans, 159, 419 

Horatius, ., Pulvillus, 259 

Horatius, M., 359, 425 

Hymettus, Mt., 51 


Iapygians, 257 f. 
IlHyrians, 435 
Inarôs, 311 
Inessa, 321 


A PARTIAL INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 


Ionia, 197, 215 

Ionians, 95, 131, 197, 215, 219 f., 
235 

Isocrates, 377 

Isodicê, 101 

Ithomê, 345 


Julius, C., 451 
Julius, L., 433 
Julius, L., Iulus, 293 

Junius, L., Brutus, 91 


Lacedaemon, 229 f. 

Lacedaemonians, 49, 183-461, pas- 
sim 

Laconia, 291 

Laconians, 233 

Lampon, 393 

Lampsacus, 275 

Lechaeum, 167 

Lemnians, 429 

Lemnos, 85 

Leocrates, 329 

Leonidas, 133-153 passim, 187, 

03 

Leontini, 253 

Leotychides, 215-221, 249 

Lesbians, 131 

Leuctra, 339 

Libya, 177, 189, 193 

Libyans, 77 

Lilybaeum, 345 

Locrians, 127, 133 f., 341 

Lucian, 27, 173 

Lucretia, 87 f. 

Lucretius, L., 835 

Lycia, 281 

Lycians, 131 

Lydians, 33, 79 

Lysander, 67 

Lysanias, 297, 421 

Lysicrates, 351 

Lysimachides, 419 

Lysimachus, 441 

Lysis, 73 

Lysistratus, 295 

Lysitheides, 271 f. 

Lysitheüs, e305 


Macedonia, 201 
Maeander River, 275 
Maelius, Spurius, 449 
Magi, 273 

Magnesia, 155, 275 
Malea, 163 


Mandanê, 31, 273 

Manilius, M., Vaso, 289 

Manlius, Gnaeus, 255 

Mantineia, 339 

Marathon, 125, 139 

Mardonius, 121, 125, 175, 199-203, 
0 

Marium, 379 

Mazarus River, 345 

Medes, 31, 75, 139 f., 163, 223 

Media, 97 

Medus, 97 

Megabates, 155 

Megabyzus, 83 f., 319, 325, 379, 

Megarians, 171, 205, 329 f., 385, 
D: 

Megaris, 169, 329 

Melians, 127, 135 

Melis, Qulf of, 135 

Memphis, 319, 328 

Menae, 353 

Menaenum, 329 

Menelaüs, 6l 

Menenius, Nittus, 449 

Menenius, T., 259, 419, 447 

Menon, 257 

Messenia, 291 

Messenians, 289-293, 345 

Methonê, 3843 

Meton, 447 

Micythus, 251, 279, 297 

Milesians, 95, 219 f., 429 

Milo, 21, 391 

Miltiades, 85, 97, 101, 279, 377 

Minucius, L., 421 

Minucius, L., Carutianus, 351 

Minucius, T., 307 

Mithridates, 305 

Mnesitheides, 335 

Molossians, 269 f. 

Morgantina, 329 

Motyum, 359 

Mycalê, 215 f., 221, 225 

Mycenae, 295 

Mycenaeans, 293 f. 

Myrichides, 433 

Myronides, 329, 335-341, 377 

Myson, 11 

Mytilenaeans, 431 

Mytilenê, 17, 19, 249 

Myus, 275 


Naupactus, 343 
Nautius, C., Rufus, 279 


465 


A PARTIAL INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 


Nautius, C., Rutilus, 351 
Naxians, 253 

Naxos, 253 
Neapolis, 109 
Nearchus, 81 
Nemean ames, 293 
Neocles, 103 
Nicomedes, 331 
Nine Towers, 227 
Nisaean Megara, 261 
Numitorius, L., 305 


Oeniadae, 345, 351 
Oenophyta, 339 
Olynthus, 443 
Oppian, 109 
Orestes, 49 
Oroetes, 79 


Palic, 353-357 

Palici, 353 

Palladium, 109 

Pailas Athenê, 93, 109 

Paileng, 445 

Pamphbylians, 131, 173 

Panormus, 177 

Panthus, 61 

Papirius, Manius, Crassus, 445 

Parmenides, 293 

Parnassus, Mount, 161, 331 

Pausanias, 185, 203, 207, 211-215, 
239-247, 263, 267 f., 447 

Pedieus, 381 

Peiraeus, 233, 281 

Peisistratus, 9 f., 27 f., 51, 79, 265 

Perdiccas, 443 

Periander, 11 

Pericles, 345, 351, 377, 387, 419, 
429 f., 451-461 

Perilaüs, 23 f. 

Perrhaebians, 127 

Persians, 29 f., 43, 75, 93 f., 103, 
121-175 passim, 199-249 passim, 
271, 281-287, 317 f., 379, 427 

Pesinous, 109 

Phaeax, 191 

Phaedon, 249 

Phaeon, 289 

Phalaris, 23 f., 41 

Phaleric Bay, 233 

Pharsalians, 341 

Phaselis, 383 

Phaÿllus, 351 f, 

Pheidias, 377, 453 


466 


Pherecydes, 55 
Pherendates, 283 

Philemon, 403 

Philiscus, 383 

Philocles, 327 

Phintias, 57 

Phlegon, 31 

Phliasians, 209 

Phocians, 135, 159 t., 331, 341 
Phocis, 209 f. 

Phoebus, 161 

Phoenicia, 281, 319 
Phoenicians, 131, 169, 173, 183, 


Phormion, 449 

Phrasicleides, 323 

Pinarius, L., Mamertinus, 295 

Pindar, 27, 197 

Pisidians, 285 

Pissuthnes, 429 

Pittacus, 17 f., 21, 33 f., 39 

Piataea. 15,163, 185, 201, 215-221, 
229, 239, 247 

Plataeans, 209 

Plato, 377 

Pleistonax, 331 

Polybius, 31 

Polycrates, 77 f, 

Polydamas, 23 

Polymnastus, 341 

Polyneices, 71 

Połyzelus, 251 

Poseidon, 181, 243 

Posidonia, 298 

Postumius, Aulus, Regulus, 327 

Postumius, L., 359 

Postumius, Sp., Albinus, 319 

Potidaea, 443, 449 

Potidaeans, 445, 449 

Praxiergus, 263 

Prienê, 21, 429 

Propylaea, 457 

Prorus, 57 

Prosopitis, 325, 379 

Ptolemy, 101 

Publius, Q., 421 

Pydnê, 155 

Pythagoras, 53-73 passim, 391, 


Pythagoreans, 53-73 passim 
Pythodorus, 449 
Pyxus, 279 


Quinctius, L., 451 
Quinctius, L., Cincinnatus, 879 


A PARTIAL INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 


Quinctius, T., 309, 435, 439 f., 449 
Quio ctua; T., Capitolinus, 297, 


Rabuleius, Manius, 421 
Rhegians, ”259, 321 
Rhegium, 249, 259, 279, 297 
Rhodians, 131 

Romans, 225-451 passim 
Romilius, T., Vaticanus, 383 


Bacae, 141 

Salamis, 3, 159-171, 195 f., 201, 
215, 229, 273, 381 

Samians, 131, 215, 219 f., 429 f. 

Bamos, 197, 215, 221, 429 f. 

Sardinia, 1}7 

Sardis, 45, 97, 215, 219 f. 

Scamandrius, ’249 

Seyros, 281 

Releucus, 447 

Selinus, 181, 21 

A., 439 


Sepia C., 421 
Servilius, Ë., Structus, 263 


Bervilius, P., Structus, 329 
Rervilius, Q., 319 
Servilius, Q., Stmctns, 309 

rvius $ s, 53 
Sestius, P. Capitolinus, 419 
Sestus, 223 f. 
Seven Wise Men, The, 3, 11,37,71 
Bicani, 


109 
Siceli, 109, 301, 321, 433 
Sicily, 177, 225 
Sicinius, Č, 305 
Sicyonians, 209, 351 
S&idonians, 159 
Simonides, 153 
Siris, 449 
Socrates, 377 
Solon, 3- 11 passim, 23, 27 f., 35 f., 
47, ’41 
Sophonides, 325 
Sophron, 4i e 
Sosistratus, 3 
Sparta, 231, 2, 247, 255, 277, 


Spartacus, 439, 447 
Spartans, 105, 213, 239, 243 f. 
Spartiates, 133 

Spercheius River, 137 
Stertinius, T., Structor, 428 
Btesagoras, Tór 


Sulpicius, Servius, 341 

Sunium, 131 

Sybaris, 91, 357, 389 

Sybaris River, 357, 3 389 

Sybarites, 251, 357, 385-395, 419 

Synetus, 125 

Syracusans, 97, 195, 225, 251, 257, 
261, 301 £., 313i 319 f., 359 f 
387 t. 427, 433 

Syracuse, 179, lsg 195, 227, 257 


Taenarum, zas o 
Tanagra, 335, 3: 

Tarantini, T a, 449 
Tarentum, 259 
Tarpeius, 8p. , 385 
Tarquinius, Py” 53, 87, 91 
Tarquinius, Sextus, 8} t. 
Tegea, 49, 297 

Telys, 38% 

Tempê, 125 f. 

Tenedans, 131 


Thasians, 307 

Theageneides, 293 

Thebans, 135, 209 f., 335, 339 
Thebes, 73, 201 f., 207 f., 213, 335 

Themistocles. i 125, 155 f., 
165-199 passim, 229- -237, 265- 
279 passim, 377 

Theođorus, 439 

Theopompus, 441 

Thericles, 53 

Thermopylae, 131-149 passim, 
159, 187, 213, 293 

Theron, 99, 177 f., 251 f., 259 f. 

Thespiaeans, 145, 163, 209 

Thessalians, 127, 333 

Thettalus, 79 

Thrace, 201 

Thracians, 129, 309 

Thrasybulus, 297-305 pasim, 313 

Thrasydaeus, 251, 259 

Thucydides, 449 i. 


| Thuria, 393, 395 


Thurii, 389, 445 f. 
Thurium, 393 

Timaeus, ’99 

Timarchides, 385 

Timocles, 427 
Timosthenes, 225 
Tithraustes, 281 
Tiepolemus, 309 

Tolmides, 341-345, 351, 385 


467 


A PARTIAL INDEX OF PROPER NAMES 


Torylias, 323 
Trais River, 419 
Trinacians, 433 f. 
Trinaciê, 433 
Triopium, 131 
Troczen, 229 
Trojan War, 225 
Tusculum, 233 
Tychê, 301 
Tyndarides, 347 
Tyrrhastiadas, 145 
Tyrrhenians, 85, 257, 351 f. 


Valerius, L., Publicola, 305 
Valerius, L., Publius, 233 
Valerius, L., Turpinus, 425 
Valerius, M., Lactuca, 381 
Valerius, P., Publicola, 279, 345 
Veiians, 261 

Verginius, Aulus, 307 

Verginius, Auius, Tricostus, 263 
Verginius, Proculus, Tricostus, 


12t 
Verginius, Sp., Tricostus, 381 


Verginius, T., 257 

Veturius, C., Cichorius, 383 
Veturius, Spurius, 421 

Veturius, T., Cicurinus, 335 
Volscians, 225, 437 

Volumnius, Publius, Amentinus, 


White Fortress, 317 f., 323 
Xanthippus, 197 f., 215, 221 t, 


Xeənocritus, 393 

Xenophon, 307 

Xerxes, 18, 103, 121-175 passim, 
185 f., 195, 201, 219 £., 229, 241, 
263, 271-277, 281, 305 f., $75 


Zacynthos, 343 
Zaleucus, 415-419 
Zanciê, 249, 279, 297 
Zeno, 81 f. 

Zeus, 101, 161, 313 
Zopyrus. 8? 


THE ROUTE OF XERXES 


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